5Oceans contain 97% of Earth’s water Water cycle constantly transfers the world’s water between three basic storage reservoirs.Oceans contain 97% of Earth’s waterOf the 3% of the Earth’s freshwater:2.15% is locked away in glaciers and ice sheets0.62% is groundwater, stored as soil moisture0.009% is in rivers and lakes0.001% is in the atmosphere
6Amazingly, the whole shebang of water in lakes & rivers, water in rain & snow, water in our bathtub, shower, and drink bottles, amounts to only about 1% of the water in the world.
8The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle p. 442Ocean to Atmosphere84% vapor from oceans; 16% from continentsAtmosphere to SurfaceVapor cools, condenses & precipitates out in a week, or few hours or few centuries; depends.77% precipitation falls on the oceansSurface to Ocean23% of precipitation in water cycle meets our needs via “surface water” and “ground water.”
9Major steps in the water cycle: Ocean to AtmosphereAtmosphere to SurfaceSurface to Ocean
10How do the different types of precipitation form? Rain--Vapor condenses around aerosols and falls from sky.
11How do the different types of precipitation form? Snow—ice crystals that assemble themselves as they fall through a cloud
12How do the different types of precipitation form? Hail--large frozen rain formed in a giant cloud of an intense thunderstorm.
13How do the different types of precipitation form? Sleet--falling snow may partially melt and then refreeze into a frozen raindrop.
17Explaining ocean motion: p. 441 Great currents move the ocean, distributing heat and regulating climate across Earth.General schemeWarm equatorial water swirls pole-ward and circulates in vast ocean areas.Cool water moves around the poles and flows toward equator as continents allow passage.
20Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earth p. 452 Trade Winds: easterlies at equatorIn the tropics, winds prevail from E to W.Air warmed new equator travels pole-ward but gradually cools and sinks. Earth’s rotation deflects surface winds
21Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earth p. 452 Polar Easterlies:In the polar regions, cold dense air sinks and moves away from poles.Earth’s rotation deflects surface wind from East to West.
22Atmospheric Convection on the Rotating Earth p. 452 WesterliesNear 30o N & S latitude, Earth’s rotation moves air from West to East, as warm air moves to poles.
26RocksIgneous = formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma (melted rock)Sedimentary = formed from accumulation of weathered material (sediments)Metamorphic = formed from preexisting rocks that have been transformed (changed)
27Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic ü Each type of rock records a different complex past.ü Each type of rock can be changed from one form to another and back again. geologists call these transformations the “rock cycle”