Presentation on theme: "Georgia and the American Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 8:The Civil War, A Nation in ConflictStudy PresentationAdapted by Ms. Bray
2Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: The Road to WarSection 2: The War on the BattlefieldSection 3: Life for the Civil War SoldierSection 4: Life During the Civil War
3Section 1: The Road to War Essential QuestionWhat strategies were selected to win the Civil War?
4Section 1: The Road to War What words do I need to know?Conscription (drafted in army)blockadeblockade runnerKing Cotton Diplomacystrategy
5The War Begins : Fort Sumter April 10, 1861, Major General P.G.T. Beauregard leads Confederate Forces during bombardment of Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South CarolinaFederal troops and laborers inside Fort Sumter surrender on April 13Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia secede from the UnionPresident Abraham Lincoln calls for 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion and protect Washington
6Assembling ArmiesMost soldiers volunteered at first, but later men were conscripted (drafted to serve in the armies) (Tell 2 people what conscription means.)Some men received bounties (money) to sign up; some signed up, received the bounty, then desertedPoorer men sometimes accepted money to fight in place of wealthier men who didn’t want to serve
7Resources: North and South North had more people from which to create and resupply armiesNorth had more factories, better railroad system, and most of the nation’s farms and wealthSouth had more experienced military leaders, and were highly motivated to defend their familiar homeland to win independence
8Pg. 258 How many states remained in the Union? How many seceded?
9Blockade StrategyUnion blockaded all Southern ports to prevent cotton exports and imports of weaponry from foreign countriesPrivately operated blockade runners successfully slipped past Union ships to ship goods to and from Europe during the war to the South.The Union Navy included many ironclads (armored ships)What was the purpose of a Union blockade of Southern ports?Point to the blockade.How important were blockaderunners to the South?
10Other Wartime Strategies “Anaconda Plan”: To squeeze Confederacy to death by capturing the Mississippi River and cutting off Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas ….basically splitting the South in halfCapturing Richmond, the capital, might have ended the war early, but General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army prevented that for years
11Late War Strategy Destroy Confederate armies on the battlefield Lay waste to the Southern land, so that civilians would call for an end to the warGeneral William T. Sherman’s “Atlanta Campaign” (Burning of Atlanta) and “March to the Sea” through Georgia was successful in the “lay waste to land” strategy (page 263)
12Southern StrategiesWear down the Union armies, which would hasten the northerners’ desire to end the warUse swift raiders to help break the Union blockadeKing Cotton Diplomacy: Temporarily stop exports to England and France to inspire those nations to help break the Union blockade; France and England instead starting importing Egyptian cottonClick to return to Table of Contents.
13Pg. 263 Using your book and notes, answer these questions Pg. 263 Using your book and notes, answer these questions. Use the “call-a-friend” help if needed.
14Section 2: The War on the Battlefield ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat were the major battles that took place in Georgia?
15Section 2: The War on the Battlefield What words do I need to know?ChickamaugaAtlanta CampaignEmancipation Proclamation
16Freeing the SlavesLincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862Document gave the Southern Confederacy a choice: Quit the war and keep slavery alive or keep fighting and slaves would be forever freeDeadline was January 1, 1863The Confederate leaders continued the war and the slaves were declared free by the United States government in 1863REMEMBER!The Emancipation Proclamation did NOT outlaw slavery…..it FREED current slaves.The 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution outlawed slavery.KNOW THAT! Tell 2 people now!Pg
17The Fall of Fort Pulaski Pg. 268 More than 100 battles or skirmishes in Georgia; 92 happened in 1864 during the Atlanta and Savannah campaignsFirst battle, April 10, 1862, was at all-brick Fort Pulaski, near Tybee IslandRifled cannon used by U.S. Army in warfare for the first time; the Confederates surrendered the fort in less than two daysNo brick American forts were built after this battle
18The Battle of Chickamauga pg. 271 September 1863Just inside Georgia, seven miles south of Chattanooga, TennesseeChattanooga was major railroad centerUnion troops were driven back to Chattanooga; Confederates did not follow-up on their victoryUnion reinforcements later recaptured ChattanoogaIndian meaning for Chickamaugais “River of Death.”NORTH WON.
19The Atlanta Campaign pg. 273 Late Spring/Early Summer 1864: Sherman’s Union Army fought series of battles against Joseph E. Johnston’s Confederate ArmyConfederates continued to retreat further southward into GeorgiaJune 1864: Sherman attacked Johnston at Kennesaw Mountain; Sherman lost but continued toward AtlantaJuly 1864: John Bell Hood replaced Johnston, battled Sherman, then concentrated defenses in Atlanta
20The Battle of Atlanta Sherman surrounded the city and laid siege Hood wanted to lure Sherman into the city to fight, but that didn’t workFighting continued during July and August 1864Hood and Atlanta’s citizens finally vacate the city on September 1Sherman burns the city in mid-November then begins his march toward Savannah and the sea
23Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman’s Union army destroys everything in its path, 300 miles from Atlanta to SavannahA sixty mile-wide area is burned, destroyed, and ruined during a two-month periodEstimated losses exceeded $100 millionCaptured, but did not burn, Savannah in December 1864Loaded and shipped $28 million worth of cotton, stored in Savannah, to the NorthThe South lost 75% of its total wealth by the end of the Civil War.
24The Civil War Ends pg. 274January 13, 1865: Fort Fisher in North Carolina captured;the last Confederate blockade-running portGeneral Robert E. Lee’s Army of Virginia cannot defeat Union General U.S. Grant at Petersburg; he surrenders his army at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865Confederate President Jefferson Davis flees and is eventually captured in Irwinville, Georgia
25Civil War PrisonsBoth North and South had prisons for captured soldiers; thousands of men on both sides died in these prisonsAndersonville Prison, in southwest Georgia, was overcrowded, and offered poor food, contaminated water, and poor sanitation; 13,700 Union soldiers are buried thereCaptain Henry Wirtz, Andersonville Prison commander, was later hanged for “excessive cruelty”Andersonville is now home to the National Prisoner of War MuseumClick to return to Table of Contents.
26Pg. 276. Using your book and notes, answer the following questions Pg Using your book and notes, answer the following questions. You may use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed.
27Section 3: Life for the Civil War Soldier ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat was life like for the common soldiers of the Civil War?
28Section 3: Life for the Civil War Soldier What words do I need to know?Sutler wagonrationscommon soldier
29The Civil War SoldierPage 278….Soldiers from both North and South had to depend on food found in the woods or taken from farms. The term favored by the soldiers was “liberating” chickens, hogs, pies, and eggs.For soldiers with money, hunger pangs could be eased by a visit to the sutler wagons. Though not a part of the military, sutler wagons followed behind the troops and were packed with food, razors, writing papers and pens, sewing needles, and other goods.Prices, especially those for food, were often double or triple the item’s normal cost. A dozen eggs, for example, could set the soldier back $6, which is expensive even by today’s standards but which was a small fortune to a soldier in Civil War days.By far the most valuable item, particularly during the summer, was water. Many men on both sides of the battles were felled not by bullets or cannon fire, but by dehydration (lack of water).Most were under the age of 21; over 250,000 were 16-years-old or youngerMost came from lower socioeconomic groups; wanted to seek adventure or escape boredom of farm lifeRations (very rigid portions of food) were generally better for Northern soldiers than Southern soldiersSutler wagons followed troops, and sold soldiers a variety of goods and foods; their items were very expensive, however
30Pictures of sutler wagons following soldiers in Civil War and setting up tents from the wagons to sell supplies to the soldiers. Prices of goods were usually severely over-priced and intended to take advantage of the predicament a soldier was in (desperate need of food or supplies and unable to attain the supplies any other way). How do you feel about the sutler wagon drivers?
31Uniforms and SuppliesIn the early months of the war, troops wore a variety of uniforms; sometimes armies were hard to tell apartThe Confederate soldiers eventually wore gray pants or butternut-dyed homemade clothesUnion soldiers wore blue uniforms, most mass produced in factories
32WeaponryForty-inch barrel Springfield rifles replaced single-shot, muzzle-loading .54 caliber riflesConfederate soldiers often fought with foreign rifles, (why?) but when they broke, they depended on rifles they could gather from the battlefieldInfantry on both sides carried long fighting bladesRefer to the hand-out called Civil War Firsts for a list of inventions created and put to use out of necessity during this era.
33Camp Life Boredom between battles was common Men wrote and read letters, played practical jokes (find the practical joke on page 280), played games, or sangMany men whittled, carving items out of wood, bone, and other materialGames of baseball were common (Opposing troops would often meet up during a break in the fighting to sing, play ball, and cook together and then resume fighting the next day.)Religious gatherings, including Bible and singing were popular
34Black Soldiers pg. 282Some 178,985 enlisted men served in black regiments during the Civil WarThe 54th Massachusetts, led by Col. Robert Shaw (a white officer) led an assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina in 1863; the battle proved the value of black troops3,500 black men from Georgia fought in the Union ArmyThe Confederate government in 1865 passed a law allowing black slaves to fight in Southern armies; the war ended before a black regiment was organized
35Latino ServiceMany immigrants from Spain and Latin America were recruited for the Union ArmyAdmiral David Farragut, a Latino, became first U.S. Naval Admiral; he was a hero for capturing Mobile Bay and other portsLoreta Velazquez fought for the Confederacy (disguised as a man) and served as a Confederate spySeveral states contributed entire Latino battalionsPg. 283Click to return to Table of Contents.
37Using your book, notes, and concept maps, answer the following questions. Don’t forget you can use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed. Ready……..set………..GO! Pg. 284
38Section 4: Life During the Civil War ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat was life like for civilians during the Civil War?
39Section 4: Life During the Civil War What words do I need to know?hardshipsshortagesvolunteers
40Women in the Civil WarFood, items for clothes, and basic items were in short supply, especially in the SouthStaples like flour, coffee, and sugar were very expensive or hard to acquireWomen tried to keep their families fed and sheltered despite the difficultiesMany fought disguised as men; others served as spies; many worked in factoriesFemale nurses were much valuedTURN TO PAGE 286 AND READTHE BOTTOM PARAGRAPH
41Women of NotePhoebe Pember of Savannah helped administer a division in a major Richmond hospitalCaptain Sally Tompkins ran a Southern military hospitalClara Barton, a Union nurse supervisor, later founded the American Red CrossMary Boykin Chesnut of South Carolina left a prized written record of the wartime life
42Answer the questions using your book, notes, concept map and personal knowledge. Use the “call-a-friend” strategy if needed. Pg. 288
43Children During the War Most did chores at home to help their families or contribute to the war effortChildren in the South had basically no public schools (due to school supplies were needed for the war effort and school buildings were used for soldiers); wealthy families could continue with private tutoringBoys as young as 10 served in both armies; thousands of soldiers were between 14- and 16-years-oldPage Twelve-year-old drummer boyWilliam Black is considered to be the youngestwounded soldier in the Civil War.
44The Aftermath620,000 people died during the war; about two-thirds died from diseases, wounds, or military prison hardshipsHealing of emotional wounds took far longer than the war itselfThe North or the South would never be the same againClick to return to Table of Contents.