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Processes that Shape the Earth

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Presentation on theme: "Processes that Shape the Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Notice: DO NOT Distribute This presentation may contain copyright protected material

2 Processes that Shape the Earth
Joniqua & Jorge

3 Benchmarks SC.D.1.2.2 Student knows that 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water SC.D.1.2.3 Student knows that the water cycle is influenced by temperature, pressure, and topography

4 Grade Level Expectations
Water Bowl Challenge (75% of the Earth’s Surface is covered in water) Grade Level Expectations Students should know that 75 % of the surface of the Earth is covered by water. The students should understands the different stages of the water cycle (for example, evaporation, condensation, precipitation).

5 How Much Do You Know About Water?

6 What are the 3 properties of water and at what temperatures can they form?

7 Where does 97% of the water exist in the world?
Oceans Ice caps & glaciers Lakes, swamps, & rivers Ground water Plants, soil, & trees Humans Ans: Oceans – are saline “salty” water sources that are not potable (drinkable) for human consumption Remaining 3% is potable Ice caps & glaciers = 68.7% (potable) Lakes, swamps, & rivers = 87%, 11%, 2% (potable) Ground water = 30.1% (potable) So that means that most of the water on Earth can not be drunken so we must be conscious about how we use our water. So what does that mean? We need to pay special attention to how much water we use to wash up in, wash our cars, water our lawns, toilet flushes, and etc.?

8 FACT: Earth’s Oceans Oceans cover about 70% of the Earth's surface.
Saline sources of water therefore they are not potable (drinkable) 4 basic movements: Wave- Up and down movement of ocean water Tide – Ocean daily change of water level Storm Surge - large waves that occur during hurricanes. Tsunami – giants waves cause by Earthquakes or Volcanic Eruption However, in order to drink ocean water they must be treated by a process known as desalination which removes the salt from the water

9 Why are the Oceans Movements Important?
ANS: Ocean Movements Shape the Coast Shore – Area where the ocean and coastland meet and interact. Tide Pool – forms along a rocky shore line. Headland – is a rocky point at the shore. Jetty – is a man made wall structure of rocks. Since we live in Florida, and we have the Gulf of Mexico to our West and The Atlantic Ocean to our West and South it is important to know about the oceans movements and how it forms the Florida coast

10 What benefits does the ocean provide to us?
Food (Fish, Crabs, Algae, Shells, etc..) Minerals (Salt, Calcium, Copper, Iron, etc…) Energy All of the above Tidal energy –is generated with the change of tides the movement of oceans current is transform in electricity. Geothermal Energy - Steam used from underground water that boils to move turbines a generates electricity.

11 How long can a person go without water?
3 days 2 days 2 weeks 1 day

12 Human Body and Water Brain is 74% water Muscles are 75% water
Blood is 83% water Bone is 22% water Adults lose nearly two to three quarts (12 cups) of water every day! Water functions in your body: Waste excretion Temperature regulation Cushions joint Lubricates eyes Keeps skin soft and clear

13 Water Cycle Water Cycle Vocabulary Water Conservation

14 (aquifer, lake, ocean, river)
Water cycle A constant recycling process of the water. Precipitation Evaporation Condensation Percolation Transpiration Accumulation (aquifer, lake, ocean, river) Key Terms

15 Water Cycle The sun heats the Earth's surface water which causes it to evaporate.  The water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere where it cools and condenses into liquid droplets.  The droplets combine and grow until they become too heavy and fall to the Earth as precipitation.   Water is temproatily stored in lakes, glaciers, underground or in living organisms.   The water can move from these places by streams and rivers, return to the ocean, is used by plants or animals or can be evaporated directly back into the atmosphere.

16 Water Cycle Vocabulary
Evaporation - liquid water becoming a gas Condensation - water vapor that becomes a liquid Precipitation - water that falls back down to the Earth as rain, snow or hail. Transpiration – sweat from plants Percolation – water moving downward through openings in the soil Surface runoff -water that flows due to a change of ground elevation example ( hill or mountain). Aquifer – natural underground water storage tank

17 Water Technology Facility
Waste Water treatment plant in Miami, Fl (pictures of plants are very sensitive due to 9/11)

18 Waste Water Treatment Process
treatment Upon arrival via the sewer system, the wastewater is sent through a bar screen, which removes large solid objects such as sticks and rags. Leaving the bar screen, the wastewater flow is slowed down entering the grit tank, to allow sand, gravel and other heavy material that was small enough not to be caught by the bar screen to settle to the bottom. All the collected debris from the grit tank and bar screen is disposed of at a sanitary landfill. Primary treatment Primary treatment is the second step in wastewater treatment. It allows for the physical separation of solids and greases from the wastewater. The screened wastewater flows into a primary settling tank where it is held for several hours allowing solid particles to settle to the bottom of the tank and oils and greases to float to the top. Secondary treatment Secondary treatment is a biological treatment process that removes dissolved organic material from wastewater. The partially treated wastewater from the settling tank flows by gravity into an aeration tank. Here it is mixed with solids that contain micro-organisms that use oxygen to consume the remaining organic matter in the wastewater as their food supply. The aeration tank uses air bubbles to provide the mixing and oxygen that are needed for the micro-organisms to multiply. From here, the liquid mixture made up of solids with micro-organisms and water is sent to the final clarifier. Here the solids settle out to the bottom where some of the material is sent to the solids handling process and some is recycled back to replenish the population of micro-organisms in the aeration tank to treat incoming wastewater. Final treatment The wastewater that remains is disinfected to kill harmful micro-organisms before being released into receiving waters. Although there are many methods available to kill these micro-organisms, chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection are the most widely used. Following disinfection, the treated wastewater, now called final effluent, can be returned to the receiving waters from which it came. Solids processing The primary solids from the primary settling tank and the secondary solids from the clarifier are sent to the digester. During this process, micro-organisms use the organic material present in the solids as a food source and convert it to by-products such as methane gas and water. Digestion results in a 90% reduction in pathogens and the production of a wet soil-like material called “biosolids” that contain 95-97% water. In order to remove some of this water, mechanical equipment such as filter presses or centrifuges are used to squeeze water from the biosolids to reduce the volume prior to being sent to landfill, incinerated or beneficially used as a fertilizer or soil amendment.

19 Coagulation The chemicals added react with
Monitor pH during chemical coagulation addition. Stop adding coagulant if pH drops below 6.0. The chemicals added react with Organic compounds (“essential nutrients that cause many things to grow”) Metals Suspended particles That are found in water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc”.

20 Rapid Mixing First, the water arrives from a lake, river, or well and is pumped into rapid mixing tanks. These tanks rapidly mix the chemicals added into the water during coagulation. **High mixing will break apart the “flocs” and the yucky stuff that we were try to remove from the water will remain ** Rapid mixing is extended for short period of time from 5 to 15 minutes

21 Sedimentation A big portion of the impurities are removed and the clear water moves to filtration. The “floc” gets heavier and settles to the bottom of the tank. Flocs are pumped out of the bottom of the tank and sent to the belt press

22 Filtration The water passes through filters, some made of layers of
Sand gravel Charcoal that helps to remove the rest of the impurities.

23 Disinfection Most of the nutrients, metals, and other solids are removed from water: chlorine , ozone (only drinking water), or chloramines is added as a disinfectant. Another alternative is Ultra-violent radiation (known as UV) The disinfectants kill bacteria Viruses DBP’s – disinfectant byproducts which become harmful to humans. This ensures that the discharge water is safe. Chlorine addition is designed to be in the water long enough to continue to kill “bad” microorganisms until water reaches the first client.

24 Where did all of the solid floating stuff go?
It’s thickened using a polymer or chemical addition during the coagulation/flocculation process and pumped out of the sedimentation tank This helps to make it easier to form a solid sheet of slurry Sent to the belt press to be de-watered Becomes “bio-solids” and is used as fertilizers by farmers, sod companies, landscapers, and other people

25 All of Austin’s Sewage Sludge – 1 million gallons per day
99% water This is what the waste at your wastewater treatment plants looks like before it is de-water and after its sent thru the belt press it just simply looks like Dirt or fertilizer

26 Urban Soil Restoration Tool - Compost
The effects of biosolid or “Dillo-Dirt” can be seen here – the greener side is dillo dirt and the dull side is normal fertilizer therefore this tells us that the “treated waste” from the wastewater plant is rich in nutrients for healthier growth of grass Zilker Park Soccer Field – Dillo Dirt test

27 Activities Cycle Puzzle Word Scramble Applets/other
Human body and Water Workbook

28 Activities Model Aquifer Water Cycle Boogie Matching Global Warming
Trivia Facts Global Warming Movie

29 "THE WATER CYCLE BOOGIE" Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Saturation, Percolation, and Store. And the water cycle boogie goes 'round and round, And the water cycle boogie goes up and down. REPEAT twice [or your choice]

30 References
Harcourt Science, 4th grade “The Chameleon cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit D pp Harcourt Science, 5th grade “The Frog cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit C pp Water matching: Water puzzle: Water cycle: ~biol/102/ecosystem.html

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