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Constructive and Destructive Forces Warm Up: Why should we worry about Yellowstone? Justify your Answer. CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Constructive and Destructive Forces.

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Presentation on theme: "Constructive and Destructive Forces Warm Up: Why should we worry about Yellowstone? Justify your Answer. CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Constructive and Destructive Forces."— Presentation transcript:

1 Constructive and Destructive Forces Warm Up: Why should we worry about Yellowstone? Justify your Answer. CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Constructive and Destructive Forces Notes HW: 1) None

2 What's the earth made of? Pangaea Pangaea Plate tectonics Plate tectonics Layers of the earth Layers of the earth

3 What's the earth made of? Pangaea is Pangaea is Pangea - Super Continent – Pangea - Super Continent – What is causing the super continent to break apart?

4 What's the earth made of? Plate tectonics are Plate tectonics are plate tectonics plate tectonics plate tectonics plate tectonics What is causing the continent to break apart? What is causing the continent to break apart? Where is the force coming from? Where is the force coming from? Is this force constructive or destructive or both? Is this force constructive or destructive or both?

5 What's the earth made of? Layers of the earth Layers of the earth layers of the earth rap ( unofficial music video) – YouTube layers of the earth rap ( unofficial music video) – YouTube layers of the earth rap ( unofficial music video) – YouTube layers of the earth rap ( unofficial music video) – YouTube Layers of the Earth Layers of the Earth Inner Core Inner Core Outer Core Outer Core Mantle Mantle Crust Crust

6 How does the force within the earth affect the outside of the earth?

7 Hot Spots Hotspots were thought to be caused by a narrow stream of hot mantle convecting up from the mantle-core. Hotspots were thought to be caused by a narrow stream of hot mantle convecting up from the mantle-core. Hotspot can burn through all of the layers of the crust and cool to form an intrusion, or stop before it makes it all of the way to the surface. Hotspot can burn through all of the layers of the crust and cool to form an intrusion, or stop before it makes it all of the way to the surface.

8 Faulting A fracture in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth's crust, in which adjacent surfaces are displaced relative to one another and parallel to the plane of fracture. A fracture in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth's crust, in which adjacent surfaces are displaced relative to one another and parallel to the plane of fracture. Faults cause Earthquakes. Faults cause Earthquakes.

9 Faulting

10 Faulting

11 Folding  A fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat sedimentary layers are bent or curved as a result of a permanent deformation.  Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds.  Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, and temperature gradient.

12 Folding

13 Folding

14 Exit Ticket What did you learn today? What did you learn today?

15 Convection Current Demos Warm Up: What are some ways the crusts layers can change or be altered? CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Convection Current Demos HW: 1) None

16 Are all the layers of Earth solid? Justify your answer with details from your notes and textbook.

17 PredictLava LampConvection Bottles Observe BeforeAfterBeforeAfter Explain Convection Current POE

18 Explain what is happening in this video:

19 Questions: O Connect the P.O.E. and video to the core and mantle. O Why does the lava lamp and the convection bottles do what it does? O How do you think the hot core affects the mantle? O What about the two parts of the core? O How does the POE relate to what happens in the earth? O Finish Lab Write up From yesterday. (Surface Area Lab)

20 Exit Ticket On your Daily Catch, write a summary of what you learned today.

21 Constructive and Destructive Forces Warm Up: Does the Earth look the same now as it did when it first came into existence? Justify your answer. CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Constructive and Destructive Forces Notes HW: 1) None

22 What does constructive forces mean? What does destructive forces mean?

23 True or False: The Earth’s surface has stayed the same for thousands of years

24 The Earth’s surface is always changing!

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30 What do weathering and erosion mean? On the next slide you are going to see two words. The animations of these words explain what they mean. On the next slide you are going to see two words. The animations of these words explain what they mean. As you watch this animation, write down what you think Weathering and Erosion might mean based on what you see. As you watch this animation, write down what you think Weathering and Erosion might mean based on what you see.

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32 Weathering The breaking down of materials in the Earth’s crust into smaller pieces.

33 Water causes weathering What evidence of weathering do you see in this picture?

34 Wind causes weathering What evidence of weathering do you see in this picture? Why wasn’t this mass of land weathered away?

35 Ice causes weathering Describe how ice causes weathering?

36 Plants CAN CAUSE weathering

37 2. Particle Size – Larger particles weather slower and smaller particles weather at a faster rate. There are 4 factors that effect the rate of weathering: 1. Surface Area (exposure) - Exposing more surface area will increase the rate of weathering. 3. Chemical Composition (what a rock is made of) – Certain rocks and minerals are naturally weaker than others, while others are more resistant (stronger). 4. Climate – Warmer, moister climates have the most weathering. Heat & Water speed up all chemical reactions. This is the most important factor in weathering.

38 Mrs. Degl38 1. Chemical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by chemical action. The rocks breaks down at the same time as it changes chemical composition. The end result is different from the original rock. There are 3 types of chemical weathering: 1. Oxidation – oxygen combines with the elements in the rock and it reacts. This the scientific name for rust. 2. Hydration – water can dissolve away many earth materials, including certain rocks. 3. Carbonation – carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. This makes acid rain which chemically weathers (dissolves) rocks. Other acids also combine with water to make acid rain.

39 Mrs. Degl39 There are two primary types of weathering: Chemical and Physical 2. Physical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces without a change in chemical composition. Root/Plant Wedging/ActionIce/Frost Wedging/Action Exfoliation and Abrasion are also types of physical weathering.

40 Erosion The process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil. What evidence of erosion do you see in this picture?

41 Erosion is Movement of Sediment ! This process, known as Erosion, is gradually wearing down the surface of the earth. This process, known as Erosion, is gradually wearing down the surface of the earth. Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil (sediment) are moved from one place to another. Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil (sediment) are moved from one place to another. Erosion carves the Earth's surface creating canyons, gorges, and even beaches. Erosion carves the Earth's surface creating canyons, gorges, and even beaches. What do you think has caused this rock to look this way?

42 Wind Erosion As the wind blows it picks up small particles of sand/sediment and blasts large rocks with the abrasive particles, cutting and shaping the rock. As the wind blows it picks up small particles of sand/sediment and blasts large rocks with the abrasive particles, cutting and shaping the rock. The intensity of wind erosion is determined by: The intensity of wind erosion is determined by: Sum (amount) Sum (amount) Speed Speed Slope Slope Surface Surface

43 Wind Erosion

44 Water Causes Erosion runoff, rivers and, streams runoff, rivers and, streams

45 Water causes Erosion When rain falls to the Earth it can evaporate, sink into the ground, or flow over the land as Runoff. When it flows over land, erosion occurs. Runoff picks up pieces of rock and "runs" downhill cutting tiny grooves (called rills) into the land. rills rills

46 Water causes Erosion How much erosion takes place is determined by the: Sum (amount) Sum (amount) Slope Slope Speed Speed Surface Surface Can you act increasing and decreasing the four S’s?

47 Ice Causes Erosion Glaciers wear down the landscape; by picking up and carrying debris that moves across the land along with the ice.

48 Ice Causes Erosion Glaciers can pick up and carry sediment that ranges in size from sand grains to boulders bigger than houses. Moving like a conveyor belt and a bulldozer, a single glacier can move millions of tons of material!

49 Ice Causes Erosion How much erosion takes place is determined by the: **Sum (Glaciers are massive!) **Sum (Glaciers are massive!) Slope Slope Speed Speed Surface Surface

50 Gravity causes erosion landslide clip.mpeg Creep, Slump, Landslides, Mudslides, and Avalanches. These are examples of mass movement (or called mass wasting) SlowerFaster

51 Gravity causes Erosion How much erosion takes place is determined by the: Sum Sum **Slope **Slope Speed Speed **Surface **Surface

52 Plants CAN PREVENT erosion

53 Deposition Rock particles that are picked up and transported during erosion will ultimately be deposited somewhere else Deposition is the process by which sediments (small particles of rock) are laid down in new locations. Together, Erosion and Deposition build new landforms. Together, Erosion and Deposition build new landforms. Deltas Deltas Canyons Canyons Meanders Meanders Floodplains Floodplains

54 Exit Ticket On your Daily Catch, write a summary of what you learned today.

55 Rate of Weathering Lab Warm Up: What are the forces that cause the Earth to change? CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Rate of Weathering Lab HW: 1) None

56 Exit Ticket On your Daily Catch, write a summary of what you learned today.

57 Constructive vs Destructive Foces Project Warm Up: What do you think soil and sand are made up of? CW: 1)Warm Up 2)Constructive vs Destructive Foces Project HW: 1) None

58 Exit Ticket On your Daily Catch, write a summary of what you learned today.


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