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Observing the Earth using Technology

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1 Observing the Earth using Technology
COS 10 Bullet 1 Describe technology used to investigate Earth. (Examples: sonar, radar, seismograph, weather balloons.)

2 The History of Observing Objects from Afar
Navigators began experi-menting with ways to observe the stars and planets during the nineteenth century.

3 One example to obtain long-range photographs was to attach a camera to a pigeon.

4 During the American Civil War, balloons were lifted during battles to see the placement of enemy troops.

5 During the First World War, unarmed observation planes would take off with a camera strapped to the undercarriage.

6 As technology progressed, it became possible to use Sonar, Radar, the seismograph, and orbiting satellites.

7 SONAR is an acronym for SOund NAvigation and R anging.
SONAR  — is a technique that uses sounds under water to navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels.

8 Exploration by SONAR Sonar image of the USS Monitor on the ocean floor. Shipping lanes on the nation's waterways are continually shifting. Surveyors create maps of the bottom of rivers, lakes, and oceans using Sonar. No matter the method used, the resulting maps are used to aid in maritime navigation, scientific research, sports, and mineral exploration.

9 Surveyors observe the ocean’s floor for volcanoes and other features that stick up above the surrounding seafloor.

10 RADAR is an acronym that stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging.
Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as air craft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.

11 A transmitter emits radio waves, which are reflected by the target and detected by a receiver, typically in the same location as the transmitter.

12 A weather Radar consists of a parabolic dish (it looks like a satellite dish) encased in a protective dome and mounted on a tower of up to five stories tall. Exploration by Radar Example of a Radar image

13 A meteorologist uses images that are received by Radar to give information about the weather. When looking at a weather map, a meteorologist needs to know where the cold air is, where the warm air is, where it is raining, what type of clouds are in the area, and many more things.. Forecasts need to be timely and accurate and radars give meteorologists detailed information very quickly.

14 This is a location map for the Radar sites.

15 Earthquakes generate seismic waves which can be detected with a sensitive instrument called a seismograph.

16 This is a Strong Motion seismometer that measures acceleration. This model is a K2 made by Kinemetrics and part of the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network.

17 Seismometers measure and record the size and force of seismic waves. By studying seismic waves, geologists can map the interior of the Earth, and measure and locate earthquakes and other ground motions.

18 Ever since people first became curious about earthquakes, they have tried to design some kind of seismograph. This seismograph can be built will some simple materials.

19 A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon which carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde. Close up of a hydrogen filled balloon at Cambridge Bay Upper Air station, Nunavut, Canada

20 Twice a day, every day of the year, weather balloons are released simultaneously from almost 900 locations worldwide!  This includes 92 released by the National Weather Service in the US and its territories. 

21 As the balloon climbs it encounters lower air pressure which causes it to expand to many times its original size. Eventually the balloon bursts and the radiosonde falls back to the surface. The Balloon-Borne Sounding System or BBSS

22 A radiosonde measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver.
The radiosonde that falls back to the Earth’s surface.

23 As technology progressed, it became possible to use orbiting satellites.
The United States launched its first weather satellite, TIROS 1, in 1960.

24 GOES (Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite) orbit the earth at the same rate that the earth rotates. It always sees the same area of the earth and stays at the same point over the equator.

25 POES (polar orbiting environmental satellite) scans the earth from north to south. As the earth rotates on its axis, the satellite is able to scan an area farther to the west with each pass.

26 Scientists use the information that they acquire from Space for geology studies, agriculture studies, meteorology, etc.

27 The moon is Earth’s only natural satellite
The moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. Observing the moon can be accomplished by using a variety of instruments ranging from the naked eye to large telescopes. Moon as seen through a telescope Moon as seen with a pair of binoculars Moon as seen with the naked eye

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