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Georgia and the American Experience

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1 Georgia and the American Experience
Chapter 8: The Civil War, A Nation in Conflict Study Presentation Adapted by Ms. Bray

2 Georgia and the American Experience
Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: The War on the Battlefield Section 3: Life for the Civil War Soldier Section 4: Life During the Civil War

3 Section 1: The Road to War
Essential Question What strategies were selected to win the Civil War?

4 Section 1: The Road to War
What words do I need to know? Conscription (drafted in army) blockade blockade runner King Cotton Diplomacy strategy

5 The War Begins : Fort Sumter
April 10, 1861, Major General P.G.T. Beauregard leads Confederate Forces during bombardment of Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina Federal troops and laborers inside Fort Sumter surrender on April 13 Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia secede from the Union President Abraham Lincoln calls for 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion and protect Washington

6 Assembling Armies Most soldiers volunteered at first, but later men were conscripted (drafted to serve in the armies) (Tell 2 people what conscription means.) Some men received bounties (money) to sign up; some signed up, received the bounty, then deserted Poorer men sometimes accepted money to fight in place of wealthier men who didn’t want to serve

7 Resources: North and South
North had more people from which to create and resupply armies North had more factories, better railroad system, and most of the nation’s farms and wealth South had more experienced military leaders, and were highly motivated to defend their familiar homeland to win independence

8 Pg. 258 How many states remained in the Union? How many seceded?

9 Blockade Strategy Union blockaded all Southern ports to prevent cotton exports and imports of weaponry from foreign countries Privately operated blockade runners successfully slipped past Union ships to ship goods to and from Europe during the war to the South. The Union Navy included many ironclads (armored ships) What was the purpose of a Union blockade of Southern ports? Point to the blockade. How important were blockade runners to the South?

10 Other Wartime Strategies
“Anaconda Plan”: To squeeze Confederacy to death by capturing the Mississippi River and cutting off Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas ….basically splitting the South in half Capturing Richmond, the capital, might have ended the war early, but General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army prevented that for years

11 Late War Strategy Destroy Confederate armies on the battlefield
Lay waste to the Southern land, so that civilians would call for an end to the war General William T. Sherman’s “Atlanta Campaign” (Burning of Atlanta) and “March to the Sea” through Georgia was successful in the “lay waste to land” strategy (page 263)

12 Southern Strategies Wear down the Union armies, which would hasten the northerners’ desire to end the war Use swift raiders to help break the Union blockade King Cotton Diplomacy: Temporarily stop exports to England and France to inspire those nations to help break the Union blockade; France and England instead starting importing Egyptian cotton Click to return to Table of Contents.

13 Pg. 263 Using your book and notes, answer these questions
Pg. 263 Using your book and notes, answer these questions. Use the “call-a-friend” help if needed.

14 Section 2: The War on the Battlefield
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were the major battles that took place in Georgia?

15 Section 2: The War on the Battlefield
What words do I need to know? Chickamauga Atlanta Campaign Emancipation Proclamation

16 Freeing the Slaves Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 Document gave the Southern Confederacy a choice: Quit the war and keep slavery alive or keep fighting and slaves would be forever free Deadline was January 1, 1863 The Confederate leaders continued the war and the slaves were declared free by the United States government in 1863 REMEMBER! The Emancipation Proclamation did NOT outlaw slavery… FREED current slaves. The 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution outlawed slavery. KNOW THAT! Tell 2 people now! Pg

17 The Fall of Fort Pulaski Pg. 268
More than 100 battles or skirmishes in Georgia; 92 happened in 1864 during the Atlanta and Savannah campaigns First battle, April 10, 1862, was at all-brick Fort Pulaski, near Tybee Island Rifled cannon used by U.S. Army in warfare for the first time; the Confederates surrendered the fort in less than two days No brick American forts were built after this battle

18 The Battle of Chickamauga pg. 271
September 1863 Just inside Georgia, seven miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga was major railroad center Union troops were driven back to Chattanooga; Confederates did not follow-up on their victory Union reinforcements later recaptured Chattanooga Indian meaning for Chickamauga is “River of Death.” NORTH WON.

19 The Atlanta Campaign pg. 273
Late Spring/Early Summer 1864: Sherman’s Union Army fought series of battles against Joseph E. Johnston’s Confederate Army Confederates continued to retreat further southward into Georgia June 1864: Sherman attacked Johnston at Kennesaw Mountain; Sherman lost but continued toward Atlanta July 1864: John Bell Hood replaced Johnston, battled Sherman, then concentrated defenses in Atlanta

20 The Battle of Atlanta Sherman surrounded the city and laid siege
Hood wanted to lure Sherman into the city to fight, but that didn’t work Fighting continued during July and August 1864 Hood and Atlanta’s citizens finally vacate the city on September 1 Sherman burns the city in mid-November then begins his march toward Savannah and the sea

21 Battle of Atlanta

22 Battle of Atlanta

23 Sherman’s March to the Sea
Sherman’s Union army destroys everything in its path, 300 miles from Atlanta to Savannah A sixty mile-wide area is burned, destroyed, and ruined during a two-month period Estimated losses exceeded $100 million Captured, but did not burn, Savannah in December 1864 Loaded and shipped $28 million worth of cotton, stored in Savannah, to the North The South lost 75% of its total wealth by the end of the Civil War.

24 The Civil War Ends pg. 274 January 13, 1865: Fort Fisher in North Carolina captured;the last Confederate blockade-running port General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Virginia cannot defeat Union General U.S. Grant at Petersburg; he surrenders his army at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865 Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees and is eventually captured in Irwinville, Georgia

25 Civil War Prisons Both North and South had prisons for captured soldiers; thousands of men on both sides died in these prisons Andersonville Prison, in southwest Georgia, was overcrowded, and offered poor food, contaminated water, and poor sanitation; 13,700 Union soldiers are buried there Captain Henry Wirtz, Andersonville Prison commander, was later hanged for “excessive cruelty” Andersonville is now home to the National Prisoner of War Museum Click to return to Table of Contents.

26 Pg. 276. Using your book and notes, answer the following questions
Pg Using your book and notes, answer the following questions. You may use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed.

27 Section 3: Life for the Civil War Soldier
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was life like for the common soldiers of the Civil War?

28 Section 3: Life for the Civil War Soldier
What words do I need to know? Sutler wagon rations common soldier

29 The Civil War Soldier Page 278…. Soldiers from both North and South had to depend on food found in the woods or taken from farms. The term favored by the soldiers was “liberating” chickens, hogs, pies, and eggs. For soldiers with money, hunger pangs could be eased by a visit to the sutler wagons. Though not a part of the military, sutler wagons followed behind the troops and were packed with food, razors, writing papers and pens, sewing needles, and other goods. Prices, especially those for food, were often double or triple the item’s normal cost. A dozen eggs, for example, could set the soldier back $6, which is expensive even by today’s standards but which was a small fortune to a soldier in Civil War days. By far the most valuable item, particularly during the summer, was water. Many men on both sides of the battles were felled not by bullets or cannon fire, but by dehydration (lack of water). Most were under the age of 21; over 250,000 were 16-years-old or younger Most came from lower socioeconomic groups; wanted to seek adventure or escape boredom of farm life Rations (very rigid portions of food) were generally better for Northern soldiers than Southern soldiers Sutler wagons followed troops, and sold soldiers a variety of goods and foods; their items were very expensive, however

30 Pictures of sutler wagons following soldiers in Civil War and setting up tents from the wagons to sell supplies to the soldiers. Prices of goods were usually severely over-priced and intended to take advantage of the predicament a soldier was in (desperate need of food or supplies and unable to attain the supplies any other way). How do you feel about the sutler wagon drivers?

31 Uniforms and Supplies In the early months of the war, troops wore a variety of uniforms; sometimes armies were hard to tell apart The Confederate soldiers eventually wore gray pants or butternut-dyed homemade clothes Union soldiers wore blue uniforms, most mass produced in factories

32 Weaponry Forty-inch barrel Springfield rifles replaced single-shot, muzzle-loading .54 caliber rifles Confederate soldiers often fought with foreign rifles, (why?) but when they broke, they depended on rifles they could gather from the battlefield Infantry on both sides carried long fighting blades Refer to the hand-out called Civil War Firsts for a list of inventions created and put to use out of necessity during this era.

33 Camp Life Boredom between battles was common
Men wrote and read letters, played practical jokes (find the practical joke on page 280), played games, or sang Many men whittled, carving items out of wood, bone, and other material Games of baseball were common (Opposing troops would often meet up during a break in the fighting to sing, play ball, and cook together and then resume fighting the next day.) Religious gatherings, including Bible and singing were popular

34 Black Soldiers pg. 282 Some 178,985 enlisted men served in black regiments during the Civil War The 54th Massachusetts, led by Col. Robert Shaw (a white officer) led an assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina in 1863; the battle proved the value of black troops 3,500 black men from Georgia fought in the Union Army The Confederate government in 1865 passed a law allowing black slaves to fight in Southern armies; the war ended before a black regiment was organized

35 Latino Service Many immigrants from Spain and Latin America were recruited for the Union Army Admiral David Farragut, a Latino, became first U.S. Naval Admiral; he was a hero for capturing Mobile Bay and other ports Loreta Velazquez fought for the Confederacy (disguised as a man) and served as a Confederate spy Several states contributed entire Latino battalions Pg. 283 Click to return to Table of Contents.


37 Using your book, notes, and concept maps, answer the following questions. Don’t forget you can use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed. Ready……..set………..GO! Pg. 284

38 Section 4: Life During the Civil War
ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was life like for civilians during the Civil War?

39 Section 4: Life During the Civil War
What words do I need to know? hardships shortages volunteers

40 Women in the Civil War Food, items for clothes, and basic items were in short supply, especially in the South Staples like flour, coffee, and sugar were very expensive or hard to acquire Women tried to keep their families fed and sheltered despite the difficulties Many fought disguised as men; others served as spies; many worked in factories Female nurses were much valued TURN TO PAGE 286 AND READ THE BOTTOM PARAGRAPH

41 Women of Note Phoebe Pember of Savannah helped administer a division in a major Richmond hospital Captain Sally Tompkins ran a Southern military hospital Clara Barton, a Union nurse supervisor, later founded the American Red Cross Mary Boykin Chesnut of South Carolina left a prized written record of the wartime life

42 Answer the questions using your book, notes, concept map and personal knowledge. Use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed. Pg. 288

43 Children During the War
Most did chores at home to help their families or contribute to the war effort Children in the South had basically no public schools (due to school supplies were needed for the war effort and school buildings were used for soldiers); wealthy families could continue with private tutoring Boys as young as 10 served in both armies; thousands of soldiers were between 14- and 16-years-old Page Twelve-year-old drummer boy William Black is considered to be the youngest wounded soldier in the Civil War.

44 The Aftermath 620,000 people died during the war; about two-thirds died from diseases, wounds, or military prison hardships Healing of emotional wounds took far longer than the war itself The North or the South would never be the same again Click to return to Table of Contents.

45 Pg. 289

46 Chapter Summary continued…. Pg. 289

47 Next…. RECONSTRUCTION Click to return to Table of Contents.

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