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A.I is the instrumental technique used to deposit semen in to the body of the uterus of a female in estrus (heat), to obtain a pregnancy Create Value.

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Presentation on theme: "A.I is the instrumental technique used to deposit semen in to the body of the uterus of a female in estrus (heat), to obtain a pregnancy Create Value."— Presentation transcript:


2 A.I is the instrumental technique used to deposit semen in to the body of the uterus of a female in estrus (heat), to obtain a pregnancy Create Value ▲ Build Trust ▲ Deliver Results

3 1. Genetic improvement: A.I allows us the use of genetically superior bulls. 2. Venereal disease transmission: Eliminates the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and improves the hygienic control. 3. Management: Natural service sires can be dangerous for both cows and people. 4. Economy: There is no need to work with herd bulls, saving the costs for feed, transport, housing and veterinary expense.

4 1. Requires good management, a good nutrition program, effective herd health, accurate records. 2. Requires accurate heat detection and trained AI technicians. 3. Appropriate handling facilities.

5 Coccygeal Vertebrae Sacral Vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae Body of uterus Ovary Infundibulum Oviduct Horn of uterus Cervix Bladder Vulva Vagina Rectum

6 Located on the pelvic floor just below the rectum. A. External genitals: Composed of the vulva, clitoris and vestibular glands. B. Vagina: It is a cavity that connects the vulva with the cervix. At natural service it receives the penis of the male.

7 Uterus : The main roll of the uterus is to feed, protect and offer shelter to the fetus until the calving moment. It consists of three parts: cervix, body of the uterus and two uterine horns.

8 Cervix: 1 to 5 inches long and 1 to 3 inches in diameter. It is made up of fibrous tissue, which is dense and hard to the palpation. Position of the cervix may vary with age of cow.

9 Body of the uterus: Located anterior to the cervix this structure is the place where the semen should be deposited (target site). It is made up of soft tissue and it is usually one (1) inch long.

10 Uterine Horns : Each one is approximately from 8 to 16 inches of length and they are connected to their respective oviducts.

11 Ovaries: Approximately 1.5 inch in length, 1 inch in width and ½ inch in thickness. Their main function is to produce eggs and the secretion of hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Oviducts: Tubs that connect the ovaries with the uterine horns. It provides the site of encounter (fertilization) between the ovum and the sperm.



14 The estrus cycle in dairy cattle is between 18 to 24 days, with an average of 21 days. The estrus cycle is divided in 4 phases: Estrus, Metestrus, Diestrus and Proestrus.

15 It is the period (12 to 18 hours) in which the cow is receptive to the bull. In this phase the Estradiol is released by the dominant follicle and its level is increased in the bloodstream causing the release of GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus and a surge of LH (luteinizing hormone) is released from the anterior pituitary. It is in this moment when the cow begins showing the sings of estrus (heat). Ovulation occurs 12 to 16 hours after the end of the estrus (heat).

16 This stage lasts 4 days and begins after ovulation with the formation of a CL (corpus luteum). The action of the LH (luteinizing hormone) and Progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum, inhibits the FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) released by the pituitary gland. If pregnancy recognition occurs, the CL will continue to produce progesterone to maintain the pregnancy.

17 This phase (12 to 13 days) is controlled by progesterone. A mature CL is established and if the cow is not pregnant, prostaglandin f2 ά will be released by the uterus on day 16 of the estrus cycle causing the regression of the CL.

18 (4 to 5 days). After the regression of the CL a new surge of GnRH, FSH and LH is released by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland causing the growth of a dominant follicle necessary for the next behavioral estrus and posterior ovulation.

19 HormonesOriginFunction GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing Hormone). HypothalamusStimulation of the release of FSH and LH. FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone). Pituitary glandFollicular growth and production. LH (Luteinizing hormone)Pituitary glandFinal maturation of follicle, ovulation, CL formation. EstrogensOvaries (Follicle)Growth of uterus, estrus behavior, cervical mucus secretion, release of LH for ovulation. OxytocinOvaries (corpus luteum, Pituitary) Milk excretion and prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandin F2aUterus (endometrium)Lysis of corpus luteum ProgesteroneOvaries (CL)Maintain the pregnancy.

20 1. Aggressive behavior (prior to estrus). 2. Attempts to mount other cows. 3. Smell vulva of other cows. 4. Swollen Vulva. 5. Rubbed off tail, muddy flanks. 6. Mucus (vulva). 7. STANDS TO BE MOUNTED



23 Tail chalk should be positioned starting two inched behind the pin bones to the tip of the tail head in a 3/4inch thick stripe. Each cow should receive one stripe of chalk per day.

24 The objective is to make the chalk appear uniform so that even slight signs of estrus are noticeable. Improper chalking Will lead to false positives and missed heats.

25 Ovsynch 10 Day Cosynch Heatsynch Presynch Resynch Prostaglandin Programs CIDR Programs MGA Programs

26 Monday=Day 0 2cc GnRH Monday=Day 7 PgF2a Wednesday=Day 9 2cc GnRH Thursday=Day 10 Timed AI

27 Monday=Day 0 2cc GnRH Monday=Day 7 PgF2a Thursday=Day 10 2cc GnRH and AI

28 Monday=Day 0 2cc GnRH Monday=Day 7 PgF2a Tuesday=Day 8 0.5cc ECP Wednesday=Day 9 AI all in Estrus Thursday=Day 10 AI all Remaining

29 Cows started when having a dominant follicle perform better than those where a dominant follicle is not present Groups of cows serviced before 70 DIM do not perform as well as those serviced after 70 DIM when in a Synchronization Program


31 Pre-synchronization of Cows will allow a higher percentage of the cows to be in the most favorable stage of the Estrus Cycle when Synchronization is initiated Two injections of PgF2a are given 14 days apart and then the Synch Program is started 12 to 14 days after the 2nd PgF2a


33 GnRH given 7 days before Preg Check will allow open cows to be serviced within 2 to 3 days when vet check is the same as “shot” day Best performance is achieved when started on days 28 through 34 after last insemination

34 For those diagnosing pregnancy at 32 days or less, it is better to start the cows found open at the day of examination than it is to start them the week before Reason? Dominant Follicles

35 PgF2a works by causing luteolysis of the existing CL Estrus will follow injection in 2 to 7 days Injections repeated in 11 to 14 days will improve synchronization with most heats in 2 to 5 days

36 Day 0 = CIDR In Day 6 = PgF2a Day 7 = CIDR Out Day 8 – 10 = Estrus Detection and AI

37 MGA fed at the rate of 0.5mg / head / day for 14 days Nineteen days later (day 33) = PgF2a Estrus Detection and AI 2 to 4 days after PgF2a (days 35-37)

38 Storage Tank 1. Clean and dry place. 2. Always carry it in vertical position. 3. Check nitrogen periodically

39 Thaw unit A.I Gun Plastic sheath Palpation sleeves Tweezers Straw cutter or scissors Paper towels Lubricant

40 Wash hands prior to procedure. Prepare thaw unit with clean water 95 F Place thaw unit close to the tank Keep canister below frost line Use tweezers to transfer straw from the tank to the thaw unit. < 5 seconds. Straw should be thaw in 95 F water for a minimum of 40 seconds.

41 Once thawed, straws cannot be refrozen. Pre-warm AI gun. Dry straw completely with a paper towel. Protect the straw from temperature fluctuations at all times. Cut the sealed end of the straw squarely and cleanly. Place plug end of straw into the gun. Place a sheath over gun and secure firmly.

42 Advance semen to fill airspace in straw. Protect gun against temperature changes or contamination (gun warmer or shirt). Place semen into cow as soon as possible Prepare a maximum of 3 guns at a time.

43 Once you are sure that the cow to breed is not pregnant and is in heat, check the identification number and the breeding records.

44 Put on a shoulder length disposable plastic glove, lubricate it and stand sideways behind the cow. Form a cone with yours fingers, and gently insert the hand through the anal opening.

45 Once the hand is fully in the rectum, open fingers from the cone position and remove the fecal matter if needed. Avoid excessive motion of your arm because it causes air to rush in the rectum, which will not allow you to grasp the cervix.

46 Gently slide the hand from the upper part of the rectum to the lower part to identify the cervix. Hold the cervix having your thumb on the top and the rest of your fingers on the bottom.

47 Thoroughly wipe the vulva area with a clean paper towel. This helps to prevent the interior of the reproductive tract from becoming contaminated and possibly infected.

48 Insert the insemination gun through the vulva at a 40 to 45 degree angle until it touches the roof of the vagina. Level the insemination gun to go through the passageway to the cervix. This procedure avoids the possibility of entering the urethra located on the floor of the vagina

49 While passing the insemination instrument through the vagina, push the cervix forward with the hand holding the cervix. This will stretch the vagina wall eliminating the possibility of the insemination gun getting caught in a vaginal fold or the blind pouch around the enter of the cervix. At this point the tip of the gun can be guided to the cervical canal by the fingers of the hand holding the cervix.

50 Vagina Bladder Cervix Ovary Uterine Horn OvaryDye Placed in blind Pouch Insemination Gun

51 Once the tip of the insemination gun is in the cervical canal, maintain slight forward pressure on the rod while manipulating the cervix ahead of the gun. While you are passing the A.I. gun through the cervix keep your index finger at the end of the cervical canal, so you can feel the tip of the gun at the target site.

52 Uterine Horn Ovary Dye Placed on target Vagina Uterine Horn Ovary Insemination gun Cervix

53 Lift finger and slowly deposit the semen (this maximizes the amount and equal distribution of semen on the uterine body) make sure you are on the target at all times. Depositing the semen in the cervix or in the uterine horns may result in lower pregnancy rates, and sometimes it may cause damage to the uterus.

54 After all semen is deposited, withdraw the A.I. gun and your arm, release the sheath and the straw from the A.I. gun. Then peel your glove hand over them and dispose the package in a proper trash container. Clean your hands and complete the breeding record immediately after each insemination. Daily clean your equipment with a paper towel wet with alcohol. Clean your footwear before leaving the A.I area.

55 Palpated Pregnancy Rate (PPR) is an indirect measure of estrus detection efficiency and is calculated by dividing the number of cows found pregnant at pregnancy examination by the number of cows examined. 25 pregnant and 50 examined = PPR of 25/50 or 50%. Extremely aggressive breeding decisions may lead to a high PPR but a lower Conception Rate (CR) because of a decline in estrus detection accuracy, servicing animals that are not truly in estrus. Strive for a PPR that is >65%.

56 Conception Rate (CR) is defined as the percent of animals that become pregnant to a single service. If 100 animals are serviced and 35 become pregnant the CR = 35/100 or 35%. Strive for a CR >35%.

57 Service Rate (SR) is the percent of eligible animals serviced in a 21 day period. An eligible animal is one that is past her voluntary wait period (VWP) and not pregnant. If there are 100 eligible animals and 65 are serviced in a 21 day period the SR = 65/100 or 65%. Strive for a SR of >65%.

58 Pregnancy Rate (PR) is the percent of eligible animals that become pregnant in a 21 day period. An estimation of PR can be made by multiplying the CR by SR. If CR = 30% and SR = 60% then PR will be ~ 18%, (.3 x.6 =.18). Strive for a PR of >22%.

59 Hard Count Pregnancy creation can be measured as a percent of the adult milking herd made pregnant per time period. 10% of the milking herd made pregnant per month is an admirable goal. Few herds achieve this number; many herds will achieve 9% made pregnant per month. 10% per month is the same as 2.3% per week, 9% per month is the same as 2.1% per week. Strive for >9% per month. As the number of eligible cows will vary per time period, this KPI should be looked at evaluated over a reasonable period of time.

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