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Division of Materials Science & Engineering

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Presentation on theme: "Division of Materials Science & Engineering"— Presentation transcript:

1 Division of Materials Science & Engineering
Future Directions in Rare Earth Research: Critical Materials for 21st Century Industry Thomas Lograsso Division of Materials Science & Engineering The Ames Laboratory


3 Research Opportunities
Separation and extraction Selective separation chemistry Direct conversion from oxides Recycling Improved processing Selective separations Energy efficient Environmentally friendly Nano-particulate processing Fundamental property and functionality Fundamental chemistry/physics of 4f-3d electron interactions New materials discovery Substitution for RE RE reduction RE-free Additives Improved properties/performance


5 Historical Developments and Requirements
Nd-Fe-B Co added to increase Tc Add Dy to increase anisotropy In a magnet for operation at 180 C, Dy is 70% of the materials cost

6 Research in Permanent Magnet Materials
Performance Higher energy products (new material discovery) Better high temperature performance (substitution/additive) Higher electrical resistivity (eddy current losses) (additive) Enhanced mechanical properties (additive/processing) Cost Raw materials costs Decrease or eliminate RE constituent(s) (new materials/nanoprocessing) Processing costs (direct conversion, selective separations) Recycling Manufacturing scrap – swarf (processing/selective separations) Post-consumer (processing)


8 Rare Earth Phosphors Fig. 1. Emission spectrum of Y2O3:Eu.
Fig. 4. Emission spectrum of Mg4GeO5.5F:Mn. C.R. Ronda et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 275 –277 (1998) 669 –676

9 Research in Phosphors New phosphors
high-efficiency optical transitions in non-rare-earth materials (new materials discovery) Lower dopant content (substitution?) Novel classes of wavelength conversion materials (downshifted LED or OLED emitters) for white light (new materials discovery Improved quantum efficiency / energy transfer (additives) Nanoparticulate processing for shape/size control of color

10 SUBSTITUTION Difficult, if Not Impossible
Most critical applications – phosphors, magnets Depends on the 4f electronic levels (each lanthanide is different) and crystal environment Eu – color TV Nd – lasers Nd, Sm – permanent magents Tb – fiber optics La, Y, Gd – absence of 4f level – optical & electronic Applications of unseparated rare earths Depend upon the valence state and average atomic size of the rare earths in the mixture petroleum cracking catalysts alloy additives – Mg, Al, cast iron Mixed valence applications CE(III)-CE(IV) – glass polishing, UV resistant glass, catalytic converters 10

Mischmetal for La in Ni metal hydride batteries Rouge (Fe oxides) for CeO2/Ce2O3 in glass polishing (However Ce is not in short supply – excess) PARTIAL SUBSTITUTION Pr for Nd in NdFeB magnets; 4Nd atoms per 1Pr in original ore Y – high temperature superalloys – used for ~30 years Al, Cr, could be utilized instead of Y NO (People have been looking – but no luck) Eu – red color in TV; used for ~50 years, yet no substitute Nd – permanent magnets; used for ~27 years, , yet no substitute Sm – permanent magnets; used for over 30 years, , yet no substitute Ce – 3-way catalytic converters (automotive exhaust) – used for ~30 years – yet no substitute 11

Training students undergraduate, graduate, post-doctor chem., chem. eng., mater. sci. & eng., physics Research projects funding NSF, DOE, DOD, NIST National Research Center for Rare Earths and Energy Education institution with a strong tradition on REs Link with industry Subsidiary branches at other universities International collaborations 12

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