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Geologic Time Scale. Scientific Method Raise question Gather data.

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Presentation on theme: "Geologic Time Scale. Scientific Method Raise question Gather data."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geologic Time Scale

2 Scientific Method Raise question Gather data

3 Scientific Method Raise question Gather data Form hypothesis Test and modify hypothesis

4 Peer-Reviewed Journals

5 Science “Magazines”

6 Scientific Method Scientific Theory Scientific Law “Le château des Pyrénées” (Castle in the Pyrenees) (1961)

7

8 “Stuff” of the Universe The Raw Materials for Planets, Rocks and Life

9 Matter & Energy

10 Phases of Matter Solid Gas Liquid Determined by temperature and pressure

11

12 Rock

13 Atomic Particles Atoms (Elements) Compounds (Minerals, Organic Compounds) Rocks Earth Living Things Biosphere

14 Atomic Structure What are atoms made of? ParticleCharge Weight (amu) Proton (p) +1 Electron (e) -~0 Neutron (n) 01

15 Atomic Structure

16 Atomic Number = Number of Protons Importance of Protons

17 Elements Iron Carbon Gold

18 Periodic Table of the Elements

19 The most abundant element in the universe: Hydrogen Large Magellanic Cloud

20 Crust Whole Earth Oxygen(O)46.3 %29.5% Silicon (Si)28.2%15.2% Aluminum (Al)8.2%1.1% Iron (Fe)5.6%34.6% Calcium (Ca)4.1%1.1% Sodium (Na)2.4%0.6% Potassium (K)2.1%0.1% Magnesium (Mg)2.3%12.7% All others0.5%5.1% Abundance of the Elements (wt. %): Solid Earth

21 Abundance of the Elements (wt.%): Living Things Human AlfalfaBacteria Oxygen(O)62.8%77.9%73.7% Carbon (C)19.4%11.3%12.1% Hydrogen (H)9.3%8.7%9.9% Nitrogen (N)5.1%0.8%3.0% Phosphorous (P)0.6%0.7%0.6% Sulfur (S)0.6%0.1%0.3%

22 Atomic Weight = number of protons + neutrons Importance of Neutrons

23 Quiz - Lithium Atomic Number = Atomic Weight = 3 7

24 Isotopes

25 Importance of Electrons Atoms vs. Ions (atomic weight = 23) Charge = 0 X

26 Importance of Electrons Positive Ions (atomic weight = 23) Charge = +1 Sodium Ion 10e

27 Importance of Electrons Ions (atomic weight = 18) Charge = 0 Chlorine 9e 9p 9n (atomic number = 9)

28 Importance of Electrons Negative Ions (atomic weight = 18) Charge = -1 Chlorine Ion 10e 9p 9n (atomic number = 9)

29 Atomic Particles Atoms (Elements) Compounds (Minerals, Organic Compounds) Rocks Earth Living Things Biosphere

30 Determine how atoms bond to form Compounds Importance of Electrons

31 Carbon is found in all organic compounds Organic Compounds

32 Minerals - Inorganic Compounds

33 Minerals and Crystalline Structure

34 Graphite

35 Atomic Particles Atoms (Elements) Compounds (Minerals, Organic Compounds) Rocks Earth Living Things Biosphere

36 Energy Types Kinetic Mechanical Electromagnetic Electricity Heat Potential Chemical Sun - Tuesday, April 4, 2006

37 Electromagnetic Spectrum

38 Energy: Quality Low Quality High Quality (disorganized concentrated)

39 Rules of the Universe Conservation of Matter 1st Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation of Energy) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (Degradation of Energy) “You can’t thrown anything away” “You can’t get something for nothing” “In fact, you can’t even break even”

40 Earth: Open or Closed System?

41 Earth: Matter does not come and go Earth is a Closed System to Matter So… matter is constantly recycled on Earth

42 Biogeochemical Cycles: Reservoirs & Pathways Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere

43 Some Major Cycles of Matter Water Cycle Rock Cycle Chemical Cycles Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorous Sulfur

44 Carbon Cycle Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere

45 Carbon Cycle: Reservoirs Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere 1x (= 7.3x10 17 grams carbon) 3x 55x 35,000x

46 Carbon Cycle Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Photosynthesis Respiration& Decay

47 Carbon Transfer: Biosphere Atmosphere Photosynthesis (Atmosphere to Biosphere) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight --> Sugar + Oxygen Respiration (Biosphere to Atmosphere) Sugar + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

48 Carbon Cycle Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Photosynthesis Respiration& Decay Burial & Lithification Weathering & Volcanism Dissolution Photosynthesis Burial & Lithification Exsolution

49 Carbon Cycle Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Human Impacts Burning fossil fuels: Increased combustion Deforestation: Decrease Photosynthesis Increase Respiration Net Effect: Increase in Carbon in Atmosphere

50 Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide northern summer northern winter

51 Impact

52 Earth: Earth constantly gains & loses energy Earth is a Open System to Energy Heat Sunlight

53 Earth: Open or Closed System? Mostly Open to Energy Mostly Closed to Matter


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