Presentation on theme: "W HAT IS PLOT ? Plot is the structure of events within a story and the causal relationship between them. There is no plot without causality. "Captain."— Presentation transcript:
W HAT IS PLOT ? Plot is the structure of events within a story and the causal relationship between them. There is no plot without causality. "Captain Stronghead piloted his spacecraft to Proxima Centauri," is an event with no plot. "Captain Stronghead piloted his spacecraft to Proxima Centauri in order to escape the despotic regime on Earth," has the beginning of a plot.
W HAT IS CHARACTER ? All stories have characters, and in a sense stories are almost always about one or more the characters. Stories must also have interesting and believable characters, but not all stories must have full characterization. Many excellant Milieu, Idea, and Event stories spend very little effort on characterization beyond what is necessary to keep the story moving along. Ian Fleming wrote over a dozen books about secret agent James Bond, but every one of those stories were about what James Bond does (in any given situation) and never about who he is.
W HAT IS SUFFIX ? A suffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways. inflectional (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog > dog s ), or changing present tense to past tense (walk > walk ed ). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change. derivational (the new word has a new meaning, "derived" from the original word): for example, teach > teach er or care > care ful
I NFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES Inflectional suffixes do not change the meaning of the original word. So in "Every day I walk to school" and "Yesterday I walked to school", the words walk and walked have the same basic meaning. In "I have one car" and "I have two cars", the basic meaning of the words car and cars is exactly the same. In these cases, the suffix is added simply for grammatical "correctness". Look at these examples: Continue in next page
suffix grammatical change example original word example suffixed word -spluraldogdog s -enplural (irregular)oxox en -s 3rd person singular present likehe like s -ed past tense past participle work he work ed he has work ed -en past participle (irregular) eathe has eat en -ing continuous/progres sive sleephe is sleep ing -ercomparativebigbigg er -estsuperlativebigthe bigg est
D ERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES With derivational suffixes, the new word has a new meaning, and is usually a different part of speech. But the new meaning is related to the old meaning - it is "derived" from the old meaning. We can add more than one suffix, as in this example: derive (verb) + tion = derivation (noun) + al = derivational (adjective) There are several hundred derivational suffixes.
W HAT IS PROBLEM OR CONFLICT ? The conflict of a story is a problem in the story. It can be internal or external. An internal conflict is a conflict within one person. Normally when you feel guilty about something you did, or angry with yourself. An external conflict is when the conflict is within 2 or more people. Normally an argument.
CONFLICT In literature, conflicts is an inherent incompatibility between the objectives of two or more characters or forces. Conflict creates tension and interest in a story by adding doubt as to the outcome. A narrative is not limited to a single conflict. While conflicts may not always resolve in narrative, the resolution of a conflict creates closure, which may or may not occur at a story's end.objectives
W HAT IS RISING ACTION The rising action of a story is that series of events that begin immediately after the exposition, or introduction, of the story and builds up to the climax. These events are generally the most important parts of the story since the entire plot depends on them to set up the climax and ultimately the satisfactory resolution of the story itself.
W HAT IS CAUSE AND EFFECT ? Cause: happens first The reason, or motive, for an action; why something happens. It was raining… Effect: happens after a cause The result, or consequence, of an action. …so I got wet. Cause and Effect SIGNAL Words: Sometimes an author will tell you the EFFECT and will tell you what CAUSED it. Think LOGICALLY... which happened first? That is the CAUSE. The EFFECT is the RESULT. A Led to B... Cause Led to Effect
Cause Because The reason for On account of Bring about Give rise to Created by Contributed to Led to Due to Since
Effect As a result Then Hence For this reason Therefore Outcome So Consequently Finally
W HAT IS HOMONYMS ? In linguistics, a homonym is, in the strict sense, one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings. Thus homonyms are simultaneously homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of their pronunciation) and homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of their spelling). The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.linguisticshomographshomophones
Examples of homonyms are the pair stalk (part of a plant) and stalk (follow/harass a person) and the pair left (past tense of leave) and left (opposite of right). A distinction is sometimes made between "true" homonyms, which are unrelated in origin, such as skate (glide on ice) and skate (the fish), and polysemous homonyms, or polysemes, which have a shared origin, such as mouth (of a river) and mouth (of an animal)polysemes
W HATE IS CONTEXT CLUES ? Context clues are bits of information from the text that, when combined with prior knowledge, allow you to decide the meaning of unknown words in the story or article you are reading. As a reader you must act similar to a detective and put together clues from sentences surrounding an unknown word in order to make an intelligent “guess” as to what the definition of a word is.
C ONTEXT C LUES – H OW D O T HEY H ELP Y OU R EAD N EW W ORDS ? Textbook writers and authors include words or phrases to help their readers understand the meaning of a new or difficult word. These words or phrases are built into the sentences around the new or difficult word. By becoming more aware of the words around a difficult word, readers can make logical guesses about the meanings of many words.
S TILL W ONDERING W HAT A C ONTEXT C LUE I S ? search the link below to watch a video clip. Pay careful attention to what it tells you. When the video is over click the back arrow in the upper left hand corner. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qgaSmJKR9H M
ALMANAC An almanac (also archaically spelled almanack and almanach ) is an annual publication that includes information such as weather forecasts, farmers' planting dates, tide tables, and tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar etc. Astronomical data and various statistics are also found in almanacs, such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, terms of courts, lists of all types, timelines, and more.annual publicationcalendarAstronomicalsunmoon eclipsestidechurches
The origin of the almanac can be traced back to ancient Babylonian astronomy, when tables of planetary periods were produced in order to predict lunar and planetary phenomena. The precursor to the almanac was the Greek astronomical and meteorological calendar, the parapegma, an inscribed stone on which the days of the month were indicated by movable pegs inserted into bored holes. According to Diogenes Laërtius,Babylonian astronomyGreekDiogenes Laërtius