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The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being

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1 The Role of Car Use for Subjective Well-Being
Cecilia Bergstad Jakobsson (co-PI) Amelie Gamble Tommy Gärling (PI) Olle Hagman Merrit Polk University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden Margareta Friman Lars E. Olsson Karlstad University, Sweden Dick Ettema Utrecht University, The Netherlands

2 Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Definitions
SWB has a cognitive and an affective component. The cognitive component is a global judgement of (current or past) satisfaction with one´s life. It is heavily influenced by and slightly influences domain satisfaction, e.g. judgments of satisfaction with one´s health, work, marriage and leisure. The affectíve component (sometimes referred to as affective SWB) is identified with (current or past) mood which vary from positive to negative.

3 Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Measurement
SWB is either measured by a single-item scale: ”Taken all things together, how would you say your life is today? Would you say you are very happy, rather happy, or not happy at all?” (World Values Survey, Eurobarometer) Or by a multi-item scale “In most ways my life is close to my ideal; The conditions of my life are excellent; I am satisfied with my life; So far I have achieved the important things I want in life; If I could live my life over again, I would change almost nothing.” (Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS; Diener et al.) Mood is measured by self-report rating scales (but physiological methods may also be used): ”Rate how positive-negative you feel at the moment/have felt previous week.” ”Indicate how frequently you have felt positive/negative previous week.”

4 Subjective Well-Being (SWB) Determinants
Personality (50%) Higher for extravert than introvert people Higher for emotional stable than emotional instable people Socio-demographic variables (10%) Women more variable than men U-shaped relation to age (minimum at 40) Increases with education Increases with employment Negatively accelerated function of income Increases after marriage, decreases after divorce or death of spouse Intentional activities (40%) Increases with goal pursuit Increases with positive affect associated with activities Decreases with daily hassles (negative stress)

5 Daily Travel and SWB (1) SWB activity performance travel time cost
satisfaction with travel travel time cost reliability safety security mood

6 psychological motives
Daily Travel and SWB (2) psychological motives socio-demographic variables car access satisfaction with travel car use

7 Survey in September-November 2007
Sample 1,330 (44.3 %) randomly sampled Swedish residents: 196 (19.6 %) from urban areas (>200,000) 536 (53.6 %) from semi-rural areas (20, ,000) 543 (54.3 %) from rural areas (<20,000) 53.7% women/mean age 46.3 years Singles without children 12.7% Single 19.8% Singles with children 5.1% Cohabiting 77.4% Cohabiting without children 34.3% Without children 47.0% Cohabuting with children 43.1% With children 48.2% 35.2% had a university degree 56.3% was full-time employed/69.8% mean employment degree 1,134 (85.2%) access to private cars

8 Survey in September-November 2007
Questionnaire Psychological motives for car use Performance of out-of-home activities previous week Affect associated with performance of the activities Travel mode to the activities Mood (previous week) SWB (life in general) Satisfaction with travel Socio-demographic variables

9 Survey in September-November 2007
Measures Scales of instrumental-independence motives (11 items 0-6, M = 5.0/SD = 0.9,  = .87) Scales of affective-symbolic motives (14 items 0-6, M = 1.8/SD = 1.2,  = .91) (0-6) Number of weekly car trips (M = 11.2/SD = 8.7) Percent car use as driver to activities (M = 69.4/SD = 33.0) Percent car use as passenger to activities (M = 13.0/SD = 21.0) SWB (SWLS, 6 items 0-6, M = 4.0/SD=1.3,  = .92) Weekly mood (SCAS, 2 items -3-3, M=4.0/SD = 1.3,  > .75) Satisfaction with activities (SAS, mean 4.5 items -3-3, M = 4.3/SD = 0.9,  > .77) Satisfaction with travel (STS, 5 items 0-6, M = 3.7/SD = 1.3,  = .77)

10 Study 1 Affective-symbolic and instrumental-independence motives for daily car use mediating effects of socio-demographic variables on car use Research Question To what degree do instrumental-indepedence and affective-symbolic motives mediate relationships between socio-demographic variables and daily car use?

11 Study 1: Measures of psychological motives
Instrumental-indepenedence To what extent do you agree to that … I express myself through my car; Driving is sporty and adventurous; Driving is my hobby; The car gives me power in traffic; The car provides privacy; I enjoy driving a nice, good-looking car; I can distinguish myself from others;I get a kick out of driving; I am a bit in love with my car; Driving is enjoyable; The car gives me prestige; Driving is relaxing; I love driving fast; I love the drone of my engine and muffler. Affective-symbolic To what extent do you agree to that … The car brings me wherever I want; Driving saves a lot of time; Driving makes my life more easy; I can visit family and friends; Feelings of freedom the car gives me; Driving is comfortable; I am free to stop everywhere; I am not dependent on others; I get out; I can chose my own route; The car enables recreational trips and holidays. 11

12 Number of weekly car trips
Study 1: Results (1) Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta Instrumental-independence motive Affective-symbolic motive Sex (man 1, woman -1) * Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status Children (1 vs. no children -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area * Number of cars Number of weekly car trips R2adj = .09  .11 *Partial mediation by instrumental-independence motive

13 Study 1: Results (2) % car trips as driver R2adj = .14  .18
Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta Instrumental-independence motive Affective-symbolic motive Sex (man 1, woman -1) * Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status Children (1 vs. no children -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area * Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area * Number of cars % car trips as driver R2adj = .14  .18 *Partial mediation by instrumental-independence motive

14 % car trips as passenger
Study 1: Results (3) Socio-Demographic Variables n beta  beta Instrumental-independence motive Affective-symbolic motive Sex (man 1, woman -1) Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status Children (1 vs. no children -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (-1) vs semi-rural (1) residential area Urban (-1) vs rural (1) residential area Number of cars % car trips as passenger R2adj = .07  .08

15 Study 2 Impact of Routine Out-of-Home Activities on SWB
Research Question Does affect associated with performance of out-of-home routine activities influence SWB? Is this effect mediated by mood?

16 Study 2: Results (1) Mood M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .02
Socio-Demographic Variables n beta Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status Children (1 vs. no children -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Income (1-6) Employment (%) Urban (1 vs rural -1) residential area Semi-rural (1 vs rural -1) residential area Mood M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .02

17 Study 2: Results (2) SWB M=1.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .07
Socio-Demographic Variables n beta beta Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (1 vs. single -1) marital status Children (1 vs. no children -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Income (1-6) Employment (%) Urban (1 vs rural -1) residential area Semi-rural (1 vs rural -1) residential area SWB M=1.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .07

18 Socio-demographic variables (R2adj = .07)
Study 2: Results (3) SWB M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .43 beta 0.16 0.03 0.04 0.07 -0.01 0.05 0.25 -0.02* 0.03* 0.00* 0.01* 0.01 Socio-demographic variables (R2adj = .07) n M SD beta 0.32 0.19 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.12 -0.04 Mood Work/school Non-durables purchase Other purchases Sports/exercise/outings Hobby/religious/courses Visiting relatives/friends Restaurants/entertainment Picking up/leaving children Children’s leisure activities Mood R2adj = .30 *Full mediation

19 Study 3 SWB related to satisfaction with daily travel
Research Question Does satisfaction with daily travel have direct and indirect (via satisfaction with activity performance) positive effects on SWB? Does car use play a more important role for this than other travel modes?

20 Study 3: Measure of satisfaction with travel
To what extent do you agree to that … I am completely satisfied with my daily travel; My travel facilitates my daily life; When I think of my daily travel the positive aspects outweighs the negative; I do not want to change anything regarding my daily travel; My daily travel makes me feel good 20

21 Satisfaction with travel
Study 3: Results (1) Socio-Demographic variables #cars in household Weekly car use (%) Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) Age (40 – 54 year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1) Children (yes 1, no -1) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area n beta Satisfaction with travel M=3.7/SD=1.3 R2adj = .02

22 Study 3: Results (2) Mood M=1.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .07  .31
Satisfaction with travel Satisfaction with activities #cars in household Weekly car use (%) Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1) Children (yes 1, no -1,) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area n beta  beta * Mood M=1.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .07  .31 *Partial mediation

23 Study 3: Results (3) SWB M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .13  .21
Satisfaction with travel Satisfaction with activities #cars in household Weekly car use (%) Sex (man 1 vs. woman -1) Age (40 – 54 years 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Age (55 + year 1 vs. 18 – 39 years -1) Cohabitant (yes 1, no -1) Children (yes 1, no -1,) University (1 vs. lower -1) education Employment (%) Income (1-6) Urban (1 vs. rural -1) residential area Semi-rural (1 vs. rural -1) residential area n beta  beta * SWB M=4.0/SD=1.3 R2adj = .13  .21 *Partial mediation

24 Conclusions Affect associated with out-of-home routine activities accounted for 30% of the variance in mood and because of full mediation, 12% of the variance in SWB. Conversely, the socio-demographic variables account for 7% of the variance in SWB and 2% of the variance in Mood. This is close to what has been found in previous research. A new finding is that routine activities have such a large impact. Satisfaction with daily travel increases Mood and SWB, partially because (= partial mediation) it facilitates activity participation, partly because of direct effects. In the investigated sample car use plays some role for satisfaction with daily travel. Why not a larger role? In the investigated sample instrumental-independence motives are more important than affective-symbolic motives for car use. Why? Only a small proportion of the variance in car use was accounted for, more by the socio-demographic variables than the psychological motives which only (partially) mediated some of the relationship between sex and car use. Why?

25 Overview of travel and SWB
Ettema, D., Gärling, T., Olsson, L. E., & Friman, M. (2009). Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and subjective well-being. Manuscript. Study 1 Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Affective-symbolic and instrumental-independence motives mediating effects of socio-demographic variables on car use. Manuscript. Study 2 Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Impact of routine out-of-home activities on affective and cognitive subjective well-being. Manuscript. Study 3 Jakobsson Bergstad, C., Gamble, A., Hagman, O., Polk, M., Gärling, T., Ettema, D., Friman, M., & Olsson, L. E. (2009). Subjective well-being related to satisfaction with daily travel. Manuscript.

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