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Quick Orientation to Elluminate Features Use the green check and the red check to give the presenter feedback. Type your comments and questions in the chat box here. Participants will not use microphones for this session. Please make sure your microphone is not selected. Use the emoticons and the applause features to give the presenter feedback.
David McConnell Director, OFD Professor, MEAS Ashley Grantham Program Coordinator, OFD
Creating better study habits David McConnell, OFD & MEAS, NCSU
A retrieval exercise is an activity that a student completes during or following studying to get an accurate assessment of their learning *Improving Undergraduate Learning, SSRC-CLA Longitudinal Project, 2011. US students estimate they devote 7% their time to study* Many students continue to employ the same study methods that they used in elementary school
Student studies material for initial time interval and then covers it up Student takes a blank piece of paper and practices retrieval by writing down as much information as they can recall from the study material. Student reviews material and practices retrieval again
Short-term memory – Repeat to remember The more effort we put into encoding information at the moment of learning, the more we remember Listening writing drawing/organizing Medina, J., 2009, Brain Rules
Long-term memory – Remember to repeat Thinking or talking about an event immediately after it occurs enhances memory of the event Reviewing material at fixed, spaced intervals enhances memory (after class reflection, online quizzes, recitations, tutorials, study groups, etc.) Medina, J., 2009, Brain Rules
2 tests for Group 1 Day 0 = Initial studying of material The more time that passes before attempting retrieval, the more we forget FORGETTING CURVE Roediger & Karpicke, 2006, Perspectives in Psychological Science, v. 1, p.181-210.
Roediger & Karpicke, 2006, Perspectives in Psychological Science, v. 1, p.181-210. 120 college students complete a reading assignment (~250 words) Group X studied the passage twice (7 minutes each time) Group Y studied the passage once and then took a test Both groups then tested at 5 minute, 2 day, and 1 week intervals XYXYXY Group Y retained more knowledge after 2 days, 1 week
Groups of students study material using one of four methods: Student reads material once. Student reads material four separate times. Student reads material then uses it to construct a representative concept map Student reads material, practices retrieval, repeats. Karpicke & Blunt, 2011, www.sciencexpress.org, Jan 20, p.1-4.
Research on learning shows that retrieval practice is the most effective study method: Students don’t know this Karpicke & Blunt, 2011, www.sciencexpress.org, Jan 20, p.1-4.
Student should complete the first retrieval practice soon after receiving the original information During or within 24 hours of lecture (students will need practice) Immediately following a reading assignment or after reviewing class notes Prior to an exam For maximum effect, retrieval effort should be repeated at regular intervals prior to exam (e.g., weekly)
Experimental Group: Three 2-minute pauses per lecture, student discussion of lecture content with peer. Control Group: No pauses for discussion in lecture. Ruhl, Hughes, and Schloss., 1987. Teacher Education and Special Education, v.10 #1, p.14-18 Students completed a free recall exercise after lecture Experimental Group – number of facts recalled: 22.97* Control Group – number of facts recalled: 16.63
Most students are unaware of effective learning strategies Instructors can guide students in use of retrieval technique Students should test themselves or reflect on material soon after they receive it, and repeat the process again at spaced intervals prior to an exam