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Earth, Moon, and Sun N. Sassaman – 2014 SAMS.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth, Moon, and Sun N. Sassaman – 2014 SAMS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth, Moon, and Sun N. Sassaman – 2014 SAMS

2 BrainPOP – review of phases, eclipses, and tides
Use the BrainPOP tile on your Surface start screen and search for the topics below:

3 Tides Pages in textbook

4 - Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
Tides (packet p. 11) Tides occur mainly due to the difference in the force of gravity between the moon and different parts of Earth. ;

5 Spring and Neap Tides - Phases, Eclipses, and Tides When Earth, the sun, and the moon are in a straight line, a spring tide occurs. When the moon is at a right angle to the sun, a neap tide occurs. Full and New moons Site 1: Site 2: First and Third quarter

6 Phases, Eclipses, and Tides, p. 13
A – New, B – Waxing Crescent, C – First quarter, D – Full, E – Waning Gibbous, F – Third quarter. A and D – Spring Tide; C and F – Neap Tide Neap Eclipse Penumbra Tides Umbra Phase Spring Lunar (during a Full moon!!) Solar (during a New moon!!) Gravity

7 Solar and Lunar Eclipses
The following links are videos: Packet page 10; Textbook pages 27-29

8 During which PHASE of the moon does a SOLAR eclipse occur??
- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Solar Eclipse A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from parts of Earth. Site 1: Site 2: During which PHASE of the moon does a SOLAR eclipse occur?? NEW MOON

9 During which PHASE of the moon does a LUNAR eclipse occur??
- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Lunar Eclipse During a lunar eclipse, Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. Site 1: Site 2: Site 3: (video) During which PHASE of the moon does a LUNAR eclipse occur?? FULL MOON

10 UMBRA – darkest part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = TOTAL ECLIPSE
PENUMBRA – lighter part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = PARTIAL ECLIPSE LUNAR SOLAR UMBRA – darkest part of the moon’s or Earth’s shadow = TOTAL ECLIPSE

11 That is why we DO NOT have an eclipse EVERY full moon or new moon!!
- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides The Moon’s Orbit The moon’s orbit is tilted about 5 degrees relative to Earth’s orbit around the sun. That is why we DO NOT have an eclipse EVERY full moon or new moon!!

12 Phases of the Moon Pages in textbook

13 - Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
Motions of the Moon The changing relative positions of the moon, Earth, and sun cause the phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides.

14 HALF of the moon is ALWAYS lit by the sun!!
- Phases, Eclipses, and Tides Phases of the Moon The phase of moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth. What we see from Earth SUNLIGHT LAST QUARTER WANNING CRESCENT WANNING GIBBOUS NEW FULL WAXING CRESCENT WAXING GIBBOUS HALF of the moon is ALWAYS lit by the sun!! FIRST QUARTER

15 - Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
Phases of the Moon The phase of moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth.

16 Terms for Moon Phases… Waxing – growing in size
Waning – shrinking in size Gibbous – more than half but less than full Crescent – curved shape ending in points Full – entire sunlit side faces Earth New – sunlit side faces away from Earth Quarter – half the sunlight side faces Earth

17 Name that Phase…

18 Answers… Waxing crescent Full moon Third (last) quarter
Waning crescent First quarter Waning gibbous Waxing gibbous New moon

19 Websites… Current Moon phase: Wonderville – Phases of the Moon: of-the-moon The Moon’s Phases: mations/content/moonphase.html Eclipses and Moon phases: art/moon_phases_and_eclipses/index.html Visualization from Earth and Space: /terc/content/visualizations/es2503/es2503pag e01.cfm

20 p. 53 in textbook and p. 5-6 in packet (summary)
Gravity and Inertia p. 53 in textbook and p. 5-6 in packet (summary)

21 - Gravity and Motion Gravity The strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on two factors: the masses of the objects and the distance between them.

22 - Gravity and Motion Gravity and Inertia Newton concluded that two factors–gravity and inertia– combine to keep the moon in orbit around Earth.

23 Asking Questions Question Answer
- Gravity and Motion Asking Questions Question Answer Gravity is the force that attracts all objects toward one another. What is gravity? Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. What is inertia?

24 Websites – videos! (need headphones)
BrainPOP – Gravity BrainPOP – Newton’s laws of motion Why doesn’t the moon fall down? Gravity at Earth’s center: Use the BrainPOP app on Surface

25 Websites - interactive
Gravitational force between planets: animations.com/support-files/gravitasieplaneteb.swf Earth-Moon system: files/06aardemaan1.swf Sun-Earth-Moon system: files/07aardemaanson.swf Your weight on other planets!

26 Gravity and Motion (p. 14) The force of gravity on an object is known as its weight. All objects in the universe are attracted to all other objects. The Earth and Moon are large objects and therefore have a large gravitational pull. Once the ball is set into motion, it will continue to move at same speed and directions unless acted upon by an outside force (friction). The greater the distance between objects the less the force of gravity.

27 Gravity and Motion (p.14) A push or pull.
Force that attracts all objects to each other. Every object in the universe attracts every other object. The amount of matter in an object. The force of gravity on an object (combined with the object’s mass). The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless acted on by a force.

28 Rotation/Revolution and Seasons
p in textbook

29 Rotation/Revolution and Seasons
Use the following PowerPoint, along with your textbook, to take notes on p. 1 (Rotation vs. Revolution) and p. 3 (Seasons) of your packet. The PowerPoint contains many links to informational websites. Some of these have sound (like BrainPOP) and some are simply animations. Please investigate the websites fully as you take notes.

30 How Earth Moves - Earth in Space Earth moves through space in two major ways: rotation and revolution. (p. 15)

31 Rotation Earth’s spinning on its axis.
Axis – imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and the N and S poles. One rotation is just under 24 hrs. Rotation causes day and night on Earth.

32 Revolution The movement of one object around another.
Orbit – the Earth’s path as it revolves around the Sun. One revolution is days. Earth revolving around the Sun causes seasons. Site 1: Video 1:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-oLJxjCzBg

33 Sunlight Striking Earth’s Surface
- Earth in Space Near the equator, sunlight strikes Earth’s surface more directly and is less spread out than near the poles. (p. 18) North Pole Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Antarctic Circle South Pole

34 Seasons on Earth - Earth in Space Earth has seasons because it is tilted on its axis as it revolves around the sun. (p ) Site 1: Site 2: (sound) Site 3: (sound) Username: password: seals Site 4:

35 - Earth in Space Seasons on Earth The height of the sun above the horizon varies with the season.

36 Review – QUIZ on Wednesday 12-10-14
Please complete p. 4 in your packet ‘Earth in Space’ as a review of this material. Thanks!! On the following pages are a review of the notes from p. 3 and answer key to p. 4

37 Seasons – we live in the NORTHERN Hemisphere!
Caused by: The TILT of the Earth The REVOLUTION of the Earth around the Sun. When it is one season in the Northern Hemisphere, it is the ‘opposite’ season in the Southern Hemisphere. Summer – Winter Fall - Spring

38 Summer! The Northern Hemisphere is tilted TOWARD the Sun; Southern Hemisphere is tilted AWAY (winter for them!!) The Sun’s rays are directly over the Tropic of Cancer (23.5⁰N latitude). Longer days and shorter nights for us in N. Hemisphere Artic Circle (North pole) has 24 hrs. of daylight; Antarctic Circle (South pole) has 24 hrs. of darkness.

39 Winter! The Northern Hemisphere is tilted AWAY from the Sun; Southern Hemisphere is tilted TOWARD (summer for them!!). The Sun’s rays are directly over the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5⁰S latitude). Shorter days and longer nights for us in N. Hemisphere Artic Circle (North pole) has 24 hrs. of darkness; Antarctic Circle (South pole) has 24 hrs. of daylight.

40 Spring and Fall Equinox – mean ‘equal night’
Both N. and S. Hemispheres receive same amount of the Sun’s energy! (neutral ‘tilt’ of Earth in relation to Sun) The Sun’s rays are directly over the Equator (0⁰ latitude) There are 12 hrs. of daylight and 12 hrs. of darkness in both Hemispheres.

41 Packet p. 4 - ‘Earth in Space’
d c g f a b h e Winter A – overhead; B – low in sky (horizon); C – no Sun (dark) Sunset – Earth rotates counterclockwise


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