Presentation on theme: "FCAT EARTH SCIENCE Science Review"— Presentation transcript:
1FCAT EARTH SCIENCE Science Review West Broward High School
2EARTH SCIENCESC.D The student knows how climatic patterns on Earth result from an interplay of many factors(Earth’s topography, its rotation on its axis, solar radiation, the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currents). AA
3Types of Landforms Earth’s topography - Exploring Earth’s SurfaceTypes of Landforms Earth’s topographyThere are three main types of landforms: plains, mountains, and plateaus.
4Types of Landforms Earth’s topography - Exploring Earth’s SurfaceTypes of Landforms Earth’s topographyA large area of land where the topography is made up of mainly one type of landform is called a landform region.
5Mapping Earth’s Topography - Topographic MapsMapping Earth’s TopographyMapmakers use contour lines to represent elevation, relief, and slope on topographic maps.
6Background Information SPACE & TIME Climate is largely a result of Earth’s location with respect from the sun.Earth is 93,000,000 mi from the sun.Seasonal climate changes occur b/c Earth’s axis (23.5o) of rotation is tilted with respect to the ecliptic path around the sun.Northern & Southern Hemispheres each spend 6 months facing the sun directly.
7Solstice Earth’s Orbit rotation on its axis is the point at which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator. Occurs only two days out of the year.Summer SOLSTICEJune 21/ NHMore hours of day lightSH daylight is shorter.Winter SOLSTICEDecember 21/22 NHNH is tilted away from sun.NH less sunlightSH daytime is longer.
8Angle of the Sun’s Rays Earth’s Orbit rotation on its axis Energy from the sun strikes Earth most directly near the equator. Near the poles, the same amount of energy is spread out over a larger area.
9Energy in the Atmosphere solar radiation Some sunlight is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere. The rest passes through to the surface.
10Weather Factors- Energy in Earth’s Atmosphere When Earth’s surface is heated, it radiates most of the energy back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation. Much of this energy is held by the atmosphere, warming it.
11Weather Factors- Global Wind Belts the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currentsA series of wind belts circles Earth. Between the wind belts are calm areas where air is rising or falling.Weather patterns result from complex global patterns of wind & pressure.Wind are caused by differences in air pressure.Westerlies winds that blow from the west in the middle latitudes.Trade Winds which blow from the east, in the tropics.
12Jet Streams the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currentsThe jet streams are high-speed bands of winds occurring at the top of the troposphere.Jet Streams control many weather processes, such as storm development.
13Coriolis Effect the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currentsAs Earth rotates, the Coriolis effect turns winds in the Northern Hemisphere toward the right.Explains how the rotation of the Earth propelled the earth's wind to move horizontally, in a wave-like manner from West to East (Except the the Tropical Jet Stream during July and August). The tilt of the earth towards the Sun and water are also very important components of this natural phenomenon.
15Background Information Earth’s atmosphere has allowed for the evolution of life on land by burning meteoroids, by having ozone to absorb much of the ultraviolet radiation, & availability of gases like O2 & CO2.
16Layers of the Atmosphere The atmosphere is divided into four main layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.The thermosphere is further divided into the ionosphere and the exosphere.
17Thunderstorm Formation A thunderstorm forms when warm, humid air rises rapidly within a cumulonimbus cloud.
18Tornado FormationTornadoes can form when warm, humid air rises rapidly in thick cumulonimbus clouds—the same type of clouds that bring thunderstorms.
19Structure of a Hurricane In a hurricane, air moves rapidly around a low-pressure area called the eye.
20PART II Review “The Geology of Earth” packet PART II Review “The Geology of Earth” packet. Highlight vocabulary words Color code the different layers of the earth. Describe in detail what the lithosphereSC.D The student knows that the solid crust of Earth consists of slow-moving, separate plates that float on a denser, molten layer of Earth and that these plates interact with each other, changing the Earth’s surface in many ways (e.g., forming mountain ranges and rift valleys, causing earthquake and volcanic activity, and forming undersea mountains that can become ocean islands). AA
22The Continental Drift Hypothesis Proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915.Supercontinent Pangaea started to break up about 200 million years ago.Continents "drifted" to their present positions.Continents "plowed" through the ocean crust.
23Continental Drift: Evidence How do we know? Geographic fit of South America and AfricaFossils match across oceansRock types and structures match across oceansAncient glacial features
24Why do the plates move? Two related ideas are widely accepted: Slab pull: Denser, colder plate sinks at subduction zone, pulls rest of plate behind it.Mantle convection: Hotter mantle material rises beneath divergent boundaries, cooler material sinks at subduction zones.
25EARTH SCIENCE SC.D The student knows how climatic patterns on Earth result from an interplay of many factors Recognizes the processes in the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphereEarth's outer shell made up of ~15 major rigid plates ~ 100 km thickPlates move relative to each other at speeds of a few cm/ yr(about the speed at which fingernails grow)Plates are rigid in the sense that little (ideally no) deformation occurs within them,Most (ideally all) deformation occurs at their boundaries, giving rise to earthquakes, mountain building, volcanism, and other spectacular phenomena.
26BASIC CONCEPTS: THERMAL EVOLUTION OF OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE Warm mantle material upwells at spreading centers and then coolsBecause rock strength decreases with temperature, cooling material forms strong plates of lithosphereCooling oceanic lithosphere moves away from the ridges, eventually reaches subduction zones and descends in downgoing slabs back into the mantle, reheating as it goesLithosphere is cold outer boundary layer of thermal convection system involving mantle and core that removes heat from Earth's interior, controlling its evolutionStein & Wysession 2003
27The Theory of Plate Tectonics “Earth’s outer shell is broken into thin, curved plates that move laterally atop a weaker underlying layer.Most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen at plate boundaries.Three types of relative motions between plates:divergent convergent transform
30What are Earthquakes?The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energyUsually associated with faulting or breaking of rocksContinuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks
31The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake The point within Earth where faulting begins is the focus, or hypocenterThe point directly above the focus on the surface is the epicenter
32Where Do Earthquakes Occur and How Often? ~80% of all earthquakes occur in the circum-Pacific beltmost of these result from convergent margin activity~15% occur in the Mediterranean-Asiatic beltremaining 5% occur in the interiors of plates and on spreading ridge centersmore than 150,000 quakes strong enough to be felt are recorded each year
33Body Waves: P and S waves P or primary wavesfastest wavestravel through solids, liquids, or gasescompressional wave, material movement is in the same direction as wave movementS or secondary wavesslower than P wavestravel through solids onlyshear waves - move material perpendicular to wave movement
34Surface Waves: R and L waves Travel just below or along the ground’s surfaceSlower than body waves; rolling and side-to-side movementEspecially damaging to buildings
35TSUNAMI - water wave generated by earthquake NY Times
39Planets travel counterclockwise on their orbits, as seen from above Earth’s north pole. 2. Astronomical units (AUs) are used to measure distances among the objects in the solar system; 1 AU is about 150 million km, the average distance from Earth to the Sun.
40F. Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids are other objects orbiting in the solar system. A comet is an enormous mass of frozen ice and rock with a nucleus, coma, and tail.2. Asteroids are rocky objects formed from similar material that formed the planets; the asteroid belt lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.3. Meteoroids come from debris left by colliding asteroids or dispersing comets.
41Caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun Neap tides high high tidesand low low tidesSpring tidesweak tides
42ECLIPSESSolarthe moon is between the Earth & the Sun, casting a shadow on the EarthLunarthe Earth is between the Moon & the Sun, casting a shadow on the moon
44MagnetosphereThe area surrounding Earth that is influenced by this field is the magnetosphere.Protects us from harmful radiation from the sun.Scientists hypothesize that Earth’s rotation & movement of matter within its core sets up a strong magnetic field in & around earth.
45The AURORA = In the Ionosphere (Northern Hemisphere) charged particles spiral long earth’s magnetic field toward earth’s magnetic pole. They collide with atoms in the atmosphere. These collisions cause ATOMS to emit light. “AURORA BOREALIS”