Participation at this conference is financially supported by the Department of International Relations of University of Montreal
VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS: a pervasive problem in many parts of the world, in Europe as well as in America. ◦ ROMANIA: Rank 2 on 37 countries for secondary school’s violence (World Health Organization, 2010) ◦ QUEBEC (CANADA): 90% of secondary teachers suffer at least one violent episode in a school’s year (Jeffrey, 2007). ORDINARY VIOLENCE hinders teachers functioning and student learning (Feder, Levant& Dean, 2007; Martin et al. 2004) Teachers are most frequently affected by less spectacular violence inside the classroom, where a large proportion of violent incidents occur (Houle & Rondeau, 2002).
Hypothesis : In line with the resilience paradigm, we propose that school violence is not a necessary threat and that resilience is a plausible response for teachers under stress of school violence. Question : What are the resources used by teachers to enable them to overcome school violence and develop their resilience? Aims: Identify the contribution of skills to classroom management and professional collaboration in the development of educational resilience Identify the relationship between feelings of efficacy and job satisfaction among teachers and Quebec Romanian educational and resilience
Time Stress, fear, uncertainty and discouragement (Wilson et al., 2011; Gingras et Mukamurera, 2008; Galand et al., 2007, ) Stress, fear, uncertainty and discouragement (Wilson et al., 2011; Gingras et Mukamurera, 2008; Galand et al., 2007, ) Negative Emotions : anger, guilt, fear, anxiety, fear, anxiety, disgust, shame (Jigau, Liiceanu et Preoteasa, 2006; Martin et al., 2004 ) Burnout (Jeffrey, 2011 ; Goddard, O’Brien et Goddard, 2006) Resilience (Mallow et Tawannah, 2007; Théorêt, 2005 ) Strengthening competencies; satisfaction ; spurt of adaptation; professional development (Pelletier et Jutras 2008; Imants, 2003)
Criteria arguments of countries : resemblances in the two educational systems ◦ a recent period of school reform, ◦ a competency approach to student’s learning, ◦ the importance given to students’ rights, ◦ a four year initial formation of their teachers, ◦ an accreditation organism for the certification of teachers Two samples of convenience, in Romania and Quebec: 10 experimented (≥5 years) urban teachers from two comparable large secondary schools; be tenured teacher of the school 60 minutes in depth interview one-on-one (QSR-N’Vivo,2.0 Generating a book of 49 codes; agreement 89% of 20% of content (with co-coding)
Romanian teachersQuebecer teachers 1.Direct violence: (a) verbal; (b) destruction and theft of personal property; (c) obscene gestures; (d) questioning of professional competencies, etc. 111.Direct violence : (a) verbal; (b) indiscipline ; (c) lack of respect: collateral activities and/ or talking in class, etc., theft of personal property 8 2.Indirect violence: (a) the fight between two boys; (b) self- destructive behavior ; (c) destruction of personal property 32.Indirect violence: (a) towards students and (b) the furniture in the classroom 5 Frequency of violent behavior: (1) direct (several times/week); (2) indirect: once / week or several times / month The most common form of violence reported: verbal
Romanian Fear and freezing reaction3 Feeling in need of control for student’s behavior 3 Expulsion of students2 Feeling of panic2 Total10 Feeling of competence and robustness 2 Quebecer Fear and anxiety3 Looking for support from direction3 Physical implication in altercation2 Expulsion of students2 Anger and shouting1 Auto-blaming1 Total12 Feeling of competence and robustness 4 Feeling of satisfaction with support from direction 3
Romanian teachersN Québecer teachers N Work demotivation3 2 Feeling of helplessness and insatisfaction 3 2 Psychological fatigue and health related problems 1 2 Fear at home, at school outside the classroom 1 2 Bad dreams and sleeping problems1 1 Sadness, autoblaming and tiredness1 Total9 1010 Feeling of competence and robustness 2 4 Feeling of satisfaction with support from direction 3
Resilience : the ability of a person, group or community to progress in adverse living situations (Grotberg, 1995) Educational resilience : "resilience of a team composed from teachers, members of management, other employees as well as that of students in the school organization “ (Theoret, 2005, p. 641) In our study, resilience is associated with : o The frequency of violence in school: risk factors : traumatic or negative events o The « reserve capacity» for teachers encompass social relationships, professional and personal competencies o Resources : professional competencies and satisfaction, professional or ethical values, advancing in the career, engagement, accomplishment (Théorêt, 2005 ; Mallow et Tawannah, 2007).
Romanian teachersQuebecer teachers Spontaneous intervention strategies in school violence situations (5) Ability to prevent violent behaviors: identifying students that are potentially aggressive (4) Personal experience (3)Following rules and mutual respect (2) Social status of teachers (2)Recognition of students: mutual trust, encouraging autonomy of students (2) Particularities of students in the choice of the proper “teach-learn” techniques (3) Particularities students: individual / team (2-4 students) : mutual respect and respect for the activity and teacher (5) Knowledge acquiring: further education and school competitions (4) Learning competencies: education for empowerment and autonomy (3) Students security in school : end all forms of violence in schools (5)
RomanianQuebecer Feeling of pedagogical efficacy with violent behaviors 24 Forethought and prevention 31 Occasion of professional learning 02 Self regulation 04 Total 812 Efficacious Support from school direction 23 Efficacious collaboration from colleagues 10 Support from student’s family 15 Total 48
Romanian teachers: cases 1-5; Quebec teachers: 6 to 10 cases
Reasons of satisfactionRomanianQuebecer Mastering violence situations23 Academic progress of students40 Support from the peer10 Optimism : negative events as learning occasion43 Collaboration with direction and families13 Total129 High frequency of violent behavior : dissatisfaction relative to behavior management Indirect experience of violence is positively associated with medium level of job satisfaction
(1) cim immediate consequences; (2) rob : state of robustness ; (3) satpfor : high level of satisfaction ; (4) stpgc: satisfaction (management of violent behavior); (5) satps : satisfaction (teaching strategies ); (6) satpmit mixed feelings (reasons for satisfaction but also for dissatisfaction); (7) insatpc : dissatisfaction (violent behavior of students); (8) insatpd: dissatisfaction (salary, etc.); (9) satpfai : low level job satisfaction
RomanianQuebecer School violence as a risk factor Give attention to students' aggressive behaviors that develop during their course and that affect them directly Affected by any behavior of violence: direct/indirect, developed in the classroom or the school yard The development of educational resilience Isolation: suspicions of the direction, distrust of colleagues and dissatisfaction of relationships with the parents Special importance assigned to successful experiences on behaviors of school violence The role of professional experience in the choice of strategies, the needs of students and their results at the national exams and school competitions Collaborative relationships with the colleagues and the school principal school Mutual respect for the rules of functioning of the class and respect for peers and teachers Teaching strategies structured around the students' autonomy
Students’ violent behaviors, especially by its frequency, as a risk factor for the health and the practice of professional competency among participating teachers, can also promote the development process of educational resilience, a dynamic and complex process The knowledge gained during this study allows us to better understand the development process of educational resilience, as supported: o by professional competencies, o by interactions between persons and their interactions with the environment, as professional collaboration, and o further, as the cultural influences
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