4- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Tides (packet p. 11)Tides occur mainly due to the difference in the force of gravity between the moon and different parts of Earth. ;
5Spring and Neap Tides- Phases, Eclipses, and TidesWhen Earth, the sun, and the moon are in a straight line, a spring tide occurs. When the moon is at a right angle to the sun, a neap tide occurs.Full and New moonsSite 1:Site 2:First and Third quarter
6Phases, Eclipses, and Tides, p. 13 A – New, B – Waxing Crescent, C – First quarter, D – Full, E – Waning Gibbous, F – Third quarter.A and D – Spring Tide; C and F – Neap TideNeapEclipsePenumbraTidesUmbraPhaseSpringLunar (during a Full moon!!)Solar (during a New moon!!)Gravity
7Solar and Lunar Eclipses The following links are videos:Packet page 10; Textbook pages 27-29
8During which PHASE of the moon does a SOLAR eclipse occur?? - Phases, Eclipses, and TidesSolar EclipseA solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from parts of Earth.Site 1:Site 2:During which PHASE of the moon does a SOLAR eclipse occur??NEW MOON
9During which PHASE of the moon does a LUNAR eclipse occur?? - Phases, Eclipses, and TidesLunar EclipseDuring a lunar eclipse, Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon.Site 1:Site 2:Site 3: (video)During which PHASE of the moon does a LUNAR eclipse occur??FULL MOON
10UMBRA – darkest part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = TOTAL ECLIPSE PENUMBRA – lighter part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = PARTIAL ECLIPSELUNARSOLARUMBRA – darkest part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = TOTAL ECLIPSE
11That is why we DO NOT have an eclipse EVERY full moon or new moon!! - Phases, Eclipses, and TidesThe Moon’s OrbitThe moon’s orbit is tilted about 5 degrees relative to Earth’s orbit around the sun.That is why we DO NOT have an eclipse EVERY full moon or new moon!!
13- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Motions of the MoonThe changing relative positions of the moon, Earth, and sun cause the phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.
14HALF of the moon is ALWAYS lit by the sun!! - Phases, Eclipses, and TidesPhases of the MoonThe phase of moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.What we see from EarthSUNLIGHTLAST QUARTERWANNING CRESCENTWANNING GIBBOUSNEWFULLWAXING CRESCENTWAXING GIBBOUSHALF of the moon is ALWAYS lit by the sun!!FIRST QUARTER
15- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Phases of the MoonThe phase of moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.
16Terms for Moon Phases… Waxing – growing in size Waning – shrinking in sizeGibbous – more than half but less than fullCrescent – curved shape ending in pointsFull – entire sunlit side faces EarthNew – sunlit side faces away from EarthQuarter – half the sunlight side faces Earth
18Answers… Waxing crescent Full moon Third (last) quarter Waning crescentFirst quarterWaning gibbousWaxing gibbousNew moon
19Websites…Current Moon phase:Wonderville – Phases of the Moon: of-the-moonThe Moon’s Phases: mations/content/moonphase.htmlEclipses and Moon phases: art/moon_phases_and_eclipses/index.htmlVisualization from Earth and Space: /terc/content/visualizations/es2503/es2503pag e01.cfm
20p. 53 in textbook and p. 5-6 in packet (summary) Gravity and Inertiap. 53 in textbook and p. 5-6 in packet (summary)
21- Gravity and MotionGravityThe strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on two factors: the masses of the objects and the distance between them.
22- Gravity and MotionGravity and InertiaNewton concluded that two factors–gravity and inertia– combine to keep the moon in orbit around Earth.
23Asking Questions Question Answer - Gravity and MotionAsking QuestionsQuestionAnswerGravity is the force that attracts all objects toward one another.What is gravity?Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.What is inertia?
24Websites – videos! (need headphones) BrainPOP – GravityBrainPOP – Newton’s laws of motionWhy doesn’t the moon fall down?Gravity at Earth’s center:Use the BrainPOP app on Surface
25Websites - interactive Gravitational force between planets: animations.com/support-files/gravitasieplaneteb.swfEarth-Moon system: files/06aardemaan1.swfSun-Earth-Moon system: files/07aardemaanson.swfYour weight on other planets!
26Gravity and Motion (p. 14)The force of gravity on an object is known as its weight.All objects in the universe are attracted to all other objects. The Earth and Moon are large objects and therefore have a large gravitational pull.Once the ball is set into motion, it will continue to move at same speed and directions unless acted upon by an outside force (friction).The greater the distance between objects the less the force of gravity.
27Gravity and Motion (p.14) A push or pull. Force that attracts all objects to each other.Every object in the universe attracts every other object.The amount of matter in an object.The force of gravity on an object (combined with the object’s mass).The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless acted on by a force.
29Rotation/Revolution and Seasons Use the following PowerPoint, along with your textbook, to take notes on p. 1 (Rotation vs. Revolution) and p. 3 (Seasons) of your packet.The PowerPoint contains many links to informational websites. Some of these have sound (like BrainPOP) and some are simply animations. Please investigate the websites fully as you take notes.
30How Earth Moves- Earth in SpaceEarth moves through space in two major ways: rotation and revolution. (p. 15)
31Rotation Earth’s spinning on its axis. Axis – imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and the N and S poles.One rotation is just under 24 hrs.Rotation causes day and night on Earth.
32Revolution The movement of one object around another. Orbit – the Earth’s path as it revolves around the Sun.One revolution is days.Earth revolving around the Sun causes seasons.Site 1:Video 1:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-oLJxjCzBg
33Sunlight Striking Earth’s Surface - Earth in SpaceNear the equator, sunlight strikes Earth’s surface more directly and is less spread out than near the poles. (p. 18)North PoleArctic CircleTropic of CancerEquatorTropic of CapricornAntarctic CircleSouth Pole
34Seasons on Earth- Earth in SpaceEarth has seasons because it is tilted on its axis as it revolves around the sun. (p )Site 1:Site 2: (sound)Site 3: (sound)Username: password: sealsSite 4:
35- Earth in SpaceSeasons on EarthThe height of the sun above the horizon varies with the season.
36Review – QUIZ on Wednesday 12-10-14 Please complete p. 4 in your packet ‘Earth in Space’ as a review of this material.Thanks!!On the following pages are a review of the notes from p. 3 and answer key to p. 4
37Seasons – we live in the NORTHERN Hemisphere! Caused by:The TILT of the EarthThe REVOLUTION of the Earth around the Sun.When it is one season in the Northern Hemisphere, it is the ‘opposite’ season in the Southern Hemisphere.Summer – WinterFall - Spring
38Summer!The Northern Hemisphere is tilted TOWARD the Sun; Southern Hemisphere is tilted AWAY (winter for them!!)The Sun’s rays are directly over the Tropic of Cancer (23.5⁰N latitude).Longer days and shorter nights for us in N. HemisphereArtic Circle (North pole) has 24 hrs. of daylight; Antarctic Circle (South pole) has 24 hrs. of darkness.
39Winter!The Northern Hemisphere is tilted AWAY from the Sun; Southern Hemisphere is tilted TOWARD (summer for them!!).The Sun’s rays are directly over the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5⁰S latitude).Shorter days and longer nights for us in N. HemisphereArtic Circle (North pole) has 24 hrs. of darkness; Antarctic Circle (South pole) has 24 hrs. of daylight.
40Spring and Fall Equinox – mean ‘equal night’ Both N. and S. Hemispheres receive same amount of the Sun’s energy! (neutral ‘tilt’ of Earth in relation to Sun)The Sun’s rays are directly over the Equator (0⁰ latitude)There are 12 hrs. of daylight and 12 hrs. of darkness in both Hemispheres.
41Packet p. 4 - ‘Earth in Space’ dcgfabheWinterA – overhead; B – low in sky (horizon); C – no Sun (dark)Sunset – Earth rotates counterclockwise