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Building Earth’s Surface

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Presentation on theme: "Building Earth’s Surface"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Earth’s Surface
PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 9e Chapter 19 Building Earth’s Surface Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Core Concept The surface of Earth is involved in plate tectonic processes that result in an ongoing building-up of the surface.

3 Interpreting Earth’s Surface
Principle of uniformity “The present is the key to the past.” Rocks are changed today by the same processes that changed them in the past. Replaced catastrophic models of previous thinkers Catastrophic events contribute nonetheless Volcanoes, earthquakes, meteorite impacts, …

4 Diastrophism The process of deformation that changes the Earth’s surface Produces structures such as plateaus, mountains and folds in the crust Related to vulcanism (the movement of magma) and earthquakes Basic working theory is plate tectonics

5 Stress and Strain Stress Strain
Force tending to compress, pull apart or deform a rock Three stress forces Compressive stress Plates moving together Tensional stress Plates moving apart Shear stress Plates sliding past each other Strain Adjustment to stress Three strain types Elastic strain Returns to original shape Plastic strain Molded or bent Do not return to original shape Fracture strain Rock cracks or breaks

6 Stress and Deformation
Possible material responses to stress No change Elastic change with recovery Plastic change with no recovery Breaking from the pressure Rock variables Nature of the rock Temperature of the rock Speed of stress application Confining pressure Interplay produces observed rock structures

7 Folding Sedimentary rocks Folds Originate from flat sediment deposits
Layers usually horizontal Folds Bends in layered bedrock Result of stress produced plastic strain Widespread horizontal stress can produce domes and basins Anticline: arch-shaped structure Syncline: trough-shaped

8 Folding Folds Bends in layered bedrock
Result of stress produced plastic strain Widespread horizontal stress can produce domes and basins Anticline: arch-shaped structure Syncline: trough-shaped

9 Faulting Fault Produced by relative movement on opposite sides of a crack Footwall: mass of rock below the fault Hanging wall: mass of rock above the fault Fault plane: surface between the footwall and hanging wall

10 Classes of Faults Normal fault
Hanging wall has moved down relative to the footwall Related features Graben Block surrounded by normal faults drops down Horst Block surrounded by normal faults is uplifted

11 Other Faults Reverse fault Thrust fault
Hanging wall moved upward relative to footwall Result of horizontal compressive stress Thrust fault Reverse fault with a low-angle fault plane Faults provide information on the stresses producing the formation

12 Earthquakes Quaking, shaking, vibrating or upheaval of the ground
Result from sudden release of energy from stress on rocks Vibrations are seismic waves Most occur along fault planes when one side is displaced with respect to the other

13 Causes of Earthquakes Elastic rebound theory
Two plates press tightly together Friction restricts motion Stress builds until friction or rock rupture strength is overcome Stressed rock snaps suddenly into new position

14 Locating and Measuring Earthquakes
Focus Actual origin of seismic waves Epicenter Location on Earth’s surface directly above the focus Seismograph Instrument used to detect and measure earthquakes Detects three kinds of waves P-wave (longitudinal) S-wave (transverse) Surface wave (up and down)

15 Seismic Data P-waves travel faster than S-waves
Difference in arrival times correlates to distance from earthquake Triangulation used to pinpoint epicenter and focus

16 Classification of Earthquakes
Based upon depth of focus Shallow-focus earthquakes Down to 70 km deep 85% of all earthquakes (surface rocks more brittle; more plate friction near surface) Intermediate-focus earthquakes 70 to 300 km deep Upper part of the mantle Deep-focus earthquakes 350 to 700 km deep Lower part of upper mantle About 3% of all earthquakes

17 Measuring Earthquake Strength
Effects: structural damage to buildings, fires, landslides, displacement of land surfaces, tsunami (tidal wave) Mercalli scale Relative intensity I (not felt) to XII (total destruction with visible ground waves)

18 Measuring Earthquake Strength
Richter scale Based on swings in seismograph recordings Logarithmic scale 3 (not felt); 9 (largest measured so far)

19 Earthquake Safety During the Shaking Don’t panic
If indoors, stay there. Stay away from glass. Do not use any other flames. If outside, move away from buildings. Stay in open. If in car, bring to a stop as soon as possible but stay in car. After the Shaking Check but do not turn on utilities. Turn on radio or TV. Stay off telephone unless to report emergency. Stay out of damaged buildings. Don’t go sightseeing.

20 Origin of Mountains Mountains
Elevated parts of Earth’s crust rising abruptly above the surrounding surface Created by folding and faulting of crust Three basic origins Folding Faulting Volcanic activity

21 Folded and Faulted Mountains
Domed mountains Begin as a broad arching fold Overlying sedimentary rocks weather away, leaving more resistant granite peaks

22 Folded and Faulted Mountains
Fault block mountains Rise sharply along steeply inclined fault planes Weathering erodes sharp edges

23 Volcanic Mountains Volcano
A hill or mountain formed by the extrusions of lava or rock fragments from magma below Structure: vent, crater, lava flow

24 Types of Volcanoes Shield volcano Cinder cone volcano
Constructed of solidified lava flows Broad, gently sloping cones Cinder cone volcano Constructed of rock fragments (cinders) Steeper and smaller than shield volcanoes Composite volcano Alternating layers of cinders, ash and lava flows with volcanic mud

25 Other Features Most magma remains underground
Cools and solidifies to form intrusive rocks Batholith Large amount of crystalized magma Stock: small protrusion from a batholith Batholith intrusions can cause hogbacks Related processes: dikes, sills, laccoliths,…

26 Overall Picture Mountain ranges are composites of many different processes, each uniquely structured Folding Faulting Volcanic activity Especially apparent along converging plate boundaries

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