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Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR S ECTION 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR S ECTION 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR S ECTION 1

2 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  We never have been able to visually see into the center of the Earth.  The largest mine is in South Africa and is about 3.8 kilometers (2.4 miles) deep.

3 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Scientists use indirect observation to observe the Earth’s interior.  Scientists know about the interior of the Earth from waves produced by earthquakes.  Seismic waves – waves produced by earthquakes.

4 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The speed of the seismic waves tell scientists about the structure of the Earth.

5 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: revisionworld.co.uk

6 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  To begin a journey to the center of the Earth, you would need to travel through solid rock.  Temperatures and pressures would change as you travel towards the center.

7 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Temperatures  At first, the temperature around the surface is cool. Then temperatures increase rapidly for several miles and then increase slowly after that.  For every 40 meters you travel inward, the temperature rises 1 º C (33.8 º F).

8 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Pressure  The deeper you travel into the Earth, the greater the pressure.  Pressure – the force pushing on a surface or area

9 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  You will travel through several layers as you travel through the Earth.  The Earth is made up of three main chemical layers. crust mantle core

10 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: faculty.weber.edu

11 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Each layer has its own conditions and materials. Diagram From: eoearth.org

12 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Crust – a layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin  Very thin layer of the Earth.  Includes both the dry land and the ocean floor.  Thickest under high mountains and thinnest under the ocean.

13 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Oceanic crust is made of dense materials.  Continental crust is made of less dense materials.  5-40 km thick  Made of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, and magnesium

14 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR

15

16 Crust

17 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Mantle – layer of solid, hot rock  Made of oxygen, silicon, iron, and magnesium.  2,900 km thick  68% of Earth’s mass and 82% of Earth’s volume

18 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Traveling farther into the mantle there is increasing temperatures and pressures.

19 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle

20 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The core makes up about 33% of the Earth’s mass but only 15% of the Earth’s volume.  The core is VERY dense.  Made of iron and nickel  Temperatures range from 3630 º F – 5430 º F (2,000 º C – 3,000 º C)

21 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle Core

22 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The Earth is made up of five main physical layers. lithosphere asthenosphere mesosphere outer core inner core

23 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The crust and the upper part of the mantle are very similar, very hard and rocky.  Lithosphere – the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle

24 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere (rigid)

25 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Material in the mantel is softer and can bend, somewhat like plastic.

26 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Asthenosphere – the soft rock layer of the Earth that can flow slowly  The lithosphere floats on top of the asthenosphere.  Enormous heat and pressure allow this soft, solid rock to move.

27 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere (rigid) Asthenosphere (plastic)

28 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Mesosphere– the hard rock layer that makes up most of the mantle  Extreme pressure at this depth makes the rock very hard and unable to move like the asthenosphere.

29 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere (rigid) Asthenosphere (plastic) Mesosphere (rigid)

30 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The core has two parts, an outer core and inner core.  Outer core – a layer of molten, liquid metal that surrounds the inner core  Inner core – a dense ball of solid metal

31 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere (rigid) Asthenosphere (plastic) Mesosphere (rigid) Outer Core (liquid) Inner Core (solid)

32 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: geophysics.ou.edu

33 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: faculty.weber.edu

34 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: spring.net

35 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Layers of the Earth Depiction

36 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  Currents in the liquid outer core force the solid inner core to spin at a slightly faster rate than the rest of the planet.  The currents created by the outer core create the Earth’s magnetic field.

37 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR  The Earth acts like a giant bar magnet.  A compass will point to the Earth’s magnetic North pole.

38 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: glossary.oilfield.slb.com

39 E ARTH ’ S I NTERIOR Diagram From: cnx.org


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