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2 Notice: DO NOT Distribute This presentation may contain copyright protected material

3 Processes that Shape the Earth Joniqua & Jorge

4 Benchmarks SC.D.1.2.2 Student knows that 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water SC.D.1.2.3 Student knows that the water cycle is influenced by temperature, pressure, and topography

5 Grade Level Expectations Students should know that 75 % of the surface of the Earth is covered by water. The students should understands the different stages of the water cycle (for example, evaporation, condensation, precipitation). Water Bowl Challenge (75% of the Earth’s Surface is covered in water)

6 How Much Do You Know About Water?

7 What are the 3 properties of water and at what temperatures can they form? LIQUID RAIN SOLID ICE 0ºC0ºC GAS HUMIDITY 100ºC States of water

8 Where does 97% of the water exist in the world? A.Oceans B.Ice caps & glaciers C.Lakes, swamps, & rivers D.Ground water E.Plants, soil, & trees F.Humans Ans: Oceans – are saline “salty” water sources that are not potable (drinkable) for human consumption Remaining 3% is potable Ice caps & glaciers = 68.7% (potable) Lakes, swamps, & rivers = 87%, 11%, 2% (potable) Ground water = 30.1% (potable)

9 FACT: Earth’s Oceans Oceans cover about 70% of the Earth's surface. Saline sources of water therefore they are not potable (drinkable) 4 basic movements: 1.Wave- Up and down movement of ocean water 2.Tide – Ocean daily change of water level 3.Storm Surge - large waves that occur during hurricanes. 4.Tsunami – giants waves cause by Earthquakes or Volcanic Eruption

10 Why are the Oceans Movements Important? ANS: Ocean Movements Shape the Coast –Shore – Area where the ocean and coastland meet and interact. –Tide Pool – forms along a rocky shore line. –Headland – is a rocky point at the shore. –Jetty – is a man made wall structure of rocks.

11 What benefits does the ocean provide to us? A.Food (Fish, Crabs, Algae, Shells, etc..) B.Minerals (Salt, Calcium, Copper, Iron, etc…) C.Energy D.All of the above

12 How long can a person go without water? A.3 days B.2 days C.2 weeks D.1 day

13 Human Body and Water Blood is 83% water Brain is 74% water Muscles are 75% water Bone is 22% water

14 Water Cycle Water Cycle Vocabulary Water Conservation

15 Water cycle Precipitation Evaporation Condensation Percolation Transpiration Accumulation (aquifer, lake, ocean, river) Accumulation (aquifer, lake, ocean, river) Key Terms A constant recycling process of the water.

16 Water Cycle http://gwec.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/watergraphic_low.jpg

17 Water Cycle Vocabulary Evaporation - liquid water becoming a gas Condensation - water vapor that becomes a liquid Precipitation - water that falls back down to the Earth as rain, snow or hail. Transpiration – sweat from plants Percolation – water moving downward through openings in the soil Surface runoff -water that flows due to a change of ground elevation example ( hill or mountain). Aquifer – natural underground water storage tank

18 Water Technology Facility

19 Waste Water Treatment Process www.city.toronto.on.ca/water/wastewater_treatment/process.htm

20 C oagulation The chemicals added react with Organic compounds (“essential nutrients that cause many things to grow”) Metals Suspended particles That are found in water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc”. Monitor pH during chemical coagulation addition. Stop adding coagulant if pH drops below 6.0.

21 Rapid Mixing First, the water arrives from a lake, river, or well and is pumped into rapid mixing tanks. These tanks rapidly mix the chemicals added into the water during coagulation. **High mixing will break apart the “flocs” and the yucky stuff that we were try to remove from the water will remain ** Rapid mixing is extended for short period of time from 5 to 15 minutes

22 S edimentation A big portion of the impurities are removed and the clear water moves to filtration. The “floc” gets heavier and settles to the bottom of the tank. Flocs are pumped out of the bottom of the tank and sent to the belt press

23 Filtration The water passes through filters, some made of layers of Sand gravel Charcoal that helps to remove the rest of the impurities.

24 Disinfection Most of the nutrients, metals, and other solids are removed from water: – chlorine, ozone (only drinking water), or chloramines is added as a disinfectant. –Another alternative is Ultra- violent radiation (known as UV) The disinfectants kill bacteria Viruses DBP’s – disinfectant byproducts which become harmful to humans. This ensures that the discharge water is safe. Chlorine addition is designed to be in the water long enough to continue to kill “bad” microorganisms until water reaches the first client.

25 Where did all of the solid floating stuff go? 1.It’s thickened using a polymer or chemical addition during the coagulation/flocculation process and pumped out of the sedimentation tank a.This helps to make it easier to form a solid sheet of slurry 2.Sent to the belt press to be de- watered 3.Becomes “bio-solids” and is used as fertilizers by farmers, sod companies, landscapers, and other people

26 All of Austin’s Sewage Sludge – 1 million gallons per day 99% water

27 Zilker Park Soccer Field – Dillo Dirt test Urban Soil Restoration Tool - Compost

28 Activities Word Scramble Puzzle Cycle Human body and Water Workbook Applets /other

29 Activities Trivia Facts Matching Water Cycle Boogie Model Aquifer Global Warming Movie

30 "THE WATER CYCLE BOOGIE" Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Saturation, Percolation, and Store. And the water cycle boogie goes 'round and round, And the water cycle boogie goes up and down. REPEAT twice [or your choice]

31 References www.cool-fuel.com Harcourt Science, 4th grade “The Chameleon cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit D pp.30-50. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/ Harcourt Science, 5th grade “The Frog cover", Harcourt School Publisher, Unit C pp.90-120. Water matching: www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/flash/flash_matching.html Water puzzle: www.epa.gov/waterscience/standards/crossword.pdf Water cycle: www.marietta.edu/ ~biol/102/ecosystem.html http://web.visionlearning.com/custom/chemistry/animations/CHE1.1-an- threestates.shtml


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