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The Earth, the Moon, and the Sun Physical Science 2011-2012.

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Presentation on theme: "The Earth, the Moon, and the Sun Physical Science 2011-2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Earth, the Moon, and the Sun Physical Science

2 The Earth in Space Section 7-1 Gravity from the Earth-Moon-Sun system directly affects the conditions for life here on Earth.

3 The Physical Characteristics of the Earth Diameter (12,714 km/7,926 mi.) Circumference (40,075 km/24,901 mi) Mass (5.98 x10 24 kg/1,130,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 lbs.) Average distance from the Sun (149,000,000 km/92,384,987 mi.) Average distance from the Moon (384,400 km/238,855 mi.)

4 The Earth’s Magnetic Field The Earth’s magnetic field helps protect the Earth from harmful radiation/energy from the Sun.

5 The Magnetosphere Areas of charged particles (protons and electrons) that circle the Earth above the atmosphere. The particles are held in place by gravity and are called the “Van Allen belts”.

6 The Aurora A stream of particles called the “solar wind” flow through space from the Sun toward the Earth and collide with the magnetic field that causes them to flow down toward the north and south poles.

7 The Aurora The “solar wind” particles then collide with atoms in the atmosphere at the poles and cause the solar wind particles to give off light.

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9 Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights)

10 Aurora Australis (Southern Lights)

11 The Earth’s Orbit around the Sun

12 Elliptical shaped orbit

13 The Earth and Venus Same size Venus has an atmosphere of 96% CO2 creating an average temp of 460 Celsius (860 F) Earth has an atmosphere of 0.04% CO2 creating an average temp of 15 Celsius (60 F).

14 The Earth and Mars Earth is twice as large The Earth’s gravity is strong enough to hold our atmosphere in place, Mars cannot hold one sufficient for life as we understand it Average temperature on Mars is -63 Celsius (-85 F)

15 Size Comparisons

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17 Time and Seasons Section 7-2 People have used the movements of the Earth, Moon, and Sun to measure time for thousands of years.

18 Time Zones The Earth spins one complete turn in 24 hours, so 360 degrees of motion in 24hrs give you 15 degrees of movement an hour. 360/24 = 15 This motion creates 24 time zones of 15 degrees of longitude each.

19 Longitude Lines running east to west that when used with lines of latitude help us calculate position on the Earth. GPS

20 Time Zones

21 Years and Days Rotation measures days (1 rotation 24hrs) Revolution measures years (1 revolution 365 days)

22 The Reason for the Seasons The Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees

23 The Tilted Angle The 23.5 degree tilt causes the angle that the sun hits the Earth to change throughout the year.

24 Equinox vs. Solstice Equinox (Spring and Fall, equal day and night hours) Solstice (Summer and Winter, most hours of daylight and least number of hours of daylight)

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26 The Earth’s Moon Section 7-3

27 Rotation and Revolution The moon revolves once around the Earth every 27 days.

28 How does the Moon affect the Earth? The Tides

29 The Pull of the Moon and the Sun

30 The Surface of the Moon

31 The surface of the Moon is barren rock, this is how the Earth would look with no water or plant life

32 Craters, Maria, and Mountains

33 Maria (Dark Spots) Regolith (Light Spots)

34 Asteroid Impact

35 Origin of the Moon (Disproven Ideas) The Capture Theory The Binary Accretion Theory The Fission Theory

36 The Capture Theory This theory stated that the moon formed somewhere else in the solar system and was pulled in by the gravitational pull of the Earth.

37 The Binary Accretion Theory The Moon condensed from the same loose space material as the Earth did.

38 The Fission Theory A portion of molten material was ejected from the Earth as it cooled.

39 Origin of the Moon (Modern Theory) The Giant Impact Theory


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