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The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is = 6561 times greater times greater 3. equally strong 4. 1/81 as great 5. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great Q12.1

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The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is = 6561 times greater times greater 3. equally strong 4. 1/81 as great 5. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great A12.1

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The planet Saturn has 100 times the mass of the Earth and is 10 times more distant from the Sun than the Earth is. Compared to the Earth’s acceleration as it orbits the Sun, the acceleration of Saturn as it orbits the Sun is times greater times greater 3. the same 4. 1/10 as great 5. 1/100 as great Q12.2

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The planet Saturn has 100 times the mass of the Earth and is 10 times more distant from the Sun than the Earth is. Compared to the Earth’s acceleration as it orbits the Sun, the acceleration of Saturn as it orbits the Sun is times greater times greater 3. the same 4. 1/10 as great 5. 1/100 as great A12.2

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Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the Earth, Planet X has 1. 4 times the surface gravity 2. twice the surface gravity 3. the same surface gravity 4. 1/2 as much surface gravity 5. 1/4 as much surface gravity Q12.3

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Compared to the Earth, Planet X has twice the mass and twice the radius. This means that compared to the Earth, Planet X has 1. 4 times the surface gravity 2. twice the surface gravity 3. the same surface gravity 4. 1/2 as much surface gravity 5. 1/4 as much surface gravity A12.3

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A satellite is moving around the Earth in a circular orbit. Over the course of an orbit, the Earth’s gravitational force 1. does positive work on the satellite 2. does negative work on the satellite 3. does positive work on the satellite during part of the orbit and negative work on the satellite during the other part 4. does zero work on the satellite at all points in the orbit Q12.4

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A satellite is moving around the Earth in a circular orbit. Over the course of an orbit, the Earth’s gravitational force 1. does positive work on the satellite 2. does negative work on the satellite 3. does positive work on the satellite during part of the orbit and negative work on the satellite during the other part 4. does zero work on the satellite at all points in the orbit A12.4

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A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the Sun’s gravitational force 1. does positive work on the planet 2. does negative work on the planet 3. does positive work on the planet during part of the motion from aphelion to perihelion and negative work on the planet during the other part 4. does zero work on the planet at all points between aphelion and perihelion Q12.5

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A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves from aphelion to perihelion, the Sun’s gravitational force 1. does positive work on the planet 2. does negative work on the planet 3. does positive work on the planet during part of the motion from aphelion to perihelion and negative work on the planet during the other part 4. does zero work on the planet at all points between aphelion and perihelion A12.5

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A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves around the orbit, the planet’s angular momentum 1. increases as it moves from aphelion to perihelion and decreases as it moves from perihelion to aphelion 2. decreases as it moves from aphelion to perihelion and increases as it moves from perihelion to aphelion 3. increases at all times 4. decreases at all times 5. remains the same at all times Q12.6

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A planet (P) is moving around the Sun (S) in an elliptical orbit. As the planet moves around the orbit, the planet’s angular momentum 1. increases as it moves from aphelion to perihelion and decreases as it moves from perihelion to aphelion 2. decreases as it moves from aphelion to perihelion and increases as it moves from perihelion to aphelion 3. increases at all times 4. decreases at all times 5. remains the same at all times A12.6

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