Presentation on theme: "Section 1 Earth’s Motion and the Seasons"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 1 Earth’s Motion and the Seasons Chapter 7 Earth in Space.Section 1Earth’s Motion and the Seasons
2Earth’s Shape It’s a sphere (Almost!) A 3D shape with all surface points the same distance from the center.Gravity is centered at the core of the earthPulls all objects on earth toward the center.It bulges somewhat at the equator and is flattened a little near the poles.Due to the rotation of Earth on its axis.
4Motions of Earth Earth….. Rotates on its axis. The imaginary line between the North and South Pole.Tilted 23.5 ° away from vertical.Causes day and night.Revolves around the sun.Along with the tilt, causes parts of Earth to experience seasonal change.Takes 365 ¼ days to complete one revolution.
6Earth is actually closer to the sun.. in January.and furthest from the sun in July.
7Solstices Summer and Winter Summer Solstice Winter Solstice June 21 or 22The sun is at its highest in the sky and the longest day of the year.Sun rays directly hitting the Tropic of Cancer.Winter SolsticeDecember 21 or 22The sun is at its lowest in the South sky and the shortest day of the year.Sun rays directly hitting the Tropic of Capricorn.
12Section 2 Earth’s Moon The Moon Moon Features Aka. Luna Dark colored low land areasMaria- (Galileo) Latin word for seas.Light colored highland areas.CratersDepressions formed from meteorite collisions.
13The Moon’s Interior.Apollo missions left seismographs, earthquake measuring devices, on the moon to measure moonquakes!A model of the interior of the moon was formed.The Moon has:Crust60 km thick facing the earth100 km thick away from the earthSolid MantleIron Rich Solid Core
15Moon Motion!27.3The number of days it takes the moon to revolve around the earth.Also, the number of days it takes the moon to rotate one turn on it’s axis.Therefore, we only ever see one side of the moon from Earth.
16Moon Phases. Why do we see different phases of the moon? THE SUN!As the moon revolves around the Earth, the sun always lights one half of it.We don’t always see the entire lighted part.The part that we do see is the phase or position of the moon.
17New Moon Full Moon Waxing Moon Waning Moon Crescent Gibbous Moon is between Earth and SunWe don’t see any of the moonSeen during the day.Full MoonEarth is between Moon and SunWe see the entire lighted halfWaxing MoonThe lighted side of moon is increasing each night.Period between a new moon and a full moon.Waning MoonThe lighted side of moon is decreasing each night.Period between a full moon and a new moon.CrescentA phase in the waxing and waning stages that looks like a crescent roll. Shows 1/8 of the Moon’s lit surface.GibbousA phase in the waxing and waning stages that shows ¾ of the moon’s lighted surface.
19Eclipses!Occur only when the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth are lined up perfectly.A few times per year.Most of the time the Moon’s shadow misses the Earth.And the Earth’s shadow misses the moon.
20Solar Eclipse Occurs during the new moon phase. Earth moves into the shadow of the Moon.The Moon blocks the sunlight from reaching certain points on Earth.During a total solar eclipse the stars can be seen and the earth is dark.Lasts a few minutes. Why?
28The Inner Planets Mercury Closest to the sun. Has no atmosphere. Daytime temps. can reach 880 ° F.Nighttime temps. with no atmosphere to hold in heat can reach – 275 ° F.
29Venus 2nd planet from the sun. Earth’s twin in size, shape, and mass. Thick atmosphere made of Carbon Dioxide.Greenhouse effect causes temps. to reach 880° F.
30Earth Water can exist as solid, liquid, and gas. Atmosphere is made of Ozone (O3).Perfections that enable life.Ozone layer/atmosphere.Orbit/distance from the sun.Temperatures.Presence of water.All this by chance? You decide.Earth
31Mars The Red Planet. The 4th planet from the sun. Iron Oxide/ Rust causes the red color.Olympus Mons – largest volcano in solar system.Polar ice caps.2 moons.PhobosDeimos
35Saturn Number 6 Ring system that circles the planet Rings made of ice and rock.At least 31 moons.Largest = Titan
36Uranus Number 7 Methane in atmosphere makes planet bluish green! At least 27 moons.Axis points to sun.Faint rings.
37Neptune Number 8 The rocky core is as big as Earth. Fast winds in the gaseous atmosphere.At least 11 satellites.Triton has nitrogen geysers
38PlutoNumber 9. (Maybe?)Only traveled 20% of orbit since discovery in 1930.3 moons.Charon = largestDwarf planet.Member of Kuiper belt.PlutoNew name.
39Other Objects in Solar System. AsteroidsSmall rocky objects that mostly lie in a belt located between Mars and Jupiter.Divide the inner and outer planets.
40Comets Made of rocky particles and ice. Form tails when parts of the comet vaporize.Found in:Kuiper belt – beyond Neptune (Pluto)Oort Cloud – far beyond PlutoHaley’s CometComes by Earth every 76 years.1986
41It’s a bird, it’s a plane, it’s a meteor. I think? MeteoroidSmall objects from comets and asteroids in the solar systemMeteorWhen the meteoroid enters the atmosphere of Earth.MeteoriteWhen they fall to earth.