Presentation on theme: "And the GREENHOUSE EFFECT. What is the difference between Climate and Weather? Write down what YOU think about this (are they different? The same?). Give."— Presentation transcript:
and the GREENHOUSE EFFECT
What is the difference between Climate and Weather? Write down what YOU think about this (are they different? The same?). Give a reason for your answer. Then watch the first 50 seconds of this video.this video. Write down something that you did not have in your answer.
WEATHER is the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place in terms of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed (and some other variables).. CLIMATE is a long term average of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed, (etc.) for a particular region on Earth.
Figure 1: Earth’s stratosphere – the layer in which our weather systems occur is only 50 km thick – much less than other layers of the Earth Figure 2: The Layers of the Earth’s atmosphere
Troposphere Lowest layer where all weather occurs. This layer is heated from below by the surface of the Earth as it absorbs sunlight and emits infrared radiation. Stratosphere Above the troposphere. Ozone within the stratosphere absorbs incoming ultraviolet rays from the sun. Mesosphere Located above the stratosphere. The coldest parts of our atmosphere are located in this layer and can reach –90°C Thermosphere Extremely low density. This layer absorbs some very high energy radiation from the sun and can heat up to 1,500°C or higher.
* Climate and weather A. are the same thing. B. are similar in that they both deal with atmospheric conditions. C. differ in the time frame used to define them. D. both B and D. E. are not related to each other at all.
* What is the correct order of Earth's atmospheric layers from bottom to top? A. Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Troposphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. B. Stratosphere, Troposphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. C. Stratosphere, Troposphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Exosphere. D. Troposphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. E. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere.
* In which layers does the temperature decrease as you move higher? A. Troposphere, Stratosphere B. Mesosphere, Stratosphere C. Stratosphere, Thermosphere D. Thermosphere, Stratosphere E. Troposphere, Mesosphere
What type(s) of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by the Earth's ozone layer? A. Infrared light. B. Microwaves. C. Radio waves. D. Ultraviolet light. E. Visible light.
Idea from Miami Museum of Science & IGLO Toolkit
* This is how the sun’s energy gets to the Earth * Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves. * Solar radiation consists of approximately: -43% visible light -49% near-infrared -7% ultraviolet -<1% x-rays, gamma waves, and radio waves.
Energy from the sun reaches the Earth by A. Conduction B. Convection C. Radiation D. both Convection and Radiation E. A, B and C.
The sun’s radiation that hits the Earth’s atmosphere is A. In the form of short wave radiation. B. reflected off the clouds back out to space. C. absorbed by the Earth’s surface. D. Re-emitted by the Earth as long-wave radiation. E. All of the above.
GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG) are (mostly) naturally occurring gases that allow visible and UV radiation from the sun to pass through them, but absorb some of the IR radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface. The GHGs then re-emit this energy in all directions; some goes back to the Earth’s surface. Because these gases are able to trap thermal energy as does the glass of a greenhouse, they are called greenhouse gases. Since the Industrial Revolution, the atmospheric concentration all major greenhouse gases have increased – most noticeably – carbon dioxide.
Greenhouse GasGWP*Notes Water vapour (H 2 0) -- Not assigned a value – concentrations not significantly influenced by human activity Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 1 Prior to the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric CO 2 concentration was 280 ppm. Currently it is >394 ppm. Methane (CH 4 ) 23 Concentrations have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution. Nitrous Oxide (N 2 0) 298 Source of increases are agricultural fertilization & animal feed production as well as from industry. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) ~3000 Totally human-made. Since the Montreal Protocol was enacted on 1 Jan 1989, concentrations of CFC’s have declined. *Global Warming Potential (GWP) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007)
* VENUS is too HOT (all water would evaporate) * MARS is too COLD (with an atmospheric pressure too LOW to allow atmosphere to contain much water vapour) – but land rover Curiosity is going to find out more! * EARTH is just RIGHT having enough water vapour and other GHG to raise Earth’s temperature enough to allow for life. Water vapour makes up about 65% of all of the GHG. Without this, the Earth’s average temperature would be -18 o C. Dr. Ruddiman summarizes the Natural Greenhouse Effect
* Which greenhouse gas is represented by the X in the diagram below? A. Water B. Carbon Dioxide C. Methane D. Nitrous Oxide E. CFC’s X 65% Y 25% Z 10%
* Which gas contributes most to the current increase in the Greenhouse Effect? A. Water B. Carbon Dioxide C. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFC’s) D. Nitrous oxide E. methane
* What would the average temperature of the Earth be without the Greenhouse Effect? A. -40 o C B. -35 o C C. -18 o C D. 0 o C E. 10 o C
* Measurements of CO 2 in bubbles trapped in ice cores as well as ratios of isotopes of oxygen and of hydrogen give us information the ancient atmosphere and global temperatures. * This is similar to the indirect measurements that have let us understand atoms. * CO 2 concentrations have been increasing dramatically since the Industrial Revolution – largely due to the burning of fossil fuels. Other spikes occurred in the 1950’s (think number of cars!)
ENVIRONMENT Published: December 21, 2010
* Albedo: “reflectiveness” of a surface surfaces with a high albedo reflect more incoming solar radiation snow, glaciers, and ice have high albedos surfaces with a high albedo absorb less thermal energy Check out the following interactive to see the importance of albedo on climate. Earth's Albedo and Solar Radiation
* An Albedo Demonstration has been set up, and has been running since the beginning of the period. * Record your observations on the handout your teacher has given you.
* Which of the following greenhouse gases has contributed the most to Climate Change since the Industrial Revolution in the 1800’s? A. Water vapour B. Methane C. CFC’s D. Carbon dioxide E. Nitrous oxide
Which of the following has the lowest albedo? A. Clouds B. Glaciers C. Forests D. Oceans E. Cities
* Which of the following statements about albedo and its effect on global climate is true A. As the snow and polar icecaps grow, a decrease in albedo will result and more solar energy will be reflected from the ice. B. As the snow and the polar icecaps melt, a decrease in albedo will result from the oceans reflecting more solar energy. C. As snow and polar icecaps melt, a decrease in albedo will result in the oceans absorbing more solar energy. D. As the snow and polar icecaps grow, an increase in albedo will result in the ice absorbing more radiation. E. As the snow and polar icecaps melt, there will be no effect on albedo.