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DEGREES OF DIFFERENCE: EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENTS OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN B.C. Prepared by Joanne Heslop, Manager Student Transitions Project Last Update:

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1 DEGREES OF DIFFERENCE: EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENTS OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN B.C. Prepared by Joanne Heslop, Manager Student Transitions Project Last Update: January 28, 2011 This document is available at:

2 Introduction Student Transitions Project2 The Student Transitions Project has assembled this set of facts by gender to provide a broad overview of the education achievements of male and female students in British Columbia. On average, when compared to male students in B.C., female students:  achieve higher grade 12 grades,  attain higher grade 12 graduation rates,  achieve higher transition rates into B.C. public post-secondary education, and  attain a higher proportion of post-secondary credentials than male students. The findings in B.C. are consistent with the rest of Canada. The differences in male and female education achievements might be partially explained by the different rates of change in their employment rates and employment earnings at different levels of education.

3 CONTENTS (A) BC Secondary School Fast Facts: 1.Grade-to-Grade Transition RatesGrade-to-Grade Transition Rates 2.Grade 12 Graduation Rates (among eligible grade 12’s)Grade 12 Graduation Rates 3.Grade 12 Academic GPAGrade 12 Academic GPA 4.Grade 12 High AchieversGrade 12 High Achievers (B) Student Transitions into Post-Sec: 5.Immediate-Entry Transition RatesImmediate-Entry Transition Rates 6.Cumulative Three-year Transition RatesCumulative Three-year Transition Rates 7.“Gappers” by Grade 12 Graduation Region“Gappers” by Grade 12 Graduation Region 8.First Type of Post-secondary Institution AttendedFirst Type of Post-secondary Institution Attended 9.First Credential SoughtFirst Credential Sought 10.First Program SoughtFirst Program Sought STP Facts by Gender Student Transitions Project3 More

4 CONTENTS, cont. (C) Post-Secondary Credit Registrants: 11.By Post-Secondary Institution TypeBy Post-Secondary Institution Type 12.By Credential TypeBy Credential Type 13.By ProgramBy Program (D) Post-Secondary Credentials Awarded: 14.By Credential TypeBy Credential Type 15.By Program CompletedBy Program Completed 16.Trend in All Credentials Awarded, 2003 to 2008Trend in All Credentials Awarded, 2003 to Trend in Bachelors Degrees Awarded, 2003 to 2008Trend in Bachelors Degrees Awarded, 2003 to 2008 STP Facts by Gender Student Transitions Project4 More

5 CONTENTS, cont. (E) Post-Secondary Enrollment in Canada: 18.University Enrollment in Canada, % Male vs. % FemaleUniversity Enrollment in Canada, % Male vs. % Female 19.College Enrollment in Canada, % Male vs. % FemaleCollege Enrollment in Canada, % Male vs. % Female 20.Undergraduate Enrollment by Discipline, BC vs. CanadaUndergraduate Enrollment by Discipline, BC vs. Canada (F) B.C. Labour Market Information: 21.B.C. Unemployment Rates by Level of EducationB.C. Unemployment Rates by Level of Education 22.B.C. Employment Income by Level of EducationB.C. Employment Income by Level of Education (G) LinksLinks STP Facts by Gender Student Transitions Project5

6 User’s Guide Use mouse clicks or keyboard arrow keys to navigate forward or backward through these Facts by Gender. Other navigation tools to click on: Return to the Table of Contents. Go to data slide for current definition/notes. Go to definition/notes for the current data slide. Print the current slide. Print All Facts (60 pages). Full document print option is only available from here. User’s Guide Student Transitions Project6

7 Part A B.C. Secondary School Facts Student Transitions Project7

8 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project8 Grade to Grade Transition Rates are the proportion of students enrolled in a grade who advanced to the next higher grade. The differences in grade-to- grade transition rates between male and female students are small. At all grade levels (in 2008/09), females advanced to the next higher grade at slightly higher rates than males, except for grade 11 to grade 12. Grade to Grade Transition Rates 1 Fact #1

9 Grade to Grade Transition Rates (2008/09) Fact #1 Student Transitions Project9 Source: as at November 29, 2010.http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/reports/pdfs/transition/public.xlsx

10 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project10 Eligible Grade 12 Graduation Rate is the proportion of “eligible” grade 12 students who graduated. Note that “eligible” students are those who, if they pass all courses in which they were enrolled as of September, will have met all requirements to graduate. From 2004/05 to 2008/09, the eligible grade 12 graduation rate for females has remained one to two percentage points above males. Eligible Grade 12 Graduation Rates Fact #2 2

11 Eligible Grade 12 Graduation Rates (2004/05 to 2008/09) Fact #2 Student Transitions Project11 Source: as at November 29, 2010.http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/reports/pdfs/graduation/prov.xlsx

12 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project12 Academic GPA’s of B.C. Grade 12 Graduates are calculated by the STP as the average across four academic grade 12 subjects, including English 12 and each students’ best three other academic grade 12 subjects. Students with insufficient academic grade 12 subjects (and no academic GPA) are excluded from the averages. Female grade 12 graduates have maintained a higher academic GPA than males, from 2001/02 to 2007/08. The gap in the academic GPA between males and females has declined from 1.54 grade points in 2001/02 to 1.13 in 2006/07. Note: Roughly half of each grade 12 graduation cohort did not complete the sufficient academic grade 12 subjects in order for STP to calculate their academic GPA. Fact #3 3 Academic GPA’s of BC12 Graduates

13 Academic GPA’s of B.C. Grade 12 Graduates Fact #3 Student Transitions Project13 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

14 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project14 Grade 12 High Achievers are students who achieved high academic GPA’s (75% GPA or higher) upon grade 12 graduation. See Fact #3 for more information on Academic GPA.Fact #3 On average, from 2001/02 to 2007/08, 35% of all female grade 12 graduates (versus 27% of all male graduates) achieved an academic GPA of 75% or higher upon grade 12 graduation. Grade 12 High Achievers Fact #4 4

15 % of Grade 12 High Achievers (2001/02 to 2007/08) Fact #4 Student Transitions Project15 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx. Females Males

16 Part B Student Transitions into Post-Secondary Education Student Transitions Project16

17 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project17 Immediate-Entry Transition Rates are the % of each B.C. grade 12 graduation cohort that enrolled in B.C. public post- secondary education within one year of graduation from high school. Female grade 12 graduates have higher transition rates than males. The transition rate gap between males and females is narrowing over time. Immediate-Entry Transition Rates Fact #5 5

18 Immediate-Entry Transition Rates (2001/02 to 2007/08 Gr12 Grads) Fact #5 Student Transitions Project18 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

19 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project19 Cumulative Three-Year Transition Rate is the cumulative proportion of a B.C. grade 12 graduation cohort that has enrolled in B.C. public post- secondary education within three years of grade 12 graduation. Female grade 12 graduates have higher transition rates into B.C. public post-secondary education than male graduates. The gap between the two groups is relatively constant at 3 to 4 percentage points. Cumulative Three-Year Transition Rates 6 Fact #6

20 Cumulative 3-Year Transition Rates (2001/02 to 2005/06 Gr12 Grads) Fact #6 Student Transitions Project20 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

21 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project21 Across the province, the proportion of all graduates who take a gap year ranges from a low of 9% among graduates in the Vancouver/Langara region to a high of more than 14% among graduates of the Camosun and Northern Lights regions. In most regions of the province, male grade 12 graduates are more inclined to take a gap year than females. “Gappers” by Grade 12 Grad Region 7 Fact #7 “Gappers” are students who took a year off between completing grade 12 and enrolling in post- secondary education. During this time period, these students often work or travel, or they might attend a B.C. private institution or a post-secondary institution outside of B.C. On average, 11% of B.C. grade 12 graduates take a gap year and this varies across regions of B.C.

22 “Gappers” by Region of Grade 12 Graduation Fact #7 Student Transitions Project22

23 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project23 Post-Secondary Institution Type Attended. When students first enrol in post-secondary education after grade 12 graduation, the type of institution where they enrol is identified: Research-Intensive University, Teaching-Intensive University, Community College or Institute. In 2008/09, the most popular destination for all immediate- entry students was a research- intensive university, and this was more so among females than males. Each group of institution types enrolled a larger share of females than males, except for institutes (specifically BCIT) where there were nearly 4 times as many males as females. Type of Institution First Attended 8 Fact #8

24 Type of Institution First Attended (2007/08 Grads, Immediate Entry) Fact #8 Student Transitions Project24 (a) % Distribution by PSI Type(b) % Distribution by PSI Type and Gender Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

25 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project25 Credential Sought. When students first enrolled in B.C. public post-secondary institutions after graduating from grade 12 in 2007/08, the STP can identify the type of credential these students enrolled in, such as Bachelor’s Degree, Certificate, etc. The most popular credential sought by 2007/08 grade 12 graduates who enrolled immediately in B.C. public post- secondary institutions in 2008/09 was a Bachelor’s Degree, of which 56% were female and 44% were male. Males accounted for 93% of apprenticeship enrollment; females accounted for 7%. First Credential Sought 9 Fact #9

26 First Credential Sought (Immediate-Entry, 2007/08 Grads) Fact #9 Student Transitions Project26 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

27 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project27 Program Sought. By using the Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) code, the STP identifies the type of program that students first enroll in. These programs are grouped and reported in clusters, such as Arts and Sciences, Health, Education, etc. In 2008/09, the majority of immediate-entry students enrolled in Arts and Sciences programs, a study area comprised of 61% females and 39% males. Females make up more than two-thirds of Health, Education and Visual & Performing Arts programs. Males comprise more than two thirds of Engineering and Trades programs. First Program Sought 10 Fact #10

28 First Program Sought (Immediate-Entry, 2007/08 Grads) Fact #10 Student Transitions Project28 Source: Student Transitions Project, STP First Transitions (Grad thru ) Version xlsx.

29 Part C Credit Registrants in B.C. Public Post-Secondary Institutions Student Transitions Project29

30 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project30 Credit Registrants by Institution Type is the number of students actively enrolled in credit courses in academic year 2008/08, by type of institution. Students enrolled in non-credit courses are excluded. The largest volume of credit registrants are enrolled in research-intensive universities. Credit registrants at each group of institution type are dominated by female registrants, except institutes. Credit Registrants by Institution Type 11 Fact #11

31 Credit Registrants by Institution Type Fact #11 Student Transitions Project31 Source: Student Transitions Project, Post-Secondary Student Mobility Pivot Tables, based on Fall 2009 submissions.

32 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project32 Credit Registrants by Credential is the number of students enrolled in credit courses in 2008/09, by type of credential sought. Students enrolled in non-credit courses are excluded. Gender Ratio is the number of male registrants per female registrant. Values below 1.0 indicate that there are fewer males than females; values above 1.0 indicate that there are more males than females in the program. The majority of credit registrants are enrolled in Bachelor’s Degrees, a credential area with three-quarters as many males as females. Each credential category is dominated by females, except for Doctorates and miscellaneous “other undergraduate” credentials. Credit Registrants by Credential Type 12 Fact #12 Degree

33 Credit Registrants by Credential Type Fact #12 Student Transitions Project33 Source: Student Transitions Project, Post-Secondary Student Mobility Pivot Tables, based on Fall 2009 submissions. Note: “Other Undergraduate” includes post-degree diplomas, first professional degrees, advanced diplomas, post-degree certificates. “Other Graduate” includes graduate certificates and diplomas.

34 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project34 Credit Registrants by Program is the number of students enrolled in credit courses in academic year 2008/09, by type of program area, based on the Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) code. Students enrolled in non-credit courses are excluded. Note that registrants in Developmental and Trades programs may be under- reported because some institutions record hours (rather than credits) for these students. Gender Ratio see Fact #12 defn.Fact #12 The majority of registrants are enrolled in Arts and Sciences programs, a program area with two-thirds as many males as females. Each program area is dominated by females, except for Trades and Engineering and Applied Sciences. Credit Registrants by Program 13 Fact #13

35 Credit Registrants by Program Area Fact #13 Student Transitions Project35 Source: Student Transitions Project, Post-Secondary Student Mobility Pivot Tables, based on Fall 2009 submissions.

36 Part D Post-Secondary Credentials Awarded Student Transitions Project36

37 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project37 All Credentials Awarded by Type refers to the number of students who received each type or level of credential from B.C. public post- secondary institutions in 2008, such as Bachelor’s Degree, Certificate, Diploma, and others listed in the chart. Note that apprenticeship credentials are awarded by the Industry Training Authority (ITA) and generally not reported by post-secondary institutions and are thus under-reported here. Gender Ratio is provided in Fact #14b Fact #14b and defined in Fact #12.Fact #12 Credentials are awarded to more females than males across all credential types, except for Apprenticeships and Doctorates. Bachelor’s degrees are awarded to roughly two-thirds as many males as females. All Credentials Awarded, by Type 14 Fact #14

38 All Credentials Awarded, by Type (Calendar Year 2008) Fact #14a Student Transitions Project38 Note: “Other Undergraduate” includes post-degree diplomas, first professional degrees, advanced diplomas, post-degree certificates. “Other Graduate” includes graduate certificates and diplomas Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

39 Gender Ratio by Type of Credential Completed, 2008 Fact #14b Student Transitions Project39 >>> Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

40 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project40 Credentials Awarded, by Program is the number of students who received a credential from B.C. public post-secondary institutions in calendar year 2008, by program. The program information is derived from the Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) code associated with the program for each credential awarded. Gender Ratio is the number of male program completers per female program completers (see Fact #15b for summary). Gender ratio definition is provided in Fact #12.Fact #15b Fact #12 The majority of credential completers in 2008 were in Arts and Sciences programs, of which two-thirds were female. Credential completers in Trades and Engineering and Applied Sciences programs were dominated by males. Females outnumbered males in all other program areas completed, with a notable dominance in Health and Education programs. Credentials Awarded, by Program 15 Fact #15

41 Credentials Awarded, by Program (Calendar Year 2008) Fact #15a Student Transitions Project41 Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

42 Gender Ratio (M:F), by Completed Credential Program Area, 2008 Fact #15b Student Transitions Project42 >>> 5.69 Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

43 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project43 All Credentials Awarded from 2003 to 2008 by B.C. public post-secondary institutions, includes all credential types listed in Fact #14a.Fact #14a Over the six-year period, from 2003 to 2008, a total of 314,649 credentials were awarded from B.C. public post- secondary institutions, of which 55% were awarded to females and 43% to males. Trends – All Credentials Awarded 16 Fact #16

44 All Credentials Awarded 2003 to 2008 Fact #16 Student Transitions Project44 Note: A total of 314,649 credentials were awarded from 2003 to 2008, including 4,929 students with gender unknown. Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

45 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project45 Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded is the count of Bachelor’s Degrees awarded annually by B.C. public post-secondary institutions. Over the six-year period, from 2003 to 2008, a total of 108,915 Bachelor’s Degrees were awarded, of which 61% were awarded to females and 38% to males. In the last five years, females have consistently earned at least 60% of all Bachelor’s Degrees awarded in B.C. Trends - Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded 17 Fact #17

46 Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded 2003 to 2008 Fact #17 Student Transitions Project46 Note: A total of 108,915 Bachelor's Degrees were awarded from 2003 to 2008, including 1,646 students with gender unknown. Source: STP, Credentials Awarded by Calendar Year (2003 to 2008).

47 Part E Post-Secondary Enrollment in Canada Student Transitions Project47

48 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project48 University Enrollment in 2007/08 in each province in Canada is available from Statistics Canada by province and by full-time or part-time status. The % distribution of university enrollment between males and females, by province and full-time/part-time status is provided. On average, 57% of the full- time university enrollment in Canada in 2007/08 was comprised of females and 43% males. This is consistent with the proportion in B.C. For the country as a whole, 67% of part-time university students were female (vs. 32% male). B.C. has the lowest proportion of females (58%) and highest share of males (43%) participating in university on a part-time basis. University Enrollment in Canada 18 Fact #18

49 University Enrollment in Canada, % Male-Female by Province, 2007/08 Fact #18 Student Transitions Project49 Full-Time UniversityPart-Time University Source: CAUT Almanac , Table 3.4, Full-time and Part-time University Enrolment, , originally from Statistics Canada.

50 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project50 College Enrollment in 2007/08 in each province in Canada is available from Statistics Canada by province and by full-time or part-time status. The % distribution of college enrollment between males and females, by province and full-time/part-time status is provided. On average, 58% of the full- time college enrollment in B.C. in 2007/08 was comprised of females and 42% males. In the Maritime Provinces, part-time males exceed part-time females. The % distribution of females (64%) and males (36%) enrolled part-time in college is roughly the same as the average for Canada (61% vs. 39%). College Enrollment in Canada 19 Fact #19

51 College Enrollment in Canada, % Male-Female by Province, 2007/08 Fact #19 Student Transitions Project51 Full-Time CollegePart-Time College Source: CAUT Almanac , Table 3.3, Full-time and Part-time College Enrolment, , originally from Statistics Canada.

52 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project52 Undergraduate FTE is the full- time equivalent enrollment in 2007/08. The % of females in each discipline is provided for B.C. vs. Canada. Across all disciplines in Canada, females comprise 59% of all undergraduate FTE enrollment (similar to 58% for B.C.) The share of females in B.C. in each discipline is similar to the share of females per discipline in Canada, except for Personal, Protective and Transportation Services (63% females in B.C. vs. 46% for all of Canada). Undergraduate FTE’s by Discipline 20 Fact #20

53 2007/08 Undergraduate FTE’s: % Female by Major Discipline Fact #20 Student Transitions Project53 Source: CAUT Almanac , Table 3.11, Undergraduate Enrollment by Major Discipline and Sex, , originally from Statistics Canada.

54 Part F B.C. Labour Market Information Student Transitions Project54

55 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project55 Unemployment Rate is the % of the B.C. labour force, age 25 to 34, who were unemployed, as per the 2006 Census. Unemployment rates for males vs. females are compared at different levels of education. In 2006, for those aged 25 to 34, the unemployment rate for males was below that of females at all levels of education and across all disciplines combined. By earning a bachelor’s degree over a high school certificate, females aged 25 to 34 can reduce their unemployment rate 2.5 percentage points, but the benefit to males is much smaller (0.8 percentage points). B.C. Unemployment Rates 21 Fact #21

56 B.C. Unemployment % by Highest Level of Education, Age Fact #21 Student Transitions Project56 Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Age 25-34, B.C., Statistics Canada catalogue no XCB Unemployment Rates Compared: High School vs. Bachelor’s Degree -0.8% -2.5%

57 DEFINITIONS OBSERVATIONS & NOTES Student Transitions Project57 Median Income is the amount of employment income earned by individuals in B.C., aged 25 to 34, working full-time for the full year, as per the 2006 Census. The median is the income level at which half the individuals earn below that amount and half earn above that amount. The median income for males and females, age 25 to 34, is higher for those with a Bachelor’s degree compared to those with a certificate or diploma below a bachelor’s degree (including high school, apprenticeship, college, etc. below a bachelor’s degree). The median income of females with a bachelor’s degree is roughly the same as males without a bachelor’s degree. Median Income in B.C., Age Fact #22

58 Median Income in B.C., Age Fact #22 Student Transitions Project58 Source: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, Age 25-34, B.C., Statistics Canada catalogue no XCB

59 Links Student Transitions Project59

60 Links Student Transitions Project STP Fast Facts Post-secondary Central Data Warehouse (CDW) BC HEADset Ministry of Education Reporting on K-12 Education Links Student Transitions Project60


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