Golden twenties Dawes Plan 1924 -USA banks loan to Germany to repay debts, Germany given more repayment time Locarno Pact 1925 -Germany, France, Belgium, England, Italy all sign, Germany accepts western borders Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 -65 countries sign to renounce war, only allowed to use in self defence Young Plan 1929 -Owen Young (USA banker) reduced Germany’s repayments from ₤6.6 billion to ₤2 billion to be paid by 1988
Depression 1930s DEPRESSION Caused by wall street crash people lost confidence in banks, and withdrew their savings banks called back overseas loans foreign trade collapse countries raise trade barriers (tariffs & subsidies) to protect own industry, trade declines further unemployment
Manchuria Japan needs a trading partner, and see Manchuria as one. Japan fakes a Chinese attack, then uses it as an excuse to invade Manchuria. Manchuria becomes an artificial trading partner China appeals to the league, all league can do is investigate By 1932 all of Manchuria was under Japanese control, renamed Manchukuo Japan withdraws from the league 1937 Japan have full scale war with china until 1945
Rise of Hitler Germans needed answers in the economic depression, Hitler was strong, charismatic, and decisive. He was appointed as chancellor, and he built up Germany's army, giving people jobs, he built the autobahns which also employed people. Within 18 months Hitler had all of Germany under his control
Hitler’s Foreign policy Make Germany the number one power in Europe Overthrow treaty of Versailles and claim back lost land Unite all Germans in central Europe in an enlarged Germany Conquer land to the east to provide living space ( Lebensraum ) by subduing inferior races, poles and Russians Show the world Germans are the superior race
Re-armament Hitler goes to league of nations and says: If we are living in a peaceful world, everybody should disarm to the same size armies… France refuses (which was what Hitler wanted) so Hitler left the league and rearmed.
Abyssinian Crisis Stresa front- France, Italy, England meet at Stresa, they protest Germany breaking treaty of Versailles. The front is broken when Italy invades Abyssinia in 1935 Mussolini wants overseas Italian empire Already has Libya, Eritrea, Somaliland so Abyssinia is easy to take League stopped ships supplying Italy, but the sanctions were useless, above all their oil supply was never cut off. League were reluctant to make a naval blockade, because a move against Mussolini may have driven him to Hitler for support
Abyssinian Crisis “I ask the fifty-two nations, who have given the Ethiopian people a promise to help them in their resistance to the aggressor, what are they willing to do for Ethiopia? And the great Powers who have promised the guarantee of collective security to small States on whom weights the rest that they may one day suffer the fate of Ethiopia, I ask what measures do you intend to take? Representatives of the World I have come to Geneva to discharge in your midst the most painful of the duties of the head of State. What reply shall I have to take back to my people?”
Re-occupation of the Rhineland Saar- coal-rich land taken from Germany by the league. 1935, a vote (plebiscite) among the people shows 90% of people want to unite with Germany. 1936 while League deals with Abyssinia, Hitler sends troops into the Rhineland. Hitler had ordered the men to retreat if they met any resistance. The French overestimated the power of the German army, and didn’t resist.
A practice run… Spain 1936 civil war in Spain, republicans v. nationalists Hitler and Mussolini send troops to help the Nationalists. Russia sends troops to help the republicans Guernica was a military target, and the suspicion was that Germany was just bombing it to test out its weapons
Anschluss With Austria Lebensraum (living space) Hitler’s first objective, and that meant Austria. 96% of Austrians were German speaking 1934 attempt at uniting was stopped by Mussolini, who was now an allies, nobody could stop Hitler. Schuschnigg (chancellor) made a move to hinder Hitler by holding a plebiscite. Most Austrians did not want to unite. Hitler's response was we will invade, unless Schuschnigg is replaced. Schuschnigg was replaced with a pro-Nazi who was called Sayss- Inquart. Sayss In-quart practically invites Hitler in.
Czechoslovakia Hitler’s next target was Czechoslovakia. In Sudetenland there were over 3million Germans, the Skoda Arms Factory, and the tactical location mountains. Hitler orders Henlein (Nazi fifth party columnist in Sudetenland) to demand separation from Czechoslovakia. This, with demonstrations and riots gave Hitler an excuse for a military takeover.
Munich Crisis Munich Agreement; Britain was convinced Czechoslovakia would have to be sacrificed to try and appease Hitler. France had a treaty to fight for Czechoslovakia if they were attacked by Germany, so France put pressure on Britain to deal with it. The agreement was signed, Czechoslovakia was to be given to Germany. The agreement was signed by Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini and Daladier (the French premier)… the Czechs were not even invited into the agreement.
Czechoslovakia gets backstabbed Czechoslovakia thought the League of Nations would protect them. The Locarno Pact 1925 should have meant France would intervene and help fight Germany Most Czechs were Slavs, so they had expectations that Russia would come to their aid too.
After Germany takes the Sudetenland, they completely invade the rest of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia
Poland Hitler wanted the Deep Sea port – Danzig, which was taken from Germany and given to Poland after world war one. Also Hitler would re-unite east Prussia with Germany. Hitler lies to the Poles, making speeches that they have a friendly relationship. “Poland and Germany can look forward to the future with full confidence in the solid basis if their mutual relations” Britain and France decide Poland is the last straw, it was apparent Hitler had been lying, and Britain and France pledge their support to Poland against German attack. Mussolini is weary, and thinks they may go through with their pledge, but Hitler doesn’t think Britain and France will act.
Pact of steel 22 may 1939 Germany and Italy pledge to aid each other in the event of war - Gives Hitler confidence that he doesn’t need to worry about attack from the south Polish Pledge 31 march 1939 Britain and France pledge to support Poland against German attack - Drags major powers into the conflict The Nazi-Soviet Pact Germany and Russia sign a non-aggression pact and promise not to make war on each other. In secret they also agreed to share out Poland once conquered. - Gives Hitler confidence that he doesn’t need to worry about attack from the east Poland
Mussolini declared war June 1940 Italy suffered defeats in Greece and Libya Germany sends troops to bail out Italians in North Africa. In April/May 1941 they swiftly overrun Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete. Italian Campaigns