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Earth Boot Camp 5.7A: Explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Boot Camp 5.7A: Explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Boot Camp 5.7A: Explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels.

2 1. The diagram below shows the sequence of the processes that turn solid rock into sandstone: Solid rock Beach Sand Sandstone Which two processes best complete this diagram? A. Melting and cooling B. Erosion and compaction C. Compaction and cementation D. Evaporation and dissolving Weathering, Erosion, and deposition STAAR 2013; #17; RC 3; Readiness; 5.2D

3 1. The diagram below shows the sequence of the processes that turn solid rock into sandstone: Solid rock Beach Sand Sandstone Which two processes best complete this diagram? A. Melting and cooling B. Erosion and compaction C. Compaction and cementation (because sandstone is a SEDIMENTARY rock) D. Evaporation and dissolving Weathering, Erosion, and deposition STAAR 2013; #17; RC 3; Readiness; 5.2D

4 2. Fossil fuels formed over a long period of time because heat and pressure were applied to — A carbon filtered through limestone B organisms buried in the ground C bacteria on top of the mud D nitrogen mixed in the water Release Items 2006—#23 (72%)

5 2. Fossil fuels formed over a long period of time because heat and pressure were applied to — A carbon filtered through limestone B organisms buried in the ground C bacteria on top of the mud D nitrogen mixed in the water Release Items 2006—#23 (72%)

6 3. The finger-like formations in the cavern shown to the right are called stalactites and stalagmites. Which process most likely formed these stalactites and stalagmites? A Slow deposition of minerals B Fast erosion of soil C Fast rising of water D Slow cooling of air 2011—STAAR™ Released Test Questions, #7

7 3. The finger-like formations in the cavern shown to the right are called stalactites and stalagmites. Which process most likely formed these stalactites and stalagmites? A Slow deposition of minerals B Fast erosion of soil C Fast rising of water D Slow cooling of air 2011—STAAR™ Released Test Questions, #7

8 4. Coal is a nonrenewable resource that was formed hundreds of millions of years ago in swampy areas. Coal was formed from — Asilica rich lava that has been compressed over time Banimal remains that were buried over an extended period Cplant material that was buried over an extended period Dsedimentary rocks that have been compressed over time

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10 5. Oil, natural gas, and coal provide most of the energy we use today. How were these resources formed? AThese renewable resources formed deep in the Earth from prehistoric plants and animals. BThese nonrenewable resources formed deep in the Earth from prehistoric plants and animals. CThese nonrenewable resources formed from magma deep in the Earth. DThese inexhaustible resources formed from magma deep in the Earth.

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12 6. Millions of years ago the remains of dead plants and animals were buried by sediments. Through the action of heat and pressure over millions of years, these remains changed form. We now call these changed remains— ASolar energy BRenewable CFossil fuels DHeat energy

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14 7. The process of breaking up rocks on the surface of the Earth is called— Adeposition Bsedimentation Cerosion Dweathering

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16 8. How does nitrogen get trapped underground as fossil fuel? ANitrogen is deposited underground by tree roots. BPlants and animals died and decayed underground millions of years ago. CNitrogen forms as limestone is weathered. DBacteria in the soil take nitrogen gas from the atmosphere.

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18 9. Which of the following must occur in order for plant remains to be transformed into fossil fuels? The plant remains must be— Aeaten Bburned Cburied D recycled

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20 10. Fossil fuels formed over a long period of time because heat and pressure were applied to — A carbon filtered through limestone B organisms buried in the ground C bacteria on top of the mud D nitrogen mixed in the water

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22 11. Coal, oil, and gas are resources that come from— Aelectric power plants Bvolcanic eruptions Cthe movement of water Dthe remains of living organisms

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24 12. Oil, natural gas, and coal began forming millions of years ago. They provide most of the energy used by modern civilization. How are fossil fuels formed? AThese renewable resources formed deep in the Earth from decaying plants and animals. BThese nonrenewable resources formed deep in the Earth from decaying plants and animals. CThese inexhaustible resources formed from magma deep in the Earth’s mantle. DThese nonrenewable resources formed from magma deep in the Earth’s mantle.

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26 13. Which is an example of a fossil fuel? Aswamp Bsolar cell Cwater Dcoal

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28 14. In what types of rocks are fossils usually found? Ametamorphic Bsedimentary Cigneous Dvolcanic

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30 15. The speed at which sediments change to rocks can be described as— Ainstantly over a short period of time Bquickly over a long period of time Cslowly over a long period of time Dslowly over a short period of time

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32 16. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal began forming under the Earth’s surface millions of years ago and now provide most of the manufactured energy we use. These resources formed— Afrom melted rock deep in the Earth. They are inexhaustible sources of energy. Bfrom melted rock deep in the Earth. They are nonrenewable sources of energy. Cdeep in the Earth from early plants and animals. They are nonrenewable resources. Ddeep in the Earth from early plants and animals. They are renewable resources.

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34 17. The chart shows some natural resources. Which of these would complete the column of Nonrenewable Resources? Nonrenewable Resources Renewable Resources coallumber petroleumsoil ???grass/plants A. Wind B. Water C. Natural gas D. Oxygen

35 Correct answer is “C” Natural gas The three main types of fossil fuels are: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They are nonrenewable resources because they take millions of years to form underground. The three main types of fossil fuels are: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They are nonrenewable resources because they take millions of years to form underground.

36 These answers are incorrect because… A.Wind is a renewable resource. It is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activity. B. Water is a renewable resource. It can be replaced by the water cycle. D. Oxygen is a renewable resource. It is created and released into the air by producers.

37 18. Look at the following pictures. All three are powered by what type of natural resource? A. Manmade resources B. Renewable resources C. Internet resources D. Nonrenewable resources

38 Correct answer is “D” Nonrenewable resources Petroleum is the world’s most widely used fossil fuel. It is used mainly for transportation. Natural gas is usually found with petroleum and is used mostly for heating and cooking. Both are fossil fuels and are nonrenewable resources.

39 These answers are incorrect because: A.Manmade resources are made from natural resources. B. Renewable resources are reproduced at about the same rate they are used. Forests are an example. C. Internet resources provide information and services, not fuel.

40 19. Scientists were asked to explore a region in search of coal. Using the chart identify which region they should explore first? REGION DESCRIPTION OF REGION 1 Slopes of an active volcano 2 Dry river bed 3 Area that was once a swamp 4 Desert with sand dunes

41 Correct answer is Region 3, the area that was once a swamp. Coal is the most common fossil fuel. Much of the coal used today comes from plants that lived in swamps millions of years ago. As the plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps. Mud and other sediments covered their remains; with pressure and time these changed into coal. Coal is the most common fossil fuel. Much of the coal used today comes from plants that lived in swamps millions of years ago. As the plants died, they sank to the bottom of the swamps. Mud and other sediments covered their remains; with pressure and time these changed into coal.

42 20. The picture below shows a woman who has just finished mowing her lawn. Look at the picture carefully. Which resource in the front yard is NOT a renewable resource? A. Water from the sprinkler B. Soil under the grass C. Fuel for the mower D. Grass and plants

43 Correct answer is “C” Fuel for the mower Fuel (gasoline) used in a mower is a nonrenewable resource. It can’t be replaced once it is used up. Fuel (gasoline) used in a mower is a nonrenewable resource. It can’t be replaced once it is used up.

44 These answers are incorrect because: A.Water is a renewable resource. The water cycle allows Earth’s limited supply of fresh water to be used over and over again. B. Soil is a renewable resource. As rocks are weathered away, new soil is formed. D. Grass and plants are renewable. As plants die and decay, new plants grow in their place.

45 21. The rock in Grand Canyon National Park is formed from layers of sand, minerals, and shells. Which type of rock is present at Grand Canyon National Park? A. Igneous B. Sedimentary C. Metamorphic D. Lava Start of MS ?’s

46 21. The rock in Grand Canyon National Park is formed from layers of sand, minerals, and shells. Which type of rock is present at Grand Canyon National Park? A. Igneous B. Sedimentary (lots of LAYERS!) C. Metamorphic D. Lava Start of MS ?’s

47 22. The most important factor in forming the sedimentary rock layers below is— A. volcanic eruptions B. scorching sun C. moving water D. earthquakes

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49 23. Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments of weathered material that have been eroded and then deposited in layers. This process requires— A. temperature and time B. deposition and melting C. collection and transportation D. time and pressure

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51 24. Students are learning about the formation of fossil fuels. They decide to construct a representation of how pressure and time cause organisms to turn into oil. The physical representation that students constructed is called a— A. model B. clone C. design D. structure

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53 25. A group of students explored the steps required for sedimentation of rocks. They recorded the results of the process in the table below. Which of these best completes the table?— A. layering B. transporting C. compacting D. fragmenting StepsProcess 1Weathering 2Erosion 3Deposition 4??

54 25. A group of students explored the steps required for sedimentation of rocks. They recorded the results of the process in the table below. Which of these best completes the table?— A. layering B. transporting C. compacting D. fragmenting StepsProcess 1Weathering 2Erosion 3Deposition 4??

55 26. The research of geologists, B. W. Murck and B. J. Skinner, claims that rock formations like these of the beautiful Bryce Canyon in Utah provide information about past climates and life forms that inhabited the Earth. These rock formations are made up largely of sandstone, limestone, and shale. Which Earth process is evident in this canyon? A. formation of sedimentary rock B. erosion of shorelines C. weathering of hilltops D. supporting plant growth

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57 27. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are all fossil fuels. Fossil Fuels originated from — A. buried, dead organisms changed by heat and pressure B. heat preserved within the Earth’s crust C. decayed rocks from within the Earth’s crust D. plants that survived the Earth’s changes

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59 Look at the diagram below. 28. Which of the following is formed in the process shown in the diagram? A. coal B. glass C. gold D. water

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61 29. A river deposits layers of minerals and other rocks at its mouth. Over time, what kind of rock is formed by the deposits? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary D. lava

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63 30. Which processes are required for the formation of sedimentary rock? A. boiling and pressure B. deposition and compaction C. weathering and melting D. pressure and cooling

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65 31. Which is NOT a factor in the formation of fossil fuels? A. time B. heat C. melting D. pressure

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67 32. All of these are examples of fossil fuels EXCEPT— A. coal B. petroleum C. corn oil D. natural gas

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69 33. Which of the following best completes the process shown in the flow cart? A. layers B. deposition C. cementation D. transporting Rocks Weathering SedimentErosion ? Compacting

70 33. Which of the following best completes the process shown in the flow cart? A. layers B. deposition C. cementation D. transporting Rocks Weathering SedimentErosion ? Compacting

71 34. A teacher conducts an experiment to help students learn about the formation of sedimentary rocks. The teacher uses a chocolate chip cookie to show how small pieces of rock and other sediment are compressed together under heavy pressure. What tool would be most beneficial in examining the sedimentary rock “cookie”? A. camera B. hand lens C. microscope D. metric ruler

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73 35. Students were preparing an activity to determine what led to the formation of fossil fuels. Before the experiment, students recorded ideas about what would happen in a science notebook. What important part of the investigation were students recording in the notebook?? A. conclusion B. hypothesis C. observation D. inference

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75 36. What do the processes of the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels have in common? A. Sedimentary rocks are the only type of rock where fossils are found which produce energy. B. Sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels are mixed with fossils to provide energy. C. Fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks are burned to release energy. D. Sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels are both formed over a long period of time with high pressure.

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77 37. Fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil are considered nonrenewable resources because they were formed from the buried remains of plants and animals. The process that led to this formation takes a very long time, which means fossil fuels cannot be replaced in our lifetime. The pie chart below displays the energy sources used to make electricity in the U.S. Which statement can be inferred form the chart? A. About two-thirds of the electricity produced comes from the conversion of fossil fuels. B. Electricity is used to do many jobs for people on a daily basis. C. Coal is the only fossil fuel used to generate electricity. D. Burning fossil fuels is harmful to the environment and causes air pollution.

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79 38. Students have been studying fossil fuels. What is an example of conservation by using less fossil fuel resources? A. riding a bike instead of driving a car B. burning coal for heat C. taking a taxi to work D. flying in an airport

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81 39. A student created a model to show how a sedimentary rock is formed by placing rocks, pebbles, and soil in a jar. The student added water to the jar, put on the lid, and shook the mixture. After settling, the sediment in the jar formed layers. Which describes why the layers formed in the student’s model? A. The sediment particles settled with the largest at the top and the least dense a the bottom. B. The largest particles of sediment settled at the bottom and the smallest particles of sediment settled at the top. C. The lease dense particles settled on top, some pebbles floated in the water, and the densest particles settled on bottom. D. Shaking created a solution in which all parts were evenly mixed.

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