2What is a landform?A landform is a physical feature of the Earth’s surface.
3What is weathering?Weathering is the process of breaking rock into soil, sand, or other tiny pieces.
4What is erosion?Erosion is the process of moving sediment from one place to another.
5Why would footprints on the Moon last for hundreds of years? There is no wind or water to erode the footprints!
6What is deposition?Deposition is the process of dropping, or depositing, sediment in a new location.Some rivers deposit sedimentin broad areas of their “mouths,” called deltas. The Mississippi River delta is one of the largest in the world. Sediment was deposited at the mouth, moved by the flow of the river.
7What is mass movement?Mass movement is the downhill movement of rock and soil because of gravity.
8How can we describe Earth’s crust? The Earth’s crust is the outer layer of Earth and made of solid rock. It is the thinnest layer.
9How can we describe the mantle? The mantle is the layer of rock below the Earth’s crust. Just under the crust, it is solid. It is very hot, and the other part of the mantle is soft, like melted candy.
10How can we describe the core? The core is Earth’s hottest layer, the center of the planet. It is composed of an outer core of liquid (molten) iron and an inner core of solid iron (metal).
11What would be a good model of the Earth’s layers? A peach would be a good model of the Earth’s layers because it has a thin skin and a hard pit in the center.
12If the core is the hottest layer, why is it still solid? The core is solid because of the great amount of pressure at the center of the Earth!
13What is a plate?A plate is a rigid block of crust and upper mantle. There are 12 major plates on Earth’s surface that fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. They “float” on the soft part of the mantle. As pressure and heat make the mantle move, the plates move, too.
14What does it mean to say that the Earth’s plates “float” on the mantle? The plates float on the soft rock of the lower mantle, which has currents, like water.
15Which would be a better model of Earth’s plates, a tile floor or a stack of dishes? A tile floor would be better because the plates are next to one another, not stacked up like dishes.
16What is magma?Magma is molten (liquid) rock from the Earth’s mantle.
17What is a volcano?A volcano is an opening in Earth’s crust through which lava flows.
18What is an earthquake?An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy in Earth’s crust.
19What is a fault?A fault is a place where pieces of the Earth’s crust move. San Andreas fault in California is known as a major location of quakes.
20What is continental drift? Continental drift is the theory of how Earth’s continents move over its surface.
21What does it mean to say that the “Atlantic Ocean is getting wider, pushing Europe and North America apart”?The North American and European plates are moving away from each other!
22What is Pangea?Pangea is the theoretical “supercontinent” that contained all of Earth’s land about 225 million years ago.
23What are fossils?Fossils are the remains or traces of past life found in the Earth’s crust.
24How are mountains formed? Mountains are formed when two continental plates pull apart, push together, or slide against one another.The Grand Tetons are mountains that wereformed by boundaries of plates pushingrock upward.
25The Himalayas are the world’s tallest mountains The Himalayas are the world’s tallest mountains. They were formed by convergent plate movement.