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The Earth and Beyond. Contents The Solar System The Solar System Stars Stars Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe.

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Presentation on theme: "The Earth and Beyond. Contents The Solar System The Solar System Stars Stars Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Earth and Beyond

2 Contents The Solar System The Solar System Stars Stars Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe Comets Comets Life Cycle of Stars Life Cycle of Stars Red-Shift Red-Shift History of the Universe History of the Universe Future of the Universe Future of the Universe SETI SETI

3 The Solar System My Very Efficient Mind Just Stores Up Nine Planets

4 Stars Stars are burning balls of gas e.g. our Sun Stars are burning balls of gas e.g. our Sun Stars give out light Stars give out light This light reflects off planets so we can see them This light reflects off planets so we can see them Planets are much smaller than stars Planets are much smaller than stars … but they seem much bigger as they are much closer The 9 planets orbit the sun, Earth orbits the Sun once a year The 9 planets orbit the sun, Earth orbits the Sun once a year

5 Stars Stars are burning balls of gas e.g. our Sun Stars are burning balls of gas e.g. our Sun Stars give out light Stars give out light This light reflects off planets so we can see them This light reflects off planets so we can see them Planets are much smaller than stars Planets are much smaller than stars … but they seem much bigger as they are much closer The 9 planets orbit the sun, Earth orbits the Sun once a year The 9 planets orbit the sun, Earth orbits the Sun once a year

6 Solar Systems, Galaxies & the Universe Our Sun is one of millions of stars that orbit the centre of the Universe The Milky Way is one of more than a billion galaxies in the Universe The Universe is expanding

7 Comets Comets appear every few years Comets appear every few years Comets have highly elliptical orbits around the Sun Comets have highly elliptical orbits around the Sun Comets are visible when they are close to the Sun Comets are visible when they are close to the Sun A comet’s orbit is fastest near the Sun due to the Sun’s gravity. It slows as it moves further away from the Sun A comet’s orbit is fastest near the Sun due to the Sun’s gravity. It slows as it moves further away from the Sun Tail is made of ice and rock Tail is pushed away from sun by solar pressure

8 Life Cycle of Stars clouds of dust & gas H  He heat & light ejected  star H runs out  swells red = cooler explode  supernova Layers of dust & gas are ejected cools and contracts dense core = neutron star or black hole (crushes atoms!)

9 Red-Shift Light from distant galaxies is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum Light from distant galaxies is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum Frequencies become lower as they move away (like the Doppler Effect for sound) Frequencies become lower as they move away (like the Doppler Effect for sound) Further away = greater red-shift Further away = greater red-shift Universe is expanding Universe is expanding Also evidence from microwave Also evidence from microwave radiation (background radiation) that Universe is cooling

10 History of the Universe 1. Steady State Theory 1. Steady State Theory Universe has always existed… Universe has always existed… and Universe will always exist and Universe will always exist No convincing evidence No convincing evidence Not much support for the Steady State Theory Not much support for the Steady State Theory

11 History of the Universe 2. Big Bang Theory 2. Big Bang Theory Universe was compressed and exploded – Big Bang Universe was compressed and exploded – Big Bang Occurred 15 billion years ago Occurred 15 billion years ago Estimated by current rate of expansion Estimated by current rate of expansion Expansion is slowing due to gravity Expansion is slowing due to gravity

12 Future of the Universe According to the Big Bang Theory… 1. Expand Forever 1. Expand Forever If too little mass for gravity to stop expansion… If too little mass for gravity to stop expansion… Universe will expand and spread out into eternity Universe will expand and spread out into eternity 2. Big Crunch 2. Big Crunch If enough mass to stop expansion, universe will contract If enough mass to stop expansion, universe will contract Big Crunch! Big Crunch! Big Crunch would produce another Big Bang… and so on! Big Crunch would produce another Big Bang… and so on!

13 SETI Scientists search for extra terrestrial intelligence Radio Signals Radio Signals SETI looks for radio wavelength signals being sent to Earth SETI looks for radio wavelength signals being sent to Earth These signals can only be sent by a transmitter These signals can only be sent by a transmitter SETI has been running for 40 years… not found anything SETI has been running for 40 years… not found anything Now searching for laser signals too! Now searching for laser signals too! Robots Collect Photos and Samples Robots Collect Photos and Samples Spacecraft are sent to planets to look for microorganisms Spacecraft are sent to planets to look for microorganisms Collect samples and take photos Collect samples and take photos Scientists analyse samples and look for fossils etc. Scientists analyse samples and look for fossils etc.

14 Summary Solar system – 9 planets & 1 star Solar system – 9 planets & 1 star Stars emit light, planets reflect this light Stars emit light, planets reflect this light Solar systems are in galaxies which are in the Universe Solar systems are in galaxies which are in the Universe Comets (rock and ice) have long elliptical orbits around Sun Comets (rock and ice) have long elliptical orbits around Sun Life cycle of stars – differs for massive & small stars Life cycle of stars – differs for massive & small stars Red-shift – evidence for fast expansion of galaxies Red-shift – evidence for fast expansion of galaxies History of the Universe – Big Bang or Steady State History of the Universe – Big Bang or Steady State Future of the Universe – Big Crunch or Eternal Expansion Future of the Universe – Big Crunch or Eternal Expansion SETI – Radio signals, laser signals, collect photos & samples SETI – Radio signals, laser signals, collect photos & samples


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