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1 Questions of character
20th February 2015: SQA Research Seminar Series Gary Walsh

2 What kind of people does the world need?
What kind of world do people need?

3 Why go to school? In 1998, UNESCO offered a set of aims for schooling, world-wide: Learning to know Learning to do Learning to live together Learning to be

4 Learning to be Human “If we are to respond to challenges of possible financial collapse and the fear and anger that so often follow in its wake, if we are to make a better world in the sure knowledge that it too will always be in flux then, rather than trying to convey ever-increasing amounts of information to new generations of students, we must base our approach on ‘values and understandings which rest upon common humanity’ and that common humanity is realised quintessentially and daily in the school as a living community of persons whose fundamental task is to learn what it means to lead good lives together.” John MacMurray, Scottish philosopher Extract from his lecture ‘Learning to be Human’, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh, 1958 Writing in the campus newspaper, the Maroon Tiger, King argues that education has both a utilitarian and a moral function. 1 Citing the example of Georgia's former governor Eugene Talmadge, he asserts that reasoning ability is not enough. He insists that character and moral development are necessary to give the critical intellect humane purposes. King, Sr., later recalled that his son told him, "Talmadge has a Phi Beta Kappa key, can you believe that? What did he use all that precious knowledge for? To accomplish what?" As I engage in the so-called "bull sessions" around and about the school, I too often find that most college men have a misconception of the purpose of education. Most of the "brethren" think that education should equip them with the proper instruments of exploitation so that they can forever trample over the masses. Still others think that education should furnish them with noble ends rather than means to an end. It seems to me that education has a two-fold function to perform in the life of man and in society: the one is utility and the other is culture. Education must enable a man to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing facility the ligitimate goals of his life. Education must also train one for quick, resolute and effective thinking. To think incisively and to think for one's self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals. The late Eugene Talmadge, in my opinion, possessed one of the better minds of Georgia, or even America. Moreover, he wore the Phi Beta Kappa key. By all measuring rods, Mr. Talmadge could think critically and intensively; yet he contends that I am an inferior being. Are those the types of men we call educated? We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character--that is the goal of true education. The complete education gives one not only power of concentration, but worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. The broad education will, therefore, transmit to one not only the accumulated knowledge of the race but also the accumulated experience of social living. If we are not careful, our colleges will produce a group of close-minded, unscientific, illogical propagandists, consumed with immoral acts. Be careful, "brethren!" Be careful, teachers! PD. Maroon Tiger (January-February 1947): 10. Copy in GD. 1. In 1925, the Maroon Tiger succeeded the Athenaeum as the campus literary journal at Morehouse. In the first semester of the academic year, it won a First Class Honor Rating from the Associated Collegiate Press at the University of Minnesota. The faculty adviser to the Maroon Tiger was King's English professor, Gladstone Lewis Chandler. King's "The Purpose of Education" was published with a companion piece, "English Majors All?" by a fellow student, William G. Pickens. Among the many prominent black academicians and journalists who served an apprenticeship on the Maroon Tiger staff are Lerone Bennett, Jr., editor of Ebony; Brailsford R. Brazeal, dean of Morehouse College; S. W. Garlington, city editor of New York's Amsterdam News; Hugh Gloster, president of Morehouse College; Emory O. Jackson, editor of the Birmingham World; Robert E. Johnson, editor of Jet; King D. Reddick of the New York Age; Ira De A. Reid, chair of the Sociology Department at Atlanta University; and C. A. Scott, editor and general manager of the Atlanta Daily World. See The Morehouse Alumnus, July 1948, pp ; and Edward A. Jones, A Candle in the Dark: A History of Morehouse College (Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1967), pp. 174, 260, Martin Luther King, Sr., with Clayton Riley, Daddy King: An Autobiography (New York: William Morrow, 1980), p In an unpublished autobiographical statement, King, Sr., remembered meeting between governor Eugene Talmadge and a committee of blacks concerning the imposition of the death penalty on a young black man for making improper remarks to a white woman. King, Sr., reported that Talmadge "sent us away humiliated, frustrated, insulted, and without hope of redress" ("The Autobiography of Daddy King as Told to Edward A. Jones" [n.d.], p. 40; copy in CKFC). Six months before the publication of King's article, Georgia's race-baiting former governor Eugene Talmadge had declared in the midst of his campaign for a new term as governor that "the only issue in this race is White Supremacy." On 12 November, the black General Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia designated his inauguration date, 9 January 1947, as a day of prayer. Talmadge died three weeks before his inauguration. See William Anderson, The Wild Man from Sugar Creek: The Political Career of Eugene Talmadge (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975), pp ; Hugh Clinton Griffis, "Ethnic Culture and the Political Thought of Georgia's Politician-Editors: Tom Watson, Eugene Talmadge, and Roy Harris" (M.A. thesis, Emory University, 1978), p. 63; Joseph L. Bernd, "White Supremacy and the Disfranchisement of Blacks in Georgia, 1946," Georgia Historical Quarterly 66 (Winter 1982): ; Calvin McLeod Logue, Eugene Talmadge: Rhetoric and Response (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), pp , ; Clarence M. Wagner, Profiles of Black Georgia Baptists (Atlanta: Bennett Brothers, 1980), p. 104; and Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987), pp

5 Learning to be Human Professor Brian Boyd’s report A Common Weal Education (2014) asks us to examine “…the role of schooling in creating a civilised society. It looks at the aims of education and emphasises the importance of ‘the New Basics’ like the ability to think – critically and creatively - empathy, working with others, problem-solving and resilience in a modern economy and society.”

6 Learning to be Human “"I regard it as the foremost task of education to ensure the survival of these qualities: an enterprising curiosity, an undefeatable spirit, tenacity in pursuit, readiness for sensible self denial, and above all, compassion."” Kurt Hahn, Educator, philosopher, founder of the United World Colleges

7 Learning to be Human “We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character - that is the goal of true education. The complete education gives one not only power of concentration, but worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. The broad education will, therefore, transmit to one not only the accumulated knowledge of the race but also the accumulated experience of social living.” Martin Luther King Jr, 1947 Writing in the campus newspaper, the Maroon Tiger, King argues that education has both a utilitarian and a moral function. 1 Citing the example of Georgia's former governor Eugene Talmadge, he asserts that reasoning ability is not enough. He insists that character and moral development are necessary to give the critical intellect humane purposes. King, Sr., later recalled that his son told him, "Talmadge has a Phi Beta Kappa key, can you believe that? What did he use all that precious knowledge for? To accomplish what?" As I engage in the so-called "bull sessions" around and about the school, I too often find that most college men have a misconception of the purpose of education. Most of the "brethren" think that education should equip them with the proper instruments of exploitation so that they can forever trample over the masses. Still others think that education should furnish them with noble ends rather than means to an end. It seems to me that education has a two-fold function to perform in the life of man and in society: the one is utility and the other is culture. Education must enable a man to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing facility the ligitimate goals of his life. Education must also train one for quick, resolute and effective thinking. To think incisively and to think for one's self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals. The late Eugene Talmadge, in my opinion, possessed one of the better minds of Georgia, or even America. Moreover, he wore the Phi Beta Kappa key. By all measuring rods, Mr. Talmadge could think critically and intensively; yet he contends that I am an inferior being. Are those the types of men we call educated? We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character--that is the goal of true education. The complete education gives one not only power of concentration, but worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. The broad education will, therefore, transmit to one not only the accumulated knowledge of the race but also the accumulated experience of social living. If we are not careful, our colleges will produce a group of close-minded, unscientific, illogical propagandists, consumed with immoral acts. Be careful, "brethren!" Be careful, teachers! PD. Maroon Tiger (January-February 1947): 10. Copy in GD. 1. In 1925, the Maroon Tiger succeeded the Athenaeum as the campus literary journal at Morehouse. In the first semester of the academic year, it won a First Class Honor Rating from the Associated Collegiate Press at the University of Minnesota. The faculty adviser to the Maroon Tiger was King's English professor, Gladstone Lewis Chandler. King's "The Purpose of Education" was published with a companion piece, "English Majors All?" by a fellow student, William G. Pickens. Among the many prominent black academicians and journalists who served an apprenticeship on the Maroon Tiger staff are Lerone Bennett, Jr., editor of Ebony; Brailsford R. Brazeal, dean of Morehouse College; S. W. Garlington, city editor of New York's Amsterdam News; Hugh Gloster, president of Morehouse College; Emory O. Jackson, editor of the Birmingham World; Robert E. Johnson, editor of Jet; King D. Reddick of the New York Age; Ira De A. Reid, chair of the Sociology Department at Atlanta University; and C. A. Scott, editor and general manager of the Atlanta Daily World. See The Morehouse Alumnus, July 1948, pp ; and Edward A. Jones, A Candle in the Dark: A History of Morehouse College (Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1967), pp. 174, 260, Martin Luther King, Sr., with Clayton Riley, Daddy King: An Autobiography (New York: William Morrow, 1980), p In an unpublished autobiographical statement, King, Sr., remembered meeting between governor Eugene Talmadge and a committee of blacks concerning the imposition of the death penalty on a young black man for making improper remarks to a white woman. King, Sr., reported that Talmadge "sent us away humiliated, frustrated, insulted, and without hope of redress" ("The Autobiography of Daddy King as Told to Edward A. Jones" [n.d.], p. 40; copy in CKFC). Six months before the publication of King's article, Georgia's race-baiting former governor Eugene Talmadge had declared in the midst of his campaign for a new term as governor that "the only issue in this race is White Supremacy." On 12 November, the black General Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia designated his inauguration date, 9 January 1947, as a day of prayer. Talmadge died three weeks before his inauguration. See William Anderson, The Wild Man from Sugar Creek: The Political Career of Eugene Talmadge (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975), pp ; Hugh Clinton Griffis, "Ethnic Culture and the Political Thought of Georgia's Politician-Editors: Tom Watson, Eugene Talmadge, and Roy Harris" (M.A. thesis, Emory University, 1978), p. 63; Joseph L. Bernd, "White Supremacy and the Disfranchisement of Blacks in Georgia, 1946," Georgia Historical Quarterly 66 (Winter 1982): ; Calvin McLeod Logue, Eugene Talmadge: Rhetoric and Response (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), pp , ; Clarence M. Wagner, Profiles of Black Georgia Baptists (Atlanta: Bennett Brothers, 1980), p. 104; and Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987), pp

8 Learning to be Human “We need to listen, once again, to the ideas of
Dewey and Tagore, favoring an education that cultivates the critical capacities, fosters a complex understanding of the world and its peoples, and educates and refines the capacity for sympathy—in short, an education that cultivates human beings and their humanity, rather than producing generations of useful machines. ” Martha C. Nussbaum 1947-present American Philosopher Extract from ‘Cultivating Humanity and World Citizenship’, 2007 Writing in the campus newspaper, the Maroon Tiger, King argues that education has both a utilitarian and a moral function. 1 Citing the example of Georgia's former governor Eugene Talmadge, he asserts that reasoning ability is not enough. He insists that character and moral development are necessary to give the critical intellect humane purposes. King, Sr., later recalled that his son told him, "Talmadge has a Phi Beta Kappa key, can you believe that? What did he use all that precious knowledge for? To accomplish what?" As I engage in the so-called "bull sessions" around and about the school, I too often find that most college men have a misconception of the purpose of education. Most of the "brethren" think that education should equip them with the proper instruments of exploitation so that they can forever trample over the masses. Still others think that education should furnish them with noble ends rather than means to an end. It seems to me that education has a two-fold function to perform in the life of man and in society: the one is utility and the other is culture. Education must enable a man to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing facility the ligitimate goals of his life. Education must also train one for quick, resolute and effective thinking. To think incisively and to think for one's self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. But education which stops with efficiency may prove the greatest menace to society. The most dangerous criminal may be the man gifted with reason, but with no morals. The late Eugene Talmadge, in my opinion, possessed one of the better minds of Georgia, or even America. Moreover, he wore the Phi Beta Kappa key. By all measuring rods, Mr. Talmadge could think critically and intensively; yet he contends that I am an inferior being. Are those the types of men we call educated? We must remember that intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character--that is the goal of true education. The complete education gives one not only power of concentration, but worthy objectives upon which to concentrate. The broad education will, therefore, transmit to one not only the accumulated knowledge of the race but also the accumulated experience of social living. If we are not careful, our colleges will produce a group of close-minded, unscientific, illogical propagandists, consumed with immoral acts. Be careful, "brethren!" Be careful, teachers! PD. Maroon Tiger (January-February 1947): 10. Copy in GD. 1. In 1925, the Maroon Tiger succeeded the Athenaeum as the campus literary journal at Morehouse. In the first semester of the academic year, it won a First Class Honor Rating from the Associated Collegiate Press at the University of Minnesota. The faculty adviser to the Maroon Tiger was King's English professor, Gladstone Lewis Chandler. King's "The Purpose of Education" was published with a companion piece, "English Majors All?" by a fellow student, William G. Pickens. Among the many prominent black academicians and journalists who served an apprenticeship on the Maroon Tiger staff are Lerone Bennett, Jr., editor of Ebony; Brailsford R. Brazeal, dean of Morehouse College; S. W. Garlington, city editor of New York's Amsterdam News; Hugh Gloster, president of Morehouse College; Emory O. Jackson, editor of the Birmingham World; Robert E. Johnson, editor of Jet; King D. Reddick of the New York Age; Ira De A. Reid, chair of the Sociology Department at Atlanta University; and C. A. Scott, editor and general manager of the Atlanta Daily World. See The Morehouse Alumnus, July 1948, pp ; and Edward A. Jones, A Candle in the Dark: A History of Morehouse College (Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson Press, 1967), pp. 174, 260, Martin Luther King, Sr., with Clayton Riley, Daddy King: An Autobiography (New York: William Morrow, 1980), p In an unpublished autobiographical statement, King, Sr., remembered meeting between governor Eugene Talmadge and a committee of blacks concerning the imposition of the death penalty on a young black man for making improper remarks to a white woman. King, Sr., reported that Talmadge "sent us away humiliated, frustrated, insulted, and without hope of redress" ("The Autobiography of Daddy King as Told to Edward A. Jones" [n.d.], p. 40; copy in CKFC). Six months before the publication of King's article, Georgia's race-baiting former governor Eugene Talmadge had declared in the midst of his campaign for a new term as governor that "the only issue in this race is White Supremacy." On 12 November, the black General Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia designated his inauguration date, 9 January 1947, as a day of prayer. Talmadge died three weeks before his inauguration. See William Anderson, The Wild Man from Sugar Creek: The Political Career of Eugene Talmadge (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975), pp ; Hugh Clinton Griffis, "Ethnic Culture and the Political Thought of Georgia's Politician-Editors: Tom Watson, Eugene Talmadge, and Roy Harris" (M.A. thesis, Emory University, 1978), p. 63; Joseph L. Bernd, "White Supremacy and the Disfranchisement of Blacks in Georgia, 1946," Georgia Historical Quarterly 66 (Winter 1982): ; Calvin McLeod Logue, Eugene Talmadge: Rhetoric and Response (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), pp , ; Clarence M. Wagner, Profiles of Black Georgia Baptists (Atlanta: Bennett Brothers, 1980), p. 104; and Benjamin E. Mays, Born to Rebel: An Autobiography (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987), pp

9 Construct of pupil character: a recent history
18th Century: the sinful pupil 19th Century: the polite pupil Early 20th century: the morally adjusted pupil Late 20th century: the cognitively developing pupil Turn of the 21st millennium: the emotionally vulnerable pupil Early twenty-first century: the flourishing pupil (Walker et al, 2013)

10 21st century demands on ‘character’
Globalisation & neoliberalism Climate change Social Media ethics Food Irradiation Smart Drugs (cosmetic pharmacology) Life extension sciences Genetic research & modification Cloning of replacement body parts (using 3D printers?!) Combat drones Personal privacy vs national security

11 Employability: what is in demand?
LAND LABOUR INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE: KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY? ‘SOFT SKILLS’: INNOVATION ECONOMY?

12

13

14

15 Survey results

16 Survey results

17 Survey results

18 What were the concerns? Who defines behaviours, values, ‘good’ character? Just a way of achieving conformity to norms of groups, society, culture? No problem dealing with issues of lawfulness, but morals? Pushing a particular ethical code: we should assume moral relativism Victorian, value-laden Preconceptions of Character Education Time spent ‘away’ from curriculum study Is this the job of educators? What about parents? There is already a specific focus on Character Education built into Curriculum for Excellence, isn’t there? Character Education should be informed by clear underlying philosophy or values approach Shared understanding: where do values come from? Are values different across cultures, religions etc?

19 Survey results

20 Survey results

21 Survey results

22 Survey results

23 Which values? Community of character?

24

25 Which values? Community of character?

26 Virtue Ethics: a philosophical perspective
‘Thinking it Through’ Examples: Autonomy, Reasoning, Curiosity ‘Doing the right thing’ Examples: Courage, Self-discipline, Compassion, Gratitude, Justice, Humility, Honesty Practical Wisdom Moral Civic Performance Intellectual The ability to balance or decide between conflicting virtues (Aristotle) ‘Being your best’ Examples: Resilience, Determination, Creativity ‘Being engaged and responsible’ Examples: Service, Citizenship, Volunteering

27 Character Strengths: a psychological perspective

28 A values perspective Schwartz (1992)
These values are not randomly arranged, the positions are actually data points, based on samples from 68 countries (65,000 people). The closer the values the more aligned they are (i.e. if someone values one highly they’re very likely to value the other highly), the further away the less they’re aligned (i.e. if someone values one highly, they’re very likely to not value the other highly). The analysis is a multi-dimensional scaling analysis - Louis Guttman's smallest space analysis (SSA). The values move around between national samples, but what the researchers found is that there are groups of values that tend to cluster together, there are ten of these groups and they gave them all names. Schwartz (1992)

29 Values take different forms
Personal Family Moral Material Spiritual Socio-cultural Jimenez, J.C., The Significance of Values in an Organization

30 Values and Moral Development
Principles and fundamental convictions which act as general guides to behaviour, enduring beliefs about what is worthwhile, ideals for which one strives, standards by which particular beliefs and actions are judged to be good or desirable. Halstead and Taylor (2000) Acquiring a set of beliefs and values relating to what is right and wrong which guides intentions, attitudes and behaviour towards oneself, other people, one’s own society and others, and the environment; and developing the disposition to act in accordance with such beliefs and values. (Halstead and Taylor, 2000, p3)

31 Values and character formation
Emotions What we feel Attitudes What we think and feel Beliefs What we think and feel to be true Values The beliefs which guide how we live our lives Motivations The beliefs and desires which make us want to behave in certain ways Behaviour Our actions: what we do Our habits: what we regularly do Character Who we are: what we value, how we think and feel, what we do Mowat (2014)

32 Values and character formation
Values & Character Emotions Beliefs Attitudes Motivations Behaviour Mowat (2014)

33 Character Education: what is it?
Character is about who we are as people. It is defined as the set of psychological characteristics that motivate and enable the individual to function as a competent moral agent, that is, to do ‘good’ in the world. Character education is defined as those educational practices that foster the development of student character. Berkowitz 2011

34 What kind of people does the world need?
What kind of world do people need?

35

36 Questions & Issues raised from pre-event survey
Terminology What is a ‘positive moral ethos’? What is a ‘community of character’? Community approach Links with other influences in young people’s lives Teachers being asked to do work previously done by families, communities, churches etc Schools should support this work and expect wider communities to do the same Responsibility lies with many people Diversity of belief Schools adding value to communities – young people having pride in school because of this – data linking this with improved behaviours Shared understanding of how we live and work together SQA Respondents valued a community approach higher than teaching staff Professionalism CE and values provide a key lever for school improvement Tension between engaging in areas of ‘right and wrong’ and teachers putting across own moral position

37 Questions & Issues Character Education principles
What is the ultimate good? ‘Good character’ – who decides? Focus on the moral is simplistic Character Education is about the capacity to make choices of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ How do we account for cultural bias? What is Character Education? Is it a subject or an approach to curriculum? What to do in terms of assessment and measurement? How prescriptive should it be? How much emphasis? Partnership working e.g. CLD – schools shaping communities – we are missing this opportunity Values-based or principle centred? Recognition of Wider Achievement Keep integrity of RME intact Danger of assuming moral superiority Values approach shouldn’t be separated from morality Character Education as development, not a new ‘initiative’ Approaches to character & ethics without didactic/proselytising approach In what ways can CE be an academic enabler AS WELL AS building character? Is that a false distinction? Character of organisation vs character of individuals Nature vs nurture CE as another blot on or passing fad with short shelf life What are schools currently doing? Existing models from other countries? CE given a ‘Scottish’ slant? “There are so many approaches to achieve the same ends- is it useful to have another one and if so what is it's particular contribution?” Inspiration AND aspiration Get values ‘off the wall’

38 Challenges in schools where character & values could play a role
Pupils & teachers Greed, selfishness, lack of interest, lack of belief, negativity, laziness, Lack of confidence: perseverance, confidence, courage Senior School students do not feel their views are taken into account, they don’t feel valued Pupils under huge pressure of exams, tend to be critical about everything Learned helplessness, working with others, lack of ambition & intrinsic motivation, pupils ‘trained out of creativity’ Number and scale of competing challenges facing teachers Acting with integrity, ‘doing the right thing’ rather than ‘doing things right’ Self-regulation in education and work settings Respect, integrity, giving people a chance, putting personal opinions to one side, gratitude, equality Low aspirations, limiting beliefs Enthusiasm, moral background, integrity Development mindset, seeing mistakes as learning opportunity, conflict resolution Encouraging commitment & consistency with young volunteers Exploring own values vs agreeing school values? Shared values/conduct between staff and pupils? Pupil ownership? YP desperate to do good? Unconditional positive regard?

39 Challenges Health & Wellbeing
Developing wellbeing curriculum – resilience model – can this be linked with CE? Behaviour: ‘foul’ language, litter, bullying, lack of empathy for diversity Stress Culture We live in a compliance culture, more concern about what we are seen to do than what we actually do Legislation around personal freedoms Achievement: Extrinsic motivation ‘winning’ over intrinsic Growth mindset vs fixed ‘cultural’ mindset Clash of cultures Concern for the environment, equality, materialism Communication, fear, time, resources, motivation and will Financial constraints Opportunities for challenge Ethics to negotiate the moral/social questions of modern world Moving from vision to measurable steps towards it Engagement of those who feel let down by the system Home environment not encouraging good character vs doing good as part of school curriculum Getting parents on board Competing priorities, CE seen as another pressure, convincing headteachers Role of parents/families?


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