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Chapter 9 Earth’s Changing Surface

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1 Chapter 9 Earth’s Changing Surface
5th Grade Earth Science Chapter 9 Earth’s Changing Surface


3 What is the Earth made of?
Landforms on Earth include: __________ __________ - flat land ________ - a deep crack ______ - flatlands with few trees _______ - on land where mountains are close together ______ - beneath the ocean, long row of towering mountains ________ - long narrow canyons in the ocean floor Mountains Plateaus Gorges Plains valleys Ridges Trenches

4 Earth’s Layers The Earth is composed of three distinct layers:
______ - outermost solid layer of the Earth. The part of the Earth where life is sustained This layer includes _____and _____ that covers the surface The crust is covered by _______ and dry _______ The thickness of the Earth’s crust varies Crust soil rock ocean land

5 Earth’s Crust

6 The Mantle 2. The _______ - is the layer of Earth just below the Earth’s crust. This layer contains most of the Earth’s _______ - the amount of matter in an object The outer part of the mantle closes to the crust is _____ The inner part of the mantle furthest from the crust is made of rock that is so hot that it can _____ very slowly. Mantle mass solid flow

7 Structure of the Earth

8 The Core 3. The ____ - the innermost layer of the Earth. The core is made primarily of ______. This layer is most compact because of all of the weight above it The core is divided into two distinct parts: ___________ - located closest to the mantle. This layer is so hot that it is liquid ___________ - located furthest from the mantle and crust – this layer is solid core iron Outer core Inner Core

9 Layers of the Earth

10 Section Assessment Page 265 questions 1-3

11 Earth’s Plates _________ - the Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle. The lithosphere is not a continuous layer it is made up of pieces called ______________. The tectonic plates are of varying shapes and sizes but they all fit together like a puzzle. Much of the Earth’s lithosphere is under ________ and other bodies of water. There are ____ major tectonic plates lithosphere Tectonic plates oceans 10

12 Tectonic Plates

13 Spreading Ocean Floor ____________ - chain of mountains running along the floor of the Atlantic ocean. ____________ - A scientist in 1960 claimed that new crust forms at ocean ridges – this explains the existence of trenches and ridges. ________ - molten rock, pushes upward from the Earth’s crust. As the magma cools it forms new crust. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Henry Hess magma

14 What causes Magma to rise?
As Earth plates move away from each other, the ocean floor spreads apart and new crust rises to fill the gaps. What causes the plates to move apart? __________ ’s when a liquid is heated, particles speed up and move apart. ___________ weigh less and float above ____________. Arthur Holmes Hot liquids Cooler liquids

15 Convection _________ - as the hot liquid rises and cools it becomes heavier again and sinks, more hot liquid can rise above again – transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or gas. Currents in the ________ constantly rise from the slow flow of the molten rock, circle around and then fall. Convection is the _______ that moves the Earth’s plates. convection mantle force

16 Theory of Plate Tectonics
________________ - the _________ is broken into 20 moving plates. Plates in constant motion and in different directions. ____________________ - (GPS) satellites in space - determine the distance between plates and their change over time. This theory explains many of Earth’s features Theory of Plate Tectonics lithosphere Global Positioning System

17 Moving Continents Continents move apart
Mountains form where plates move together As plates move apart, magma may rise to the surface forming a ________ Oceans may become larger or smaller Positions of land and oceans has changed and continues to change from the time of _________ to the __________. volcano Pangea Continents

18 Plate Boundaries _____________ - areas where two plates meet.
_________________ - plates move away from each other gaps form between the plates __________________ cause magma to rise between the gaps Huge ________ form Sea floor spreading – ex. _____________________ Plate Boundaries Spreading boundaries Convection currents valleys Mid-Atlantic Ridge

19 Plate boundaries continued
______________ - plates slide past each other _____- break in the Earth’s crust as a result of fracture boundaries – this can cause _________. ______________ - two plates push against each other – one plate might slide underneath the other – towering mountains, deep ocean trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes can result. Fracture boundaries fault earthquakes Colliding Boundaries

20 Boundaries and GPS

21 Earthquakes _________ are caused by the sudden shifting of rock as tectonic plates shift positions Pressure builds up, rocks lurch forward, and the Earth’s crust shakes. ______ - the underground point where the earthquake occurs ________ - point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus. Earthquakes focus epicenter

22 Waves Energy from the earthquake is carried by _______.
Waves spread out from the _____ and ________. Waves can cause the Earth to move ________, ___________, or in a ___________ As the waves spread out from the epicenter, they __________. waves focus Volcanoes Up and down Back and forth Circular motion Lose energy

23 Earthquakes and Plate boundaries
____________ and _________ have had the most earthquakes because they are located on a ____________ between the Pacific plate and the North American Plate. The strength of an earthquake can be measured on a ____________ - a series of numbers that is based on the amount of energy that is released. California Alaska Plate Boundary Magnitude scale

24 S and P waves Draw a diagram of each

25 Volcanoes __________ occur when magma from the mantle either flows or explodes through the crust. Opening in the surface of the Earth through which magma rises Occur near ______________ Theory of plate tectonics – one plate sinks beneath another at a plate boundary – sinking crust melts into _______. _____ - Magma that reaches the surface Volcanoes Plate boundaries magma lava

26 Draw and Label Volcanoe page 270-271

27 Earth’s Features Earth’s surface is made up of many different __________. Earth’s surface is constantly ________ and so are the landforms ___________ - the process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces Forces of __________ include ________ and _____ Landforms changing weathering weathering water ice

28 Mechanical / Chemical Weathering
_________________ - process of breaking down rock into smaller pieces as a result of ice or water – MINERALS THAT MAKE UP THE ROCK DO NOT CHANGE! ________________ - minerals that make up the rock change. The cause of chemical weathering is a _________ with something in the environment such as ____ or ________ Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering reaction water oxygen

29 Erosion ________ - the process by which soil and sediments are transferred from one location to another The movement of soil and sediments can be caused by: _________ ________ ______ erosion wind water ice gravity

30 Soil Erosion Areas of land with no plant covering are susceptible to __________ __________ - help prevent soil erosion by holding the soil in place ___________ - planted by farmers in between harvests to prevent soil erosion and add nutrients to the soil ______________ - years of drought and poor farming practices left bare areas of soil Soil erosion Plant roots Cover crops Dust Bowl of 1930’s

31 Soil ____ - made of weathered rock, air, water, and the remains of living things. __________ - process of breaking down rocks through physical factors such as _____, _________, _______ or__________________. ________ = non-living parts of the soil As rock breaks down small pieces collect on the surface soil weathering frost drought rainwater Changes in temperature inorganic

32 Soil Formation _______ and _______ are plants that help break down rock. When rocks are broken down _______are released ___________ - dead or decaying matter such as bacteria, fungi, animals and plants. ______ dark colored organic matter formed from decayed plant and animal remains- _______________________ mosses lichens minerals Organic matter humus Rich in nutrients needed by plants

33 Layers of Soil Soils form in _____ layers
_________- a vertical cross section of the soil and rock underneath ________ - first layer of soil, mixture of small rock pieces, humus, and other organic matter Most living things are found in the _______ Loose _____________ often covers the topsoil Rainwater carries minerals from the topsoil to the 2nd layer of soil. three Soil profile topsoil topsoil Organic matter

34 Subsoil / Parent Rock Layers
_______ - less organic matter than topsoil, lighter in color. _________ penetrate the subsoil through rainwater and accumulate _________ - third layer, very little organic matter found in this layer subsoil mineral Parent rock

35 Water _________ - solid particles that are moved from one place to another __________ - sediments that form during weathering and erosion are deposited in another location During the process of deposition, the _______ and ________ of a river’s flow changes As rivers flow to the oceans they carry ________ and ______________ which are useful to plants and animals to carry out their __________ sediments deposition shape direction sediments Dissolved minerals Life processes

36 River Systems Rivers and streams are _____________ - always moving and changing _______ - begins on land that is higher than sea level – ______ pulls the water downward to a lower area _____ - streams join until a river is formed River water wears down soil and rock and carries their ________ away in different places Dynamic systems Stream gravity river sediments

37 Wave Energy Ocean waves ________ and __________ a great deal of _________ Water _______ and _______ in a circular motion __________ contained in the waves moves forward _________________ interferes with the waves movements – causes waves to slow Pass along carry energy rises falls energy Shallower ocean bottom

38 Waves continued Wind Waves are formed when energy is transferred from the ________ to the _______ ____________ depends on the _________ and how __________ and _____________ Waves can also be caused by: ______________ _______________ ______________________ wind water Size of waves Wind speed Long it blows Distance it covers tectonic activity Volcanic eruptions Earthquakes and landslides

39 Dynamic Systems __________ are dynamic systems because the energy from waves has the power to _________ also build up beaches by moving sand along the shore _________ created when waves move materials from the shoreline to an area away from the shore __________ - places where water bodies are separated from the open ocean beaches waves sandbar lagoons

40 Beaches ________ formed when wind carries sand along the shore - sand builds up into small hills ______________are constantly changing as a result of ________ and ______ _____ and ________ of any beach is determined by the sources of its ______ and _____ - no two beaches are the same! dunes Coastal Landforms wind water Color texture sand rock

41 Section Assessment Question 1 on page 278

42 Section Assessment Questions 1-3 page 281

43 Minerals ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. Earth’s crust contains more than _________ minerals – only two dozen are common. Examples: diamond, quartz, emerald copper Minerals are made up of ______. Particles of _______ are arranged in a particular repeating pattern. Mineral 4,000 kinds crystals crystals

44 Crystals _______ form when minerals are made in nature
Each type of mineral has its own unique chemical __________. Differences in minerals result from the way that particles are arranged. Brass – Copper + Zinc –____________because it does not occur naturally Mineral structure Not a mineral

45 Identifying Minerals Minerals are identified by their ____________
_______________ - a scale to measure hardness of a mineral The range of the harness scale is from 1 (_______) to 10 (______) Talc has a harness of __ / diamond is a _____ ________ - refers to how difficult it is to scratch its surface characteristics Moh’s hardness scale Softest Hardest 1 10 hardness

46 Other Mineral Characteristics
_______ - a mineral may have different crystals depending on the kinds of materials that make up its ______. The color of a mineral can be seen in its ______. A mineral can also be identified by the ______ of its crystals. _______ - minerals show particular patterns when they are broken along flat planes. Color crystals streak shape Cleavage

47 Luster ______ - the appearance of a mineral in reflected light.
A mineral may appear: __________ Luster Metallic Nonmetallic Greasy Glassy Waxy

48 Rocks _____ - a solid, natural material made up of one or more minerals ___________ - as time passes, rock break down, and the minerals in them are recycled – pattern of change The rock cycle takes place over ________ of years. There are three types of rocks: __________, __________, and __________ rock Rock cycle millions sedimentary igneous metamorphic

49 Sedimentary Rock ______________ - made from pieces of rocks and minerals Sedimentary rock forms in ________ - the oldest rock at the bottom and the newest rock on top. Sedimentary rock is like a “_________” - past events captured in each layer. _____ - remains of once living animals or plants Sedimentary rock layers History book fossils

50 Sedimentary Rock Continued
Fossils are ONLY found in _____________ Example of sedimentary rock = ________ Limestone is made from _________________ or from dissolved __________ that settle out of seawater. Sedimentary rock limestone Shells of tiny sea animals minerals

51 Igneous Rock __________ - forms from magma – molten rock inside of the earth that cools and hardens Some igneous rock forms ______________ and is only exposed after rocks above have worn away Other igneous rocks form when _____ cools at the Earth’s surface When lava cools fast - _______________ When lava cools slowly - _______________ Igneous rock Below Earth’s surface lava Fine-ground rocks form Coarse-grained rock

52 Metamorphic Rock _____________ - forms when heat, pressure, or chemical reactions change one type of rock into another type of rock. Metamorphic rock is made from ___________ or _________. Example: ______ is a metamorphic rock made from________ (sedimentary rock) Metamorphic rock Sedimentary rock Igneous rock marble limestone

53 Compare and Contrast How are the three types of rocks similar and different?

54 Clues to the Past Scientists can tell a great deal about Earth’s history by looking at _____. ______________ - scientists look at the layers of sedimentary rock and learn about the relative age of each layer and the minerals found in it. Relative dating allows scientists to place past events in ____________ rocks Relative dating Sequential order

55 Rock Cycle

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