Presentation on theme: "Earth History GEOL 2110 Lecture 10"— Presentation transcript:
1Earth History GEOL 2110 Lecture 10 Origin and Early Evolution of the EarthPart 1: Accretion of the Planets
2Major ConceptsThe Earth and the other planets formed from a spinning solar nebula that was graded in composition from heavier elements nearer the sun, thus giving rise the inner rocky planets and the outer icy planetsEarth formed by accretion of increasingly larger particles; moons may have formed by capture of large asteroids or impact of other planetesimalsEarly Earth became strongly heated by gravitational condensation, radioactive heating of short-lived isotopes, and impacting of asteroids; this resulted in partial melting and the differentiation of the iron core from the mantlePartial melting of the earth’s ultramafic mantle created the chemically distinctive crust of mafic and felsic composition
3Early Ideas about the Origin of the Earth Galileo (1564–1642) The Earth is not the center of the universeBuffon (1779) – originally molten planets spalled off the sun by passing cometsLate 1800’s - accretion from a solar nebulaChamberlin & Moulton (1910) – Planetesimal hypothesis – a passing star pulled solar gases away from the sun to make the nebula. The gases and dust gradually accumulated to small planetesimal bodies that then accreted to each other by gravitational attraction to grow to planet size.
4The Solar Nebula Theory VON WEIZSACKER'S NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS (1944)KUIPER'S PROTOPLANET HYPOTHESIS (1951)Spinning nebular cloud of gas and dust flattens, contracts, and heats up at its core. Hydrogen fusion lights the sun. Thermonuclear energy creates eddies in the gas cloud which starts the accretion process ultimately leading to formation of protoplanets.
5Early Planetary Differentiation Large Protoplanet Stage Differentiated Planet
6The Revised Solar Nebula Theory In the thermal gradient of the solar nebula, different elemental compounds would have condensed at different temperatures. This explains the compositional progression of the planets from the heavy element-rich inner planets and light element-rich outer ones
8The Planets FuN FaCtS Density Rotation Revolution Tilt Temperature Kg/m per Earth Day Earth Days degrees KMercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter , Saturn , Uranus , Neptune ,
9The Inner Terrestrial Planets Atmosphere Tectonics? CoreMercury none No, heavily cratered Fe core 70vol%Venus % CO Volcanism Only Earth-likeEarth N, O2, H20, CO2 You betcha liquid and solid FeMars Thin CO2 Used to Solid Fe
10The MoonNo AtmosphereNo Core – bulk composition similar to Earth’s mantle – HmmmHighlands ( Ma) – cratered pulverized anorthositeMare ( Ma) - less cratered, flood basasts formed by melting due to meteor impact
11Asteroids and CometsAsteroids are essentially chunks of rock that measure in size from a few feet to several miles in diameter. The largest asteroid, Ceres, is about 590 miles (950 kilometers) wide. Like most asteroids, it lies in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Many astronomers believe the belt is primordial material that never glommed into a planet because of Jupiter's gravitational pull. Other astronomers say the belt is a planet that was broken apart during a collision.Comets are balls of rock and ice that grow tails as they approach the sun in the course of their highly elliptical orbits. As comets heat up, gas and dust are expelled and trail behind them. The sun illuminates this trail, causing it to glow. Short-period comets come from the Kuiper belt out beyond the orbit of Neptune and pass through the inner solar system once or twice in a human lifetime. Long-period comets come from the Oort Cloud, which rings the outer reaches of the solar system, and pass near the sun once every hundreds or thousands of years.
12Earth The Goldilocks Planet Average whole Earth density – 5.5 g/cm3 Average crustal density – 2.8 g/cm3