2 Geocentric TheoryPeople (Ptolemy in 140 A.D) once thought that Earth was at the center of the Universe and the Sun revolved around it.
3 Heliocentric TheoryCopernicus in 1530 created a mathematical model which explained the motions of the planets by putting the Sun in the center of the solar system, his book was suppressed for 13 years. When the it was finally published, Copernicus was on his deathbed,
4 SphericalThere was the belief that Earth was flat. Aristotle who lived in 350 BC thought that Earth was spherical. He saw Earth cast a shadow on the Moon during an eclipse. Sailors also saw evidence that the Earth is spherical from observing how ships appear in the horizon. They also saw that when moving North or South the North star moved higher or lower in the sky.Earth is Spherical and bulges slightly at the equator and somewhat flattened at the poles
5 *Label the diagram of Earth* Physical FeaturesEarth’s Rotation: The spinning of Earth on it’s axis, causes day and night. 24 hEarth’s Revolution: 365 daysDiameter (Pole to Pole): 12,714 kmDiameter (equator): 12,756 kmAverage Distance from the Sun: 150 million km*Label the diagram of Earth*
6 Magnetic FieldGenerated by movement of materials inside Earth’s core and Earth’s rotation. Earth has a North and South Magnetic pole. It traps many charged particles from the sun which protects you from harmful solar radiation. }
7 * Complete compare and contrast table summer/winter* Seasons1. Caused by Earth’s Revolution around the Sun. Due to the ellipse shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun the distance from the Sun to Earth changes during it’s yearlong orbit. It is closest (147 million km ) around Jan 3 and farthest (152 million km ) July 4.2.The tilt in Earth’s axis causes seasons. The hemisphere that is tilted more towards the Sun will be in summer and that which is tilted away will be in winter.It also affects the number of daylight hours. For example the summer has longer sunlight hours than the winter.* Complete compare and contrast table summer/winter*
8 SolsticesThe day when the Sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator.Northern: June 21 or 22 longest period of daylightSouthern: Dec 21 or 22 shortest period of daylight
9 Equinoxeswhen the Sun is directly above Earth’s equator. Occurs twice a year when the sun is directly over the equator (90 ° angle) resulting in spring and fall equinox. The number of daylight and night time hours and equal all over the world. Neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
10 *Do Venn Diagram Solstices & Equinoxes & Connect It * Northern hemisphere: spring equinox March 20 0r 21Fall equinox Sept 22 or 23Southern hemisphere: spring equinox Sept 22 or 23Fall equinox March 20 0r 21*Do Venn Diagram Solstices & Equinoxes & Connect It *
11 Moon MotionsRevolution around Earth are responsible for the changes in it’s appearance days the same amount of time it takes to revolve around Earth.The Moon revolves around Earth you see different portions of its lighted side, causing the Moon’s appearance to change.
12 PhasesThe different forms that the Moon takes in its appearance from Earth daysNew Moon: when the moon is between Earth and the Sun. The lighted half is facing the Sun.Waxing: More of the illuminated half of the Moon can be seen each night. Waxing crescent, first quarter, gibbous
13 * Complete cut & past Moon Phase Activity * PhasesFull Moon: all of the Moon’s surface facing Earth reflects lightWaning: When you see less of its illuminated half each night. Gibbous, third quarter, Waning crescent* Complete cut & past Moon Phase Activity *
14 EclipsesThe revolution of the Moon causes eclipses. It occurs when Earth or Moon blocks the sunlight from reaching the other.New Moon: the Moon’s shadow falls on Earth and causes a solar eclipse. ( pearly white glow seen in a total solar eclipse .. umbra)Full Moon: Earth’s shadow can be cast on the Moon, resulting in a lunar eclipse. ( Total Lunar eclipse can be seen by anyone on the night time of Earth)
15 MoonCraters: depressions due to Meteorites, asteroids, comets striking the surface.Maria: dark regions formed from igneous rocks.The moon has a crust, mantle , and a core
16 Moon’s gravity Is 1/6 of Earth’s Theories of formation1. The moon was captured by Earth’s gravity2. The moon condensed from the same dust and gas.3. Earth ejected molten material that became the Moon.Moon’s gravity Is 1/6 of Earth’s
17 Impact theory4. Impact theory: after Apollo space missions in 1960’s and 1970’s The moon formed billions of years ago from condensing gas and debris thrown off when Earth collided with a Mars-sized object.
18 Exploring1961 The US sent the first ranger spacecraft and a series of Lunar Orbiters to the moon. They took photographs of the Moon. The next step they landed on the moon.1969: Apollo 11 landed on the Moon.
19 ExploringClementine: 1994 was placed into lunar orbit to conduct a two-month survey of the Moon’s surface.It took high resolution photographs of the Moon’s surface.Lunar Prospector: 1998 spent a year orbiting the Moon from Pole to pole.
20 Icy PolesLunar Prospector also Mapped Moon’s gravity, magnetic field, and the abundances of 11 elements in the crust.Evidence confirmed that water ice was present in deep craters at both lunar poles.