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Presentation on theme: "and the GREENHOUSE EFFECT"— Presentation transcript:

Earth’s Energy Budget and the GREENHOUSE EFFECT

2 What is the difference between Climate and Weather?
Write down what YOU think about this (are they different? The same?) . Give a reason for your answer. Then watch the first 50 seconds of this video. Write down something that you did not have in your answer. Click on “this video” to access the hot link to Climate Change: Lines of Evidence, Chapter 1 at Climate vs Weather

3 WEATHER is the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place in terms of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed (and some other variables).. CLIMATE is a long term average of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed, (etc.) for a particular region on Earth. Climate vs Weather

4 Earth’s Atmosphere
Figure 1: Earth’s stratosphere – the layer in which our weather systems occur is only 50 km thick – much less than other layers of the Earth You can use the following website as an excellent source of info: Compared to the diameter of planet Earth, our Atmosphere is very thin. Show this with Figure 1. The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth is the Troposphere, followed by the Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere. Click on the title “Earth’s Atmosphere” to view the interactive activity from Earthguide ( The various layers of these show particular patterns that are seen in our atmosphere. Have students copy these patterns on to their Atmosphere Layers handout. Close each segment before moving on to the next one so the visual does not become cluttered. Recommend order: Layer Names, Distances, Temperature, Composition (just show where Ozone layer is found), then Everyday Things. Additional information can be found at: To get back to this PowerPoint, click on the toolbar along the bottom of your screen. Earth’s Atmosphere Figure 2: The Layers of the Earth’s atmosphere

5 Troposphere Lowest layer where all weather occurs
Troposphere Lowest layer where all weather occurs. This layer is heated from below by the surface of the Earth as it absorbs sunlight and emits infrared radiation. Stratosphere Above the troposphere. Ozone within the stratosphere absorbs incoming ultraviolet rays from the sun. Mesosphere Located above the stratosphere. The coldest parts of our atmosphere are located in this layer and can reach –90°C Thermosphere Extremely low density. This layer absorbs some very high energy radiation from the sun and can heat up to 1,500°C or higher.

6 Question #1 Climate and weather are the same thing.
are similar in that they both deal with atmospheric conditions. differ in the time frame used to define them. both B and D. are not related to each other at all. Correct answer is D. Question #1

7 What is the correct order of Earth's atmospheric layers from bottom to top?
Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Troposphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. Stratosphere, Troposphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. Stratosphere, Troposphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Exosphere. Troposphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere. Correct Answer: E Clicker questions If you do not have Clickers, you can: -have small boards that students can use whiteboard markers to write their answer number then hold them up (then erase) OR -Put fists in the air, and when you call “Answer”, they hold up the # fingers corresponding to the answer, e.g. A=1 finger, B=2 fingers, etc. Question #2

8 In which layers does the temperature decrease as you move higher?
Troposphere, Stratosphere Mesosphere, Stratosphere Stratosphere, Thermosphere Thermosphere, Stratosphere Troposphere, Mesosphere Correct answer is E. Question #3

9 What type(s) of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed by the Earth's ozone layer?
Infrared light. Microwaves. Radio waves. Ultraviolet light. Visible light. Correct answer: D Question #4

10 What do you notice? Idea from Miami Museum of Science & IGLO Toolkit
This is a class demonstration. Bring a student volunteer to put their hands in the different “gloves” (see below for how to make these). To pique interest in this topic, have some of the students early to class also try this out! You can either purchase the black and the white oven mitts, or make them from felt. Before the activity, make one black mitt and one white mitt. Use a needle and thread to sew two sheets of white felt together into a mitt shape. Cut away excess around the seam. Glue can also be used. The “home made” versions are preferred since the insulating capacity of real oven mitts will reduce the temperature difference felt by the students. What’s Happening? The dark felt is absorbing heat energy and the light felt is bouncing it away. When discussing the colors of polar animals, it is important to note that other factors are at work in their coloration in addition to heat absorption. Some animals are white, which provides camouflage in snow, while others have dark backs and light bellies, which provides camouflage when swimming in the ocean. Activity from “Warm is the New Black” IGLO Toolkit What do you notice? Idea from Miami Museum of Science & IGLO Toolkit

11 In grade 7, students learned about the ways that heat (thermal energy) can be transferred from one place to another or one substance to another. This graphic from The COMET Program shows the three ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Do a quick review to ensure students remember each of these. This lesson will talk about Radiation only. However, heat energy transfer through the atmosphere and in the ocean is by means of convection and conduction (a later lesson). Radiation The source of this material is the COMET® Website at of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), sponsored in part through cooperative agreement(s) with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC). © University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. All Rights Reserved.

12 Solar Radiation This is how the sun’s energy gets to the Earth
Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves. Solar radiation consists of approximately: -43% visible light -49% near-infrared -7% ultraviolet -<1% x-rays, gamma waves, and radio waves. Solar Radiation

13 Solar Radiation & Earth
What happens when Solar Radiation hits Earth's atmosphere The figure summarizes the main things that happen to Solar Radiation when it hits the earth. After going through the diagram, click on the hot link (What happens when Solar Radiation hits earth’s atmosphere) to access the videoclip: Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect at Solar Radiation & Earth Image source: The source of this material is the COMET® Website at of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), sponsored in part through cooperative agreement(s) with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC). © University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. All Rights Reserved.

14 The Earth’s Energy Budget
This diagram is originally from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For Applied classes, you may wish to use the figure on the previous slide (#13) for the students to complete. It can be obtained from then the labels “whited” out. The Earth’s Energy Budget

15 Question #5 Energy from the sun reaches the Earth by Conduction
Convection Radiation both Convection and Radiation A, B and C. Correction answer is C. Question #5

16 Question #6 The sun’s radiation that hits the Earth’s atmosphere is
In the form of short wave radiation. reflected off the clouds back out to space. absorbed by the Earth’s surface. Re-emitted by the Earth as long-wave radiation. All of the above. Correct answer is E. Question #6

17 Greenhouse Gases GREENHOUSE GASES (GHG)
are (mostly) naturally occurring gases that allow visible and UV radiation from the sun to pass through them, but absorb some of the IR radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface. The GHGs then re-emit this energy in all directions; some goes back to the Earth’s surface. Because these gases are able to trap thermal energy as does the glass of a greenhouse, they are called greenhouse gases. Since the Industrial Revolution, the atmospheric concentration all major greenhouse gases have increased – most noticeably – carbon dioxide. The slide contains an overview the key points needed. More detail on the gases is on the next slide. Greenhouse Gases

18 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)
Greenhouse Gas GWP* Notes Water vapour (H20) -- Not assigned a value – concentrations not significantly influenced by human activity Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1 Prior to the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentration was 280 ppm. Currently it is >394 ppm. Methane (CH4) 23 Concentrations have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution. Nitrous Oxide (N20) 298 Source of increases are agricultural fertilization & animal feed production as well as from industry. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) ~3000 Totally human-made. Since the Montreal Protocol was enacted on 1 Jan 1989, concentrations of CFC’s have declined. This table summarizes the greenhouse gases. Global Warming Potential (GWP) allows for comparison of the heat-trapping ability of the different Greenhouse Gases (GHG) compared to Carbon Dioxide. The underlined title GHG & Greenhouse Effect is a hot link to Greenhouse Gases (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab (September 7, 2007)Greenhouse Gases: Effect on Global Warming. It is a short (43 s) clip. There is no sound to this videoclip. ): The Montreal Protocol, enacted 1 January 1989, was in response to the appearance of holes in the ozone layer (which blocks UV radiation from reaching earth) as a result of the CFC’s that were common in cleaners, foaming agents and used as refrigerants. The signatories of the Montreal Protocol committed to eliminate CFC’s from all products. Note: the use of CFC’s in aerosols was not a significant source of CFCs and they had largely been replaced in aerosols more than a decade before the Montreal Protocol. For example in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency officially banned the use of CFCs in consumer aerosol products - most had already been CFC-free for several years. *Global Warming Potential (GWP) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007) GHG & Greenhouse Effect

19 Natural Greenhouse Effect
VENUS is too HOT (all water would evaporate) MARS is too COLD (with an atmospheric pressure too LOW to allow atmosphere to contain much water vapour) – but land rover Curiosity is going to find out more! EARTH is just RIGHT having enough water vapour and other GHG to raise Earth’s temperature enough to allow for life. Water vapour makes up about 65% of all of the GHG. Without this, the Earth’s average temperature would be -18oC. Dr. Ruddiman summarizes the Natural Greenhouse Effect The link is to a Quicktime videoclip (about 1 minute) which can also be downloaded onto your own computer. Natural Greenhouse Effect

20 Which greenhouse gas is represented by the X in the diagram below?
Water Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide CFC’s Y 25% X 65% Z 10% Correct Answer is A. Question #7

21 Which gas contributes most to the current increase in the Greenhouse Effect?
Water Carbon Dioxide Chlorofluorcarbons (CFC’s) Nitrous oxide methane Correct answer is B. Question #8

22 What would the average temperature of the Earth be without the Greenhouse Effect?
-40 oC -35 oC -18 oC 0 oC 10oC Correct answer is C. Question #9

23 Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Measurements of CO2 in bubbles trapped in ice cores as well as ratios of isotopes of oxygen and of hydrogen give us information the ancient atmosphere and global temperatures. This is similar to the indirect measurements that have let us understand atoms. CO2 concentrations have been increasing dramatically since the Industrial Revolution – largely due to the burning of fossil fuels. Other spikes occurred in the 1950’s (think number of cars!) After reviewing the slide, click on the underlined title “Enhanced Greenhouse Effect” to go to Climate Change: Lines of Evidence, Chapter 4 – Increased Emissions. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

24 ENVIRONMENT Published: December 21, 2010
The Keeling Curve

25 Albedo Albedo: “reflectiveness” of a surface
surfaces with a high albedo reflect more incoming solar radiation snow, glaciers, and ice have high albedos surfaces with a high albedo absorb less thermal energy Check out the following interactive to see the importance of albedo on climate. Earth's Albedo and Solar Radiation The Interactive – hotlinked to the underlined “Earth’s Albedo and Solar Radiation” is found in the Teachers’ Domain pages. You will probably need to register for these pages – but they are free – and a great source of other activities too! The activity is from Carleton University (USA) Earthlab, so you may be able to link to it directly. If you have difficulty, the original animations can be found at: with soot: bright white reflects light: But you will need to link to each separately. Albedo

26 An Albedo Demonstration has been set up, and has been running since the beginning of the period.
Record your observations on the handout your teacher has given you. Albedo

27 Which of the following greenhouse gases has contributed the most to Climate Change since the Industrial Revolution in the 1800’s? Water vapour Methane CFC’s Carbon dioxide Nitrous oxide Correct answer is D. Question #10

28 Question #11 Which of the following has the lowest albedo? Clouds
Glaciers Forests Oceans Cities Correct answer is D. Note – because we experience “glare” and reflections from the flat surfaces of water (say when we are on a boat) people often mistakenly think that water surfaces are highly reflective and have a high albedo – this is not the case. The albedo of water (lakes, oceans etc) is typically 70% and higher. Question #11

29 Which of the following statements about albedo and its effect on global climate is true
As the snow and polar icecaps grow, a decrease in albedo will result and more solar energy will be reflected from the ice. As the snow and the polar icecaps melt, a decrease in albedo will result from the oceans reflecting more solar energy. As snow and polar icecaps melt, a decrease in albedo will result in the oceans absorbing more solar energy. As the snow and polar icecaps grow, an increase in albedo will result in the ice absorbing more radiation. As the snow and polar icecaps melt, there will be no effect on albedo. Correct answer is C. Question #12

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