Presentation on theme: "ON DIMINISHING LOCAL EXPRESSIONS IN JAVANESE A. Effendi Kadarisman Universitas Negeri Malang."— Presentation transcript:
ON DIMINISHING LOCAL EXPRESSIONS IN JAVANESE A. Effendi Kadarisman Universitas Negeri Malang
Floating Anecdotes: (1) Anak jaran jenenge … (2) Anak sapi jenenge … (3) Wadhah sega arane … (4) Sepi ing pamrih rame ing … (5) Guru wilangan inggih punika … (6) Q : … asing mana, Dik? A : Wah, ya asing bahasa Jawa.
The Heyday of Jav. Oral Literature / Verbal Art Performance in East Java (until early 1970s): Wayang kulit Wayang wong Kethoprak Tembang performance Jemblung / Thempling / Kentrung
Wayang kulit 3 ordinary dhalangs in my own village (Banjaranyar, Kras, Kediri) Several famous dhalangs in a Kabupaten: Dhalang Murat, Murdi, Panut. Mantu: nanggap wayang sehari-semalam (local dhalang & famous dhalang) No recorded performances until early 1970s.
Wayang Wong, Kethoprak, Jemblung A group of wayang wong in my own village; and also a group of ludruk. Wayang Wong “Ngesthi Pandhowo” & Kethoprak “Siswo Budhoyo” – coming around annually, giving one-month performance in the Kecamatan. Jemblung/thempling/kentrung: oral performance in the form of “story telling” – a one-man show accompanied by a small drum / tambourine.
Javanese at Home & School ( 1960s) Javanese was used at home as the lg of the Javanese family. Javanese was used at school a medium of instruction for all subjects from the 1 st to the 3 rd grades of Elementary School. (Indonesian was first introduced at the 3 rd grade.) Javanese songs (children songs & macapat) were taught to school children by teachers (SGB & SGA graduates) highly competent in Javanese language & literature.
Proliferation of Modern Javanese Literature (until early 1980s): Panyebar Semangat and Jaya Baya were favorite readings among educated Javanese families (families of teachers and public servants in rural areas). Crita cekak, crita sambung-sinambung, & geguritan go together with crita wayang & crita rakyat (the latter being the written version of oral literature)
Summary: Local expressions in Javanese were mostly acquired and partly learned from the rich socio-cultural environments: From verbal art performances (as part of wayang kulit, wayang wong, & kethoprak performances) From highly competent teachers at school and from “family readings” at home. (In rural areas, Indonesian magazines were very rare; and there was no newspaper.)
“On Diminishing Local Expressions in Javanese” A small research was conducted at UM: giving a questionnaire to 74 respondents: DeptEngChmTotal SexMFTotal OriginWestEastOutTotal
Western part of East Java 3 former karesidenans: Madiun, Bojonegoro, & Kediri. Eastern part of East Java 3 former karesidenans: Surabaya, Malang, & Besuki
Data Collection: Questionnaire was distributed. Respondents filled out personal identities. Sentences, proverbs, and local expressions were read out loud by the researcher – respondents circling appropriate score. Childlore, poems, and songs were performed by the researcher – respondents circling appropriate score.
Data Analysis (1) Tabulation: Respondents’ personal identities (sex, age, local origins—the last converted to numbers) were put into table. Selected scores for each “expression” (& also efforts to preserve Javanese language & culture) were put into table. Attitudes toward the above efforts were converted into A, B, C, D.
(2) Obtaining Means & Percentages: ∑ scores (a) = X (e.g. 3) n X = 0 4 (b) X (e.g. 3) = % (e.g. 75%) 4
Javanese Morality: Saben wong bakal ngundhuh73% wohing pakarti Rawe-rawe rantas, malang-69% malang putung Sapa salah bakal seleh, sapa64% temen bakal tinemu
Javanese Mysticism: Wong Jawa kudu mangerteni41% sangkan paraning dumadi Sura dira jayaningrat, lebur30% dening pangastuti Kaya nggoleki tapake kuntul19% nglayang, galihe kangkung, isine bumbung wangwung
Concern with the Javanese language and culture = 95% Q: Are the efforts to preserve and develop the Javanese language and culture useful for the Javanese society in particular and the Indonesian society in general?
Attitudes toward the above efforts: In one sentence, write down your personal opinion about the Javanese language and culture as “cultural heritage” of the Javanese society. Answers: A (positive attitude)47 (63.51%) B (neutral attitude)22 (29.72%) C (negative attitude) 1 (1.35%) D (blank/no answer) 2 (2.70%)
CONCLUSIONS ( Mastery of Receptive Skills ): Speech levels: ngoko > krama > ngoko alus > madya The understanding of proverbs and local expressions seems to be determined by “linguistic ecology,” i.e., the presence or absence of “flora” and “fauna” in the physical environments. The understanding of the classical variant of Javanese is very low, due to very little exposure to this variant.
IMPLICATIONS (applying to Respondents): Limited ability to communicate using all speech levels of Javanese. Limited ability to appreciate modern Javanese literature; and no ability to create such literature. Very limited ability to appreciate (a) verbal art performances in Javanese, and also (b) classical literary works, such as Wulangreh, Wedhatama, and Kalatidha. Unhappy future for the Javanese language; and very bleak future for Javanese literature.
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