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Section 1 Earth’s Motion and the Seasons

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1 Section 1 Earth’s Motion and the Seasons
Chapter 7 Earth in Space. Section 1 Earth’s Motion and the Seasons

2 Earth’s Shape It’s a sphere (Almost!)
A 3D shape with all surface points the same distance from the center. Gravity is centered at the core of the earth Pulls all objects on earth toward the center. It bulges somewhat at the equator and is flattened a little near the poles. Due to the rotation of Earth on its axis.

3 Perfect Sphere Actual Sphere

4 Motions of Earth Earth….. Rotates on its axis.
The imaginary line between the North and South Pole. Tilted 23.5 ° away from vertical. Causes day and night. Revolves around the sun. Along with the tilt, causes parts of Earth to experience seasonal change. Takes 365 ¼ days to complete one revolution.


6 Earth is actually closer to the sun..
in January. and furthest from the sun in July.

7 Solstices Summer and Winter Summer Solstice Winter Solstice
June 21 or 22 The sun is at its highest in the sky and the longest day of the year. Sun rays directly hitting the Tropic of Cancer. Winter Solstice December 21 or 22 The sun is at its lowest in the South sky and the shortest day of the year. Sun rays directly hitting the Tropic of Capricorn.

8 A View From The North Pole!

9 A View From The Side.

10 Equinoxes Spring (Vernal) Autumnal March 21 or 22
Earth’s tilt is neither to nor away from the sun. Sun rays hit equator. Autumnal September 21 or 22 Same as above.

11 Explain everything you know about numbers 1-4.

12 Section 2 Earth’s Moon The Moon Moon Features Aka. Luna
Dark colored low land areas Maria- (Galileo) Latin word for seas. Light colored highland areas. Craters Depressions formed from meteorite collisions.

13 The Moon’s Interior. Apollo missions left seismographs, earthquake measuring devices, on the moon to measure moonquakes! A model of the interior of the moon was formed. The Moon has: Crust 60 km thick facing the earth 100 km thick away from the earth Solid Mantle Iron Rich Solid Core


15 Moon Motion! 27.3 The number of days it takes the moon to revolve around the earth. Also, the number of days it takes the moon to rotate one turn on it’s axis. Therefore, we only ever see one side of the moon from Earth.

16 Moon Phases. Why do we see different phases of the moon?
THE SUN! As the moon revolves around the Earth, the sun always lights one half of it. We don’t always see the entire lighted part. The part that we do see is the phase or position of the moon.

17 New Moon Full Moon Waxing Moon Waning Moon Crescent Gibbous
Moon is between Earth and Sun We don’t see any of the moon Seen during the day. Full Moon Earth is between Moon and Sun We see the entire lighted half Waxing Moon The lighted side of moon is increasing each night. Period between a new moon and a full moon. Waning Moon The lighted side of moon is decreasing each night. Period between a full moon and a new moon. Crescent A phase in the waxing and waning stages that looks like a crescent roll. Shows 1/8 of the Moon’s lit surface. Gibbous A phase in the waxing and waning stages that shows ¾ of the moon’s lighted surface.


19 Eclipses! Occur only when the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth are lined up perfectly. A few times per year. Most of the time the Moon’s shadow misses the Earth. And the Earth’s shadow misses the moon.

20 Solar Eclipse Occurs during the new moon phase.
Earth moves into the shadow of the Moon. The Moon blocks the sunlight from reaching certain points on Earth. During a total solar eclipse the stars can be seen and the earth is dark. Lasts a few minutes. Why?


22 Small dark region = umbra, total solar eclipse Shaded region = penumbra, partial solar eclipse

23 Lunar Eclipse Occurs during a Full Moon.
The Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow. Moon usually appears to be dark red Can see the edge of the Earth’s shadow moving through the moon.

24 Total Lunar Eclipse Partial Lunar Eclipse

25 Lunar Eclipse Notice how the Sun’s Rays bend around the Earth
Lunar Eclipse Notice how the Sun’s Rays bend around the Earth. Dark Area = Umbra Shaded Area = Penumbra

26 Section 3: Our Solar System
Found in which Galaxy?


28 The Inner Planets Mercury Closest to the sun. Has no atmosphere.
Daytime temps. can reach 880 ° F. Nighttime temps. with no atmosphere to hold in heat can reach – 275 ° F.

29 Venus 2nd planet from the sun. Earth’s twin in size, shape, and mass.
Thick atmosphere made of Carbon Dioxide. Greenhouse effect causes temps. to reach 880° F.

30 Earth Water can exist as solid, liquid, and gas.
Atmosphere is made of Ozone (O3). Perfections that enable life. Ozone layer/atmosphere. Orbit/distance from the sun. Temperatures. Presence of water. All this by chance? You decide. Earth

31 Mars The Red Planet. The 4th planet from the sun.
Iron Oxide/ Rust causes the red color. Olympus Mons – largest volcano in solar system. Polar ice caps. 2 moons. Phobos Deimos


33 The Outer Planets Jupiter Number 5 Largest planet. The Great Red Spot.
A giant storm that has raged for over 300 years. 61 moons. Why? 4 largest - Galilean Satelites Io Europa Ganymede Callisto


35 Saturn Number 6 Ring system that circles the planet
Rings made of ice and rock. At least 31 moons. Largest = Titan

36 Uranus Number 7 Methane in atmosphere makes planet bluish green!
At least 27 moons. Axis points to sun. Faint rings.

37 Neptune Number 8 The rocky core is as big as Earth.
Fast winds in the gaseous atmosphere. At least 11 satellites. Triton has nitrogen geysers

38 Pluto Number 9. (Maybe?) Only traveled 20% of orbit since discovery in 1930. 3 moons. Charon = largest Dwarf planet. Member of Kuiper belt. Pluto New name.

39 Other Objects in Solar System.
Asteroids Small rocky objects that mostly lie in a belt located between Mars and Jupiter. Divide the inner and outer planets.

40 Comets Made of rocky particles and ice.
Form tails when parts of the comet vaporize. Found in: Kuiper belt – beyond Neptune (Pluto) Oort Cloud – far beyond Pluto Haley’s Comet Comes by Earth every 76 years. 1986

41 It’s a bird, it’s a plane, it’s a meteor. I think?
Meteoroid Small objects from comets and asteroids in the solar system Meteor When the meteoroid enters the atmosphere of Earth. Meteorite When they fall to earth.

42 Meteoroid Meteor Meteorite

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