3BenchmarksSC.D.1.2.2Student knows that 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by waterSC.D.1.2.3Student knows that the water cycle is influenced by temperature, pressure, and topography
4Grade Level Expectations Water Bowl Challenge(75% of the Earth’s Surface is covered in water)Grade Level ExpectationsStudents should know that 75 % of the surface of the Earth is covered by water.The students should understands the different stages of the water cycle (for example, evaporation, condensation, precipitation).
6What are the 3 properties of water and at what temperatures can they form? States of waterSOLIDICE0ºCGASHUMIDITY100ºCLIQUIDRAIN
7Where does 97% of the water exist in the world? OceansIce caps & glaciersLakes, swamps, & riversGround waterPlants, soil, & treesHumansAns:Oceans – are saline “salty” water sources that are not potable (drinkable) for human consumptionRemaining 3% is potableIce caps & glaciers = 68.7% (potable)Lakes, swamps, & rivers = 87%, 11%, 2% (potable)Ground water = 30.1% (potable)So that means that most of the water on Earth can not be drunken so we must be conscious about how we use our water. So what does that mean? We need to pay special attention to how much water we use to wash up in, wash our cars, water our lawns, toilet flushes, and etc.?
8FACT: Earth’s Oceans Oceans cover about 70% of the Earth's surface. Saline sources of water therefore they are not potable (drinkable)4 basic movements:Wave- Up and down movement of ocean waterTide – Ocean daily change of water levelStorm Surge - large waves that occur during hurricanes.Tsunami – giants waves cause by Earthquakes or Volcanic EruptionHowever, in order to drink ocean water they must be treated by a process known as desalination which removes the salt from the water
9Why are the Oceans Movements Important? ANS: Ocean Movements Shape the CoastShore – Area where the ocean and coastland meet and interact.Tide Pool – forms along a rocky shore line.Headland – is a rocky point at the shore.Jetty – is a man made wall structure of rocks.Since we live in Florida, and we have the Gulf of Mexico to our West and The Atlantic Ocean to our West and South it is important to know about the oceans movements and how it forms the Florida coast
10What benefits does the ocean provide to us? Food (Fish, Crabs, Algae, Shells, etc..)Minerals (Salt, Calcium, Copper, Iron, etc…)EnergyAll of the aboveTidal energy –is generated with the change of tides the movement of oceans current is transform in electricity.Geothermal Energy - Steam used from underground water that boils to move turbines a generates electricity.
11How long can a person go without water? 3 days2 days2 weeks1 day
12Human Body and Water Brain is 74% water Muscles are 75% water Blood is 83% waterBone is 22% waterAdults lose nearly two to three quarts (12 cups) of water every day!Water functions in your body:Waste excretionTemperature regulationCushions jointLubricates eyesKeeps skin soft and clear
14(aquifer, lake, ocean, river) Water cycleA constant recycling process of the water.PrecipitationEvaporationCondensationPercolationTranspirationAccumulation(aquifer, lake, ocean, river)Key Terms
15Water CycleThe sun heats the Earth's surface water which causes it to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere where it cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets combine and grow until they become too heavy and fall to the Earth as precipitation. Water is temproatily stored in lakes, glaciers, underground or in living organisms. The water can move from these places by streams and rivers, return to the ocean, is used by plants or animals or can be evaporated directly back into the atmosphere.
16Water Cycle Vocabulary Evaporation - liquid water becoming a gasCondensation - water vapor that becomes a liquidPrecipitation - water that falls back down to the Earth as rain, snow or hail.Transpiration – sweat from plantsPercolation – water moving downward through openings in the soilSurface runoff -water that flows due to a change of ground elevation example ( hill or mountain).Aquifer – natural underground water storage tank
17Water Technology Facility Waste Water treatment plant in Miami, Fl (pictures of plants are very sensitive due to 9/11)
18Waste Water Treatment Process treatment Upon arrival via the sewer system, the wastewater is sent through a bar screen, which removes large solid objects such as sticks and rags. Leaving the bar screen, the wastewater flow is slowed down entering the grit tank, to allow sand, gravel and other heavy material that was small enough not to be caught by the bar screen to settle to the bottom. All the collected debris from the grit tank and bar screen is disposed of at a sanitary landfill.Primary treatment Primary treatment is the second step in wastewater treatment. It allows for the physical separation of solids and greases from the wastewater. The screened wastewater flows into a primary settling tank where it is held for several hours allowing solid particles to settle to the bottom of the tank and oils and greases to float to the top.Secondary treatment Secondary treatment is a biological treatment process that removes dissolved organic material from wastewater. The partially treated wastewater from the settling tank flows by gravity into an aeration tank. Here it is mixed with solids that contain micro-organisms that use oxygen to consume the remaining organic matter in the wastewater as their food supply. The aeration tank uses air bubbles to provide the mixing and oxygen that are needed for the micro-organisms to multiply.From here, the liquid mixture made up of solids with micro-organisms and water is sent to the final clarifier. Here the solids settle out to the bottom where some of the material is sent to the solids handling process and some is recycled back to replenish the population of micro-organisms in the aeration tank to treat incoming wastewater.Final treatment The wastewater that remains is disinfected to kill harmful micro-organisms before being released into receiving waters. Although there are many methods available to kill these micro-organisms, chlorine and ultraviolet disinfection are the most widely used.Following disinfection, the treated wastewater, now called final effluent, can be returned to the receiving waters from which it came.Solids processing The primary solids from the primary settling tank and the secondary solids from the clarifier are sent to the digester. During this process, micro-organisms use the organic material present in the solids as a food source and convert it to by-products such as methane gas and water. Digestion results in a 90% reduction in pathogens and the production of a wet soil-like material called “biosolids” that contain 95-97% water. In order to remove some of this water, mechanical equipment such as filter presses or centrifuges are used to squeeze water from the biosolids to reduce the volume prior to being sent to landfill, incinerated or beneficially used as a fertilizer or soil amendment.
19Coagulation The chemicals added react with Monitor pH during chemical coagulation addition.Stop adding coagulant if pH drops below 6.0.The chemicals added react withOrganic compounds (“essential nutrients that cause many things to grow”)MetalsSuspended particlesThat are found in water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc”.
20Rapid MixingFirst, the water arrives from a lake, river, or well and is pumped into rapid mixing tanks.These tanks rapidly mix the chemicals added into the water during coagulation.**High mixing will break apart the “flocs” and the yucky stuff that we were try to remove from the water will remain **Rapid mixing is extended for short period of time from 5 to 15 minutes
21SedimentationA big portion of the impurities are removed and the clear water moves to filtration.The “floc” gets heavier and settles to the bottom of the tank.Flocs are pumped out of the bottom of the tank and sent to the belt press
22Filtration The water passes through filters, some made of layers of SandgravelCharcoalthat helps to remove the rest of the impurities.
23DisinfectionMost of the nutrients, metals, and other solids are removed from water:chlorine , ozone (only drinking water), or chloramines is added as a disinfectant.Another alternative is Ultra-violent radiation (known as UV)The disinfectants killbacteriaVirusesDBP’s – disinfectant byproducts which become harmful to humans.This ensures that the discharge water is safe.Chlorine addition is designed to be in the water long enough to continue to kill “bad” microorganisms until water reaches the first client.
24Where did all of the solid floating stuff go? It’s thickened using a polymer or chemical addition during the coagulation/flocculation process and pumped out of the sedimentation tankThis helps to make it easier to form a solid sheet of slurrySent to the belt press to be de-wateredBecomes “bio-solids” and is used as fertilizers by farmers, sod companies, landscapers, and other people
25All of Austin’s Sewage Sludge – 1 million gallons per day 99% waterThis is what the waste at your wastewater treatment plants looks like before it is de-water and after its sent thru the belt press it just simply looks like Dirt or fertilizer
26Urban Soil Restoration Tool - Compost The effects of biosolid or “Dillo-Dirt” can be seen here – the greener side is dillo dirt and the dull side is normal fertilizer therefore this tells us that the “treated waste” from the wastewater plant is rich in nutrients for healthier growth of grassZilker Park Soccer Field – Dillo Dirt test
27Activities Cycle Puzzle Word Scramble Applets/other Human body and WaterWorkbook
28Activities Model Aquifer Water Cycle Boogie Matching Global Warming Trivia FactsGlobal WarmingMovie
29"THE WATER CYCLE BOOGIE"Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Saturation, Percolation, and Store. And the water cycle boogie goes 'round and round, And the water cycle boogie goes up and down. REPEAT twice [or your choice]
30References www.cool-fuel.com Harcourt Science, 4th grade “The Chameleon cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit D ppHarcourt Science, 5th grade “The Frog cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit C ppWater matching:Water puzzle:Water cycle: ~biol/102/ecosystem.html