16 Two Types of SystemsClosed System: Energy may enter and leave, but matter does not. (examples?)Open System: System and its surroundings freely exchange both matter and energy. (examples?)What is the Earth? Take time to fill out your Venn Diagram and answer this Q.
40 A Cycle is a series of steps that repeats. Cycles and the EarthA Cycle is a series of steps that repeats.Some cycles (water cycle) repeat over relatively short periods of time, while others repeat over millions of years (tectonic cycle).On Earth, the water cycle, energy cycle, carbon cycle, tectonic cycle and rock cycle “work” together to maintain a dynamic planet.
41 Cloud diagram.Each group will make a poster showing the TEN different cloud types.Should include a picture (using color) of the cloud, the height the clouds form, and the type of weather involved.Be neat! Be creative!Sloppy work = reduced grade.
42 The Carbon CycleBiogeochemical cycle- compound is changed and moved throughout the Earth’s spheresCarbon is commonly called the “building block of life”Carbon is not just a solid- it forms gases such as CO2 and Methane
44 Carbon Into the Atmosphere Living things breathe it outCarbon based things (i.e. trees) burnDiffuses out of oceansVolcanoes erupt– Number 1 source of CO2 into the atmosphere
45 Carbon From the Atmosphere Oceans dissolve 40% of CO2 in the atmosphere from fossil fuelsWave action dissolves CO2 into oceanPhotosynthesis- plants breathe it in, and breathe out oxygen (phytoplankton do this in ocean water)
46 Other ways CO2 is shared… Carbon stored in plants is passed on to another organism when eaten (food chain)Organisms die and decomposition puts carbon into the ground creating fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.)
47 The Energy Cycle (Energy Budget) Water and carbon Cycles are like wheelsEnergy Cycle is like a balanceEnergy that comes in must equal the energy that comes out
48 What would happen if the Earth’s energy budget was not balanced?
49 Scenario #1Too much energy enters the Earth system and not enough leaves…
50 Scenario #2Too much energy leaves the Earth system and not enough enters…
51 Sources of Earth’s Energy Solar energy %Geothermal energy %Tidal energy %
52 Solar Energy Comes from nuclear fusion reactions in the sun Drives wind, ocean currents, wavesSource of energy that causes rocks to weather forming soil
53 Geothermal EnergyComes from the Earth as radioactive materials decomposeDrives the movement of the continents, powers geysers, earthquakes, and volcanoes
54 Tidal Energy The result of the pull of the moon on the Earth’s oceans Slows down Earth’s rotation and causes the oceans to bulge
56 Energy Budget (Cycle)about 40% is reflected back into space without being changedthe remaining energy is used within the Earth systemas it moves through the system, it is changed. With every change, a little is lost to the system.
57 The Effects of Earth’s Surface Albedo is the percentage of energy that is reflected back into space without being changedEarth’s average albedo: 30%Forest has low albedo: 5-10%Desert has high albedo: 50%Fresh snow: 80-90%
59 Humans can alter the albedo of an area, which affects the Earth’s energy budget We can burn fossil fuels which puts CO2 in the air, or plant trees, which takes CO2 out of the airDamming a river lengthens the amount of time it takes water to go through the water cycle
60 Why Study Earth Science? Resources, EconomicsHazardsHuman sustainabilityEngineeringMilitaryPure Science and Understanding
61 “Earth Science informs all other sciences” The Earth SciencesAstronomyOceanographyGeologyPhysicsBiologyMeteorologyHydrologyChemistry
62 And, finally, simply to understand the nature of our own back yard.