Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Geologists: Scientists that study the forces that make and shape planet Earth. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of rock.  Geologists.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Geologists: Scientists that study the forces that make and shape planet Earth. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of rock.  Geologists."— Presentation transcript:

1

2

3  Geologists: Scientists that study the forces that make and shape planet Earth. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of rock.  Geologists study the processes that create Earth’s features and search for clues about Earth’s history.  Geology is the study of the solid Earth and the processes by which it is shaped and changed.

4  Paleontologists: These scientists study the forms of life existing in former geologic periods.  The science of Paleontology helps us learn about the history of different species that have inhabited Earth.  Information we have regarding dinosaurs, wooly mammoths, trilobites, and other extinct species come from fossil formations found and studied by paleontologists.

5  Constructive Forces: Shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses. (Example Surtsey-2 Miles)  Destructive Forces: Slowly wear away mountains and eventually every other feature on the surface. (Example: Weathering)

6  Any ideas???? (Hint it is not because we sent Brendan Frasier down there)

7  We know about the composition of the interior of the Earth because of Seismic Waves. (Earthquake Waves)  The speed of these seismic waves and the paths they take reveal how the planet is put together.  P (primary) waves can travel through every layer of the earth. In solids, these waves generally travel almost twice as fast as S waves and can travel through any type of material.  S (secondary) waves can only travel through solids.

8  There are 4 main layers to the Earth.  Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core.  As you go towards the center of the Earth the temperature and pressure increases greatly.

9  The layer of rock that forms the Earth’s surface.  The crust includes rocks, mountains, soil and water.  The crust is the smallest layer of the earth. (Apple Example)  There are two types of crust oceanic crust (Basalt which is an igneous rock) and continental crust (rocks like Granite which is an igneous rock)

10  The oceanic crust is 5km (3mi) to 10 km (6mi) thick and is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro.  The average density of the oceanic crust is 3g/cm³.  The continental crust is typically from 30 km (20mi) to 50 km(30mi) thick and is composed of sighlty less dense rocks than those of the oceanic crust.  he average density of the continental crust is 2.7g/cm³.  Earth’s crust occupies less than 1% of the Earth’s volume.  The temperature of the crust increases with depth, reaching values typically in the range from about 200°C (392°F) to 400°C (752°F) at the boundary with the underlying mantle.

11  The mantle is a layer of hot soild material  The mantle is solid but has liquid like characteristics. (It’s kind of like Silly Putty)  The mantle is the largest of the layers of the earth  It is mainly composed of silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium.

12  It begins about 6 miles(10 km) below the oceanic crust and about 19 miles (30 km) below the continental crust (see The Crust).  It is about 1,800 miles(2,900 km) thick and makes up nearly 80 percent of the Earth's total volume.  The function of the mantle is to separate the inner mantle and the outer mantle.  The average temperature is 5400 ºF (3000ºC), nevertheless the rock is solid because of the high pressures.  The bottom layer is tough liquid rock and probably consists of silicates of iron and magnesium. The temperature in this part is between 2520 ºF (1400ºC) and 5400 º F (3000ºC) and the density is between 3.4g/cm³ and 4.3g/cm³. The upper layer of the outer mantle consists of the same material but is stiffer because of its lower temperature.

13  The outer core is a layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core.  In spite of enormous pressure the outer core behaves like a thick liquid.  Currents in the liquid outer core force the solid inner core to spin at a slightly faster rate than the rest of the planet. These currents in the outer core create the Earth’s magnetic field. This is why you can use a compass and the Earth is protected from some of the harmful rays of the sun.  Composed of mostly Iron and Nickel  Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km (1,800 mi) beneath the Earth's surface.  The temperature of the outer core ranges from 4400 °C in the outer regions to 6100 °C near the inner core

14  The inner core is a dense ball of solid metal.  It is also mainly composed of iron and nickel.  Temperature range is probably between 2,000- 5,000 degrees Celsius and about 1,216 km (760 mi) in radius.  The center of the inner core is thought to be as hot as the surface of the sun.

15  Plate Tectonics is the geological theory that states that pieces of Earth’s crust are in constant, slow motion, drive by convection currents in the Earth’s mantle.  No plate can budge without affecting the other plates surrounding it.  As the plates move, they collide, pull apart, or grind past each other.

16  Plate movements cause volcanoes to erupt, mountain ranges to be formed, and earthquakes to occur.  Plate Tectonics are responsible for the deformation of Pangea.  Plate Tectonics Introduction Plate Tectonics Introduction  Plate Tectonics Evidence Plate Tectonics Evidence  Movement of Earth's Tectonic Plates Movement of Earth's Tectonic Plates  The Man Behind Plate Tectonics The Man Behind Plate Tectonics  We will be reading more about Plate Tectonics in a few days.


Download ppt " Geologists: Scientists that study the forces that make and shape planet Earth. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of rock.  Geologists."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google