Study Designs Studies are Imbedded in school structure (grade based) Curriculum based-intended-implemented- achieved Content and Cognitive Domains Trend Design Based on world-wide agreed standards Capture school, teacher, student, parent context Have a wide focus (grade levels and subjects) Include regional options
Capacity Building Assessment is not a goal in itself IEA emphasizes capacity building in the countries to Find what works in the country context Find answers to pressing policy questions Find differences within the country Finding ways to improve the educational system All data available to download, software support for analysis, seminars for countries’ researchers
Result Highlights from TIMSS/PIRLS 2011 Strength High Benchmark Mathematics – 82% Reading – 67% Science – 46% High Benchmark All Three – 39% Low Benchmark All Three – 97%
Publications with IEA Data in 2012 and 2013 (searched in EBSCO) Alexander, R. (2012). Moral panic, miracle cures and educational policy: What can we really learn from international comparison? Scottish Educational Review, 44(1), 4–21. Areepattamannil, S. (2012). Science self-beliefs and science achievement of adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Educational Studies, 38(1), 13–17. Doi:10.1080/03055698.2011.567058 Areepattamannil, S. (2012). First- and second-generation immigrant adolescents’ multidimensional mathematics and science self-concepts and their achievement in mathematics and science. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 10(3), 695–716. Bakker, S. (2012). Introduction of external, independent testing in “new countries”: Successes and defeats of the introduction of modern educational assessment techniques in former soviet and socialist countries. Educational Measurement: Issues & Practice, 31(2), 38–44. Doi:10.1111/j.1745- 3992.2012.00234.x Chen, Y.-H. (2012). Cognitive diagnosis of mathematics performance between rural and urban students in Taiwan. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 19(2), 193–209. Doi:10.1080/0969594x.2011.560562 Cho, I. (2012). The effect of teacher–student gender matching: Evidence from OECD countries. Economics of Education Review, 31(3), 54–67. Doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2012.02.002 Choi, K., Choi, T., & Mcaninch, M. (2012). A comparative investigation of the presence of psychological conditions in high achieving eighth graders from TIMSS 2007 mathematics. ZDM, 44(2), 189–199. Doi:10.1007/S11858-012-0401-6 Dodeen, H., Abdelfattah, F., Shumrani, S., & Hilal, M. A. (2012). The effects of teachers’ qualifications, practices, and perceptions on student achievement in TIMSS mathematics: a comparison of two countries. International Journal of Testing, 12(1), 61–77. Doi:10.1080/15305058.2011.621568 Gültekin, S., & Demirtaşli, N. Ç. (2012). Çoktan seçmeli, açik uçlu ve karma testlerden sağlanan bilginin madde tepki kuramina dayali olarak karşilaştirilmasi. (in Turkish). Ilkogretim Online, 11(1), 251–263. Gür, B. S., Çelik, Z., & Özoğlu, M. (2012). Policy options for turkey: a critique of the interpretation and utilization of PISA results in Turkey. Journal of Education Policy, 27(1), 1–21. Doi:10.1080/02680939.2011.595509 House, J. D. (2012). Motivational effects of computers and classroom instruction for science learning: an examination of eighth-grade students in the United States and Korea in the TIMSS 2007 Assessment. International Journal of Instructional Media, 39(2), 169–179. House, J. D., & Telese, J. A. (2012). Effects of mathematics lesson activities and computer use on algebra achievement of eighth-grade students in the United States and japan: findings from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment. International Journal of Instructional Media, 39(1), 69–81. Jianjun Wang. (2012). A comparative study of science achievement and self-concept during a historical transition. International Education Studies, 5(1), 137–146. Doi:10.5539/ies.v5n1p137 Kwon, O., & Ju, M.-K. (2012). Standards for professionalization of mathematics teachers: policy, curricula, and national teacher employment test in Korea. ZDM, 44(2), 211–222. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0384-3 Lloyd, D., & Pratt, A. (2012). The new OFSTED framework - Implications for teaching and learning. Teaching Business & Economics, 16(2), 28–29. Männamaa, M., Kikas, E., Peets, K., & Palu, A. (2012). Cognitive correlates of math skills in third-grade students. Educational Psychology, 32(1), 21–44. Doi:10.1080/01443410.2011.621713 Park, H., Lawson, D., & Williams, H. E. (2012). Relations between technology, parent education, self-confidence, and academic aspiration of Hispanic immigrant students. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 46(3), 255–265. Schmidt, W. H. (2012). At the precipice: The story of mathematics education in the United States. Peabody Journal of Education, 87(1), 133–156. Doi:10.1080/0161956x.2012.642280 Serrano, A. M. (2012). A cross-cultural investigation into how tasks influence seatwork activities in mathematics lessons. Teaching & Teacher Education, 28(6), 806–817. Doi:10.1016/j.tate.2012.03.001 Spencer, J. A. (2012). Views from the black of the math classroom. Dissent, 59(1), 76–80. Wiseman, A. W. (2012). The impact of student poverty on science teaching and learning: a cross-national comparison of the South African case. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(7), 941–960. Doi:10.1177/0002764211408861 Yoshino, A. (2012). The relationship between self-concept and achievement in TIMSS 2007: a comparison between American and Japanese students. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 58(2), 199–219. Doi:10.1007/s11159-012-9283-7 Zhu, Y., & Leung, F. (2012). Homework and mathematics achievement in Hong Kong: evidence from the TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 10(4), 907–925. Bagata, B., Geske, A., & Kiselova, R. (2012). Using the IEA TIMSS tests to compare pupils´ Science Education Achievements at regional and school levels. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 3(1). Cavanagh, S. (2012). Complex policy options abound amid international comparisons. Education Week, 31(16), 6–10. Chen, S. F., Lin, C. Y., Wang, J. R., Lin, S. W., & Kao, H. L. (2012). A cross-grade comparison to examine the context effect on the relationships among family resources, school climate, learning participation, science attitude, and science achievement based on TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan. International Journal of Science Education, 1-18. Falch, T., & Fischer, J. A. V. (2012). Public sector decentralization and school performance: International evidence. Economics Letters, 114(3), 276– 279. Sparks, S. D. (2012). Matching up states, countries gives fresh take on performance. Education Week, 31(16), 36–38. Wang, Z., Osterlind, S., & Bergin, D. (N.D.). Building mathematics achievement models in four countries using TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1–28. Doi:10.1007/s10763-011-9328-6 Brozo, W. G., Valtin, R., Garbe, C., Sulkunen, S., Shiel, G., & Pandian, A. (2012). A report from the PISA/PIRLS task force: member country highlights from PISA 2009. Reading Today, 29(6), 11–13. Caro, D. H., & Lenkeit, J. (2012). An analytical approach to study educational inequalities: 10 hypothesis tests in PIRLS 2006. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 35(1), 3–30. Doi:10.1080/1743727x.2012.666718 Thiel, O. (2012). Socio-economic diversity and mathematical competences. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20(1), 61–81. Doi:10.1080/1350293x.2012.650012 Van Staden, S., & Howie, S. (2012). Reading between the lines: contributing factors that affect grade 5 student reading performance as measured across South Africa’s 11 languages. Educational Research & Evaluation, 18(1), 85–98. Doi:10.1080/13803611.2011.641270 Caro, D. H., & Mirazchiyski, P. (2012). Socioeconomic gradients in eastern European countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006. European Educational Research Journal, 11(1), 96–110. Cavanagh, S. (2012). Complex policy options abound amid international comparisons. Education Week, 31(16), 6–10 Blömeke, S., Suhl, U., Kaiser, G., & Döhrmann, M. (2012). Family background, entry selectivity and opportunities to learn: what matters in primary teacher education? An international comparison of fifteen countries. Teaching & Teacher Education, 28(1), 44–55. Doi:10.1016/j.tate.2011.08.006 Sawchuk, S. (2012). Teacher training has key role to play. Education Week, 31(16), 14. Döhrmann, M., Kaiser, G., & Blömeke, S. (2012). The conceptualization of mathematics competencies in the International Teacher Education Study TEDS-M. ZDM, 44(3), 325–340. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0432-z Felbrich, A., Kaiser, G., & Schmotz, C. (2012). The cultural dimension of beliefs: An investigation of future primary teachers’ epistemological beliefs concerning the nature of mathematics in 15 countries. ZDM, 44(3), 355–366. Doi: 10.1007/s11858-012-0418-x König, J., & Blömeke, S. (2012). Future teachers’ general pedagogical knowledge from a comparative perspective: Does school experience matter? ZDM, 44(3), 341–354. Doi: 10.1007/s11858-012-0394-1 Blömeke, S., & Delaney, S. (2012). Assessment of teacher knowledge across countries: A review of the state of research. ZDM, 44(3), 223–247. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0429-7 Schmidt, W. H. (2012). At the precipice: the story of mathematics education in the United States. Peabody Journal of Education, 87(1), 133–156. Doi:10.1080/0161956x.2012.642280 Blömeke, S., & Kaiser, G. (2012). Homogeneity or Heterogeneity? Profiles of opportunities to learn in primary teacher education and their relationship to cultural context and outcomes. ZDM, 44(3), 249–264. Doi:10.1007/s11858-011-0378-6 Cole, Y. (2012). Assessing elemental validity: the transfer and use of mathematical knowledge for teaching measures in Ghana. ZDM, 44(3), 415–426. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0380-7 Delaney, S. (2012). A validation study of the use of mathematical knowledge for teaching measures in Ireland. ZDM, 44(3), 427–441. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0382-5 Fauskanger, J., Jakobsen, A., Mosvold, R., & Bjuland, R. (2012). Analysis of psychometric properties as part of an iterative adaptation process of MKT items for use in other countries. ZDM, 44(3), 387–399. Doi:10.1007/s11858-012-0403-4 Senk, S., Tatto, M., Reckase, M., Rowley, G., Peck, R., & Bankov, K. (2012). Knowledge of future primary teachers for teaching mathematics: An international comparative study. ZDM, 44(3), 307–324. Doi: 10.1007/s11858-012-0400-7 Barber, C., & Torney-Purta, J. (2012). Comparing attitudes in the 1999 and 2009 IEA Civic and Citizenship Education Studies: Opportunities and limitations illustrated in five countries. Journal of Social Science Education, 11(1), 47–63. Cosgrove, J., & Gilleece, L. (2012). An international perspective on civic participation in irish post-primary schools: Results from ICCS. Irish Educational Studies, 1–19. Doi:10.1080/03323315.2012.664948 Gilleece, L., & Cosgrove, J. (2012). Student civic participation in school: what makes a difference in Ireland? Education, Citizenship and Social Justice. Doi:10.1177/1746197912448715 Ince, B. (2012). Citizenship education in turkey: inclusive or exclusive. Oxford Review of Education, 38(2), 115–131. Doi:10.1080/03054985.2011.651314 Liljestrand, J. (2012). Citizenship education in discussions concerning political issues. Utbildning & Demokrati, 21(1), 77–95. Ljunggren, C., & Unemar Öst, I. (2012). Teachers’ dealings with controversial issues – a typology from the 2009 IEA/ICCS study. PCS – Politics, Culture and Socialization, 2(3). Quaynor, L. J. (2012). Citizenship education in post-conflict contexts: a review of the literature. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(1), 33–57. Doi:10.1177/1746197911432593 Kennedy, K. J. (2012). Asian students’ citizenship values and their relationship to civic understanding: An exploratory study comparing Thai and Hong Kong students. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(2), 248–259. Cosgrove, J., & Gilleece, L. (2012). An international perspective on civic participation in Irish post-primary schools: Results from ICCS. Irish Educational Studies, 31(4), 377–395. Gilleece, L., & Cosgrove, J. (2012). Student civic participation in school: What makes a difference in Ireland? Education, Citizenship & Social Justice, 7(3), 225–239. Macháček, L. (2012). Education of the school youth to democratic citizenship in Slovakia. Mokinių Demokratinio Pilietiškumo Ugdymas Slovakijoje., (107), 110–117. House, J. D. (2012). Effects of computer engagement and classroom instructional activities on reading achievement of a national sample of Chinese- American elementary- school students: results from the TIMSS 2006 assessment. International Journal of Instructional Media, 39(4), 345–354. Johansson, S., Myrberg, E., & Rosén, M. (2012). Teachers and tests: assessing pupils’ reading achievement in primary schools. Educational Research & Evaluation, 18(8), 693–711. Lee, M., & Hallinger, P. (2012). National contexts influencing principals’ time use and allocation: Economic development, societal culture, and educational system. School Effectiveness & School Improvement, 23(4), 461–482. Sparfeldt, J. R., Kimmel, R., Löwenkamp, L., Steingräber, A., & Rost, D. H. (2012). Not read, but nevertheless solved? Three experiments on PIRLS multiple choice reading comprehension test items. Educational Assessment, 17(4), 214–232. Abu-Hilal, M. M., Abdelfattah, F. A., Alshumrani, S. A., Abduljabbar, A. S., & Marsh, H. W. (N.D.). Construct validity of self-concept in TIMSS’s student background questionnaire: a test of separation and conflation of cognitive and affective dimensions of self-concept among Saudi eighth graders. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1–20. Doi:10.1007/s10212-012-0162-1 Chen, S.-F., Lin, C.-Y., Wang, J.-R., Lin, S.-W., & Kao, H.-L. (2012). A cross-grade comparison to examine the context effect on the relationships among family resources, school climate, learning participation, science attitude, and science achievement based on TIMSS 2003 in Taiwan. International Journal of Science Education, 34(14), 2089–2106. Doi:10.1080/09500693.2012.701352 Glynn, S. M. (2012). International Assessment: A RASCH model and teachers’ evaluation of TIMSS science achievement items. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(10), 1321–1344. Hansson, Å. (2012). The meaning of mathematics instruction in multilingual classrooms: Analyzing the importance of responsibility for learning. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 81(1), 103–125. Hee Kyung Hong. (2012). Trends in mathematics and science performance in 18 countries: Multiple regression analysis of the cohort effects of TIMSS 1995-2007. Tendências no desempenho em matemáticas e ciências em 18 países: análise de regressão múltipla de efeitos de coorte no TIMSS 1995- 2007., 20(33), 1–20. House, J. D. (2012b). Science achievement of elementary-school students in the United States and Japan in TIMSS 2007: An assessment of the effects of technology engagement and classroom lesson activities. International Journal of Instructional Media, 39(3), 263–274. Louis, R., & Mistele, J. (2012). The differences in scores and self-efficacy by student gender in mathematics and science. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 10(5), 1163–1190. Mesic, V. (2012). Identifying country-specific cultures of physics education: A differential item functioning approach. International Journal of Science Education, 34(16), 2483–2500. Mohammadpour, E. (2012a). Factors accounting for mathematics achievement of Singaporean eighth-graders. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(3), 507–518. Mohammadpour, E. (2012b). A multilevel study on trends in Malaysian secondary school students’ science achievement and associated school and student predictors. Science Education, 96(6), 1013–1046. Ng, K. T., Lay, Y. F., Areepattamannil, S., Treagust, D. F., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2012). Relationship between affect and achievement in science and mathematics in Malaysia and Singapore. Research in Science & Technological Education, 30(3), 225–237. Rutkowski, D., Rutkowski, L., & Plucker, J. A. (2012). Trends in education excellence gaps: A 12-year international perspective via the multilevel model for change. High Ability Studies, 23(2), 143–166. Vandecandelaere, M., Speybroeck, S., Vanlaar, G., De Fraine, B., & Van Damme, J. (2012). Learning environment and students’ mathematics attitude. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 38(3/4), 107–120. Wang, Z., Osterlind, S. J., & Bergin, D. A. (2012). Building mathematics achievement models in four countries using TIMSS 2003. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(5), 1215–1242. Doi:10.1007/s10763-011-9328-6 Wiseman, A. W., & Anderson, E. (2012). ICT-Integrated Education and National Innovation Systems in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Computers & Education, 59(2), 607–618. Yu, C. H. (2012). Examining the relationships among academic self-concept, instrumental motivation, and TIMSS 2007 science scores: A cross-cultural comparison of five East Asian countries/regions and the United States. Educational Research & Evaluation, 18(8), 713–731. Blómeke, S. (2012). Content, Professional Preparation, and Teaching Methods: How Diverse Is Teacher Education across Countries? Contenido, preparación profesional y métodos de enseñanza: ¿Cuan diversa es la educación de los profesores entre países?, 56(4), 684–714. Chudgar, A., Luschei, T. F., & Yisu Zhou. (2013). Science and Mathematics Achievement and the Importance of Classroom Composition: Multicounty Analysis Using TIMSS 2007. American Journal of Education, 119(2), 295–316. Hopland, A. O. (2013). School Facilities and Student Achievement in Industrial Countries: Evidence from the TIMSS. International Education Studies, 6(3), 162–171. Peterson, P. E. (2013). Revelations from the TIMSS. Education Next, 13(2), 5–5. Shymansky, J., Annetta, L., Yore, L. D., Wang, T.-L., & Everett, S. (2013). The Impact of a Multiyear Systemic Reform Effort on Rural Elementary School Students’ Science Achievement. School Science & Mathematics, 113(2), 69–79. Turgut, G. (2013). International Tests and the U.S. Educational Reforms: Can Success Be Replicated? Clearing House, 86(2), 64–73. Hao, S., & Johnson, R. L. (2013). Teachers’ classroom assessment practices and fourth-graders’ reading literacy achievements: An international study. Teaching & Teacher Education, 29, 53–63. Sandilands, D., Oliveri, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., & Ercikan, K. (2013). Investigating Sources of Differential Item Functioning in International Large-Scale Assessments Using a Confirmatory Approach. International Journal of Testing, 13(2), 152–174. Cho,Y., & Kim, T. (2013). Asian Civic Values: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Three East Asian Societies. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(1), 21– 31. Geske, A., & Cekse, I. (2013). The Influence of Civic and Citizenship Education Achievements on the Development of Students’ Citizenship Attitudes. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 52, 21–34. Hooghe, M., & Dassonneville, R. (2013). Voters and Candidates of the Future: The Intention of Electoral Participation among Adolescents in 22 European Countries. Young, 21(1), 1–28. Kaiser, G., & Blömeke, S. (2013). Learning from the Eastern and the Western debate: The case of mathematics teacher education. ZDM, 45(1), 7–19. Andrews, P. (2013). What Does PISA Performance Tell Us about Mathematics Teaching Quality? Case studies from Finland and Flanders. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, 23(1), 99–115. Daniel, E. G. S. (2013). Asia Pacific science education in a knowledge society. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 33(2), 170–182. Drent, M., Meelissen, M. R. M., & Van Der Kleij, F. M. (2013). The contribution of TIMSS to the link between school and classroom factors and student achievement. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(2), 198–224. Hansson, Å., & Gustafsson, J.-E. (2013). Measurement Invariance of Socioeconomic Status across Migrational Background. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 57(2), 148–166. Jen, T.-H., Lee, C.-D., Chien, C.-L., Hsu, Y.-S., & Chen, K.-M. (2013). Perceived Social Relationships and Science Learning Outcomes for Taiwanese Eighth Graders: Structural Equation Modeling with a Complex Sampling Consideration. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(3), 575–600. Larson, M. R., & Leinwand, S. (2013). Prepare for More Realistic Testing Results. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 18(9), 524–526. Machin, S., McNally, S., & Wyness, G. (2013). Educational attainment across the UK nations: performance, inequality and evidence. Educational Research, 55(2), 139–164. Mills, J. D., & Holloway, C. E. (2013). The development of statistical literacy skills in the eighth grade: exploring the TIMSS data to evaluate student achievement and teacher characteristics in the United States. Educational Research & Evaluation, 19(4), 323–345. Pahlke, E., Hyde, J. S., & Mertz, J. E. (2013). The Effects of Single-Sex Compared With Coeducational Schooling on Mathematics and Science Achievement: Data from Korea. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 444–452. Peterson, P. E. (2013). Revelations from the TIMSS. Education Next, 13(2), 5–5. Rutkowski, L., Rutkowski, D., & Engel, L. (2013). Sharp Contrasts at the Boundaries: School Violence and Educational Outcomes Internationally. Comparative Education Review, 57(2), 232–259. Tienken, C. H. (2013). Conclusions from PISA and TIMSS Testing. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 49(2), 56–58. Sandilands, D., Oliveri, M. E., Zumbo, B. D., & Ercikan, K. (2013). Investigating Sources of Differential Item Functioning in International Large-Scale Assessments Using a Confirmatory Approach. International Journal of Testing, 13(2), 152–174. Barber, C., Fennelly, K., & Torney-Purta, J. (2013). Nationalism and Support for Immigrants’ Rights Among Adolescents in 25 Countries. Applied Developmental Science, 17(2), 60–75. Lauglo, J. (2013). Do more knowledgeable adolescents have more rationally based civic attitudes? Analysis of 38 countries. Educational Psychology, 33(3), 255–275. Schulz, W., Fraillon, J., & Ainley, J. (2013). Measuring young people’s understanding of civics and citizenship in a cross-national study. Educational Psychology, 33(3), 327–349. Gustafsson, J.-E. (2013). Causal inference in educational effectiveness research: a comparison of three methods to investigate effects of homework on student achievement. School Effectiveness & School Improvement, 24(3), 275–295. Marsh, H. W. &Amp;Rft Au=Abduljabbar. (2013). Factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of TIMSS math and science motivation measures: A comparison of Arab and Anglo-Saxon countries. The Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 108–128 Woolard, J. C. (2013). Prelude to the Common Core: Internationally Benchmarking a State’s Math Standards. Educational Policy, 27(4), 615–644.A three-level multilevel analysis of Singaporean eighth-graders science achievement. Learning & Individual Differences, 26, 212–220. Blömeke, S., Suhl, U., & Döhrmann, M. (2013). Assessing Strengths and Weaknesses of Teacher Knowledge in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Western Countries: Differential Item Functioning in TEDS-M. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 795–817. Cañadas, M., Gómez, P., & Rico, L. (2013). Structure of Primary Mathematics Teacher Education Programs in Spain. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 879–894. Hsieh, F.-J. (2013). Strengthening the Conceptualization of Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge for International Studies: A Taiwanese Perspective. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 923–947. Hsieh, F.-J., Wong, K., & Wang, T.-Y. (2013). Are Taiwanese and Singaporean Future Teachers Similar in Their Mathematics-Related Teaching Competencies? International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 819–846. Laschke, C. (2013). Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers’ Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 895–921. Wang, T.-Y., & Tang, S.-J. (2013). Profiles of Opportunities to Learn for Teds-M Future Secondary Mathematics Teachers. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 11(4), 847–877. Zuckerman, G. A., Kovaleva, G. S., & Kuznetsova, M. I. (2013). Between PIRLS and PISA: The advancement of reading literacy in a 10–15-year-old cohort. Learning & Individual Differences, 26, 64–73. Nemeržitski, S., Loogma, K., Heinla, E., & Eisenschmidt, E. (2013). Constructing model of teachers’ innovative behaviour in school environment. Teachers & Teaching, 19(4), 398–418.
Challenges Covering all participating countries needs Achievement differences (prePIRLS, TIMSS Num) Difference in infrastructure (CBA) Ensuring funding for studies Development costs Country costs