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Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN

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1 Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN
The development and characteristics of Turkish in comparison to English Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN

2 Overview General overview of Turkish Historical background Borrowings
Vowels Consonants Word classes Word formation process Case Tense Kinship and colour terms

3 General overview of Turkish
Main geographic locations of Turkish languages Turkey (Turkish) Azerbaidjan (Azerbaidjani) The formerly Soviet Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Southern Siberia (Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmenian, Kirghiz) On the Volga (Tatar) In northwestern China (Uighur)

4 The Altaic language families:
the Turkic languages, Mongolic languages, Tungusic languages, Korean and the Japonic languages. The Turkic languages include Chuvash, Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Crimean Tatar, Urum, Qashqai, Khorasani, Salar, Gagauz, Khalaj, Tatar, Bashkir, Baraba, Urum, Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Karaim, Krymchak, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Nogay, Uzbek, Uyghur, Lop, Kyrgyz, Altay,Yakut,Tuvan, Khakas, Shor, Fuyü Gïrgïs, Chulym, Tofa, Dolgan, Western Yugur, and Northern Altay

5 Common features Ural - Altaic languages: principle of vowel harmony
are agglutinative SOV word order no grammatical gender

6 Regions Turkish is spoken in: Turkey, Caucasus, Cyprus, Balkans


8 Historical background
10th century: the Turks had begun to convert to Islam and to adopt the Arabo – Persian alphabet 11th century: under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty they overran Persia, Persian became the language of administration and literary culture (Persian borrowed many words from Arabic) This hybrid language became the official language of the Ottoman dynasty Until 1922 the language of Turkey was known as Osmanlıca or Ottoman Turkish

9 The downfall of the Ottoman dynasty made it necessary to find a new name to distinguish this language from all other members of the same linguistic family Formally the language is called Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkey -Turkish)

10 The language-reform movement:
With the establishment of the Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted his people to turn their backs on their Asian past In 1928 he introduced the Latin alphabet in place of the Arabo – Persian The Turkish Language Society (Türk Dil Kurumu –TDK) made up a list of pure Turkish words (Öztürkçe) The language reform reached the Press the schools and the general public

11 Main points 11th century Turkish speakers arrived in Turkey
Turkish history (three periods): Old Anatolian Turkish (Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca) Modern Turkish (Yeni Türkçe) 1928 introduction of the Latin alphabet

12 Borrowings Words from Arabic, Persian, French, Italian, German and English Example: Ask for your bill (hesap) in a restoran (restoran) and the odds are that what the garson (garson) brings you will be headed adisiyon (adisiyon).

13 Arabic: haqq- right – hak afw - pardon – af tamass - contact - temas ism - name – isim adl - justice - adil qism - part - kısım aql - intelligence – akıl matn- text – metin umr - life – ömür fıkr - thought - fikir French: station - station - istasyon statisque -statistics-istatistik sport - sports - spor club - club - klüp groupe - group - grup principe - principle - prensip

14 Italian: scala - quay - iskele sgombro - mackerel - uskumru spirito - alcohol – ispirto German: Schlepp - cargo- boat – şilep Groschen - kuruş English: screw - uskur steam – istim or islim train – tren Persian: shahr - city – şehir zahr - poison – zehir tukhm - seed - tohum

15 Vowels Turkish has 8 vowels

16 The vowels 4 front vowels (e, i, ö, ü) 4 back vowels (a, ı, o, u) 4 high vowels (i, ı, u, ü) 4 low vowels (e, a, o, ö) 4 rounded vowels (o, ö, u , ü) 4 unrounded vowels (a, e, i, ı) examples: akıl, okul, öpücük, elli

17 Vowel harmony rules Front vowel must be followed by a front vowel (dolap – cupboard) First vowel is unrounded so the other once are also unrounded First vowel is rounded, the following vowels are rounded and close or unrounded and open (erik - plum, uzak – far away)

18 Exceptions Foreign words tiyatro- theatre, edebiyat- literature
Words which changed during the time into standard Turkish ana - anne (mother), alma – elma (apple) Compound words Karadeniz - Black Sea, bugün – today Five invariable suffixes (I)yor, -ki, - ken, - leyin, - (I)mtrak

19 Consonants

20 Consonants b, f, m, p, s, z, y are pronounced as in English The consonant k stands for two sounds in Turkish A front k (key) A back k (cool) example: ek affix (front k) ak white (back k)

21 The consonant l stands for two sounds
A front l bal (honey) A back l bel (waist) The consonant v At the beginning it is pronounced as in English, in the middle and at the end it is weaker than the English v, after a vowel or before a consonant it is pronounced as bilabial fricative tavşan (rabbit), yavru (young animal)

22 The Turkish consonant g
two sounds /g/ and /ğ/ (called the soft g) /ğ/ is not found at the beginning of a word /g/ does not occur after or between vowels, except words of European origin ( sigara - cigarette, sigorta - insurance) If /ğ/ is between back vowels it is not pronounced ( ağaç- tree, ağır - heavy) After a back vowel, before a consonant or at the end of a word ğ is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened ( dağ – mountain, doğru - right)

23 In some dialects ğ is pronounced as [y]
( diğer - other, değirmen - mill ) Consonant assimilation in suffixes: When a suffix beginning with c, d or g is added to a word ending in one of the unvoiced consonants ç,f,h,k,p,s,ş,t the initial consonant of the suffix is unvoiced to ç, t or k example: kitap + cı = kitapçı, elektrikçi

24 Syllable final plosives and affricatives are devoiced
example: şarap (wine) şarap + -I (Acc.) = şarab-ı kitap – kitab- ı

25 Word classes Nouns Turkish nouns can take endings indicating
the person of a possessor case-endings Plural endings Example: ev -house evler - the houses evin - your house evimde - at my house

26 Verbs Turkish verbs indicate person can be made negative or im/-potential can be progressive, future, present, past, conditional, imperative example: gel- (to)come gelme- not (to) come geleme- not (to) be able to come gelebil- (to) be able to come

27 Adjectives Most adjectives can be used as nouns and adverbs example: ihtiyar - old (adj.) -the old one (noun) bir ihtiyar – an old one, an old person ihtiyarlar – old ones, old people Hasan yavaş yürüdü (adverb) Hasan walked slowly

28 Pronouns Personal pronouns ben ( I ) sen ( you ) o ( he, she, it )
biz ( we ) siz ( you ) onlar ( they ) Possessive pronoun ben-im ( my ) sen-in ( your ) on- un ( his, her, its ) biz-im ( our ) siz-in ( your ) on-lar-ın ( their )

29 Word formation process
Nouns: göz eye gözlük eyeglasses gözlükçü someone who sells eyeglasses gözlükçülük the business of selling eyeglasses Verbs: yat lie down yatır- lay down [that is, cause to lie down] yatırım instance of laying down: deposit, investment yatırımcı depositor, investor

30 Case Türkiye'de modayı gazete sayfalarına taşıyan,gazetemiz yazarlarından N. S. yaşamını yitirdi. “ One of the writers of our newspaper, N. S., who brought fashion to newspaper pages in Turkey, lost her life." Türkiye'de "in Turkey“ (locative) modayı "fashion" (accusative of moda) gazete "newspaper" (nominative) sayfalarına "to its pages" (dative; sayfa "page", sayfalar "pages", sayfaları "its pages")taşıyan, "carrying" (present participle of taşı-)gazetemiz "our newspaper" (nominative) gazete "newspaper"yazarlarından "from its writers" (ablative; yazar "writer") N. S. [person's name] (nominative) yaşamını "her/his life" (accusative; yaşam "life") yitirdi. "lost" (past tense of yitir- "lose“ from yit- "be lost")

31 The Turkish language has got 6 cases:
Nominative/absolute -Ø (Ahmet) Accusative/objective - (y)I (gazete-yi, the newspaper) Dative - (y)A (konser-e, to the concert) Locative - DA (büro-da, in the office) Ablative - DAn (iş-ten, from work) Genitive - nIn (Ali`-nin, Ali`s)

32 Tense Most tense markers in Turkish have aspectual functions or function as mood markers Present The so- called broad tense ( -(I)r biçimbirim, geniş zaman) the general present tense, expresses habitual actions and general events example: Hasan her sabah kahvaltı ed –er Hasan has breakfat every morning Bil know, bil –ir she knows

33 Present (Progressive)
-(I)-yor example: Hasan tenis oy-n -uyor (Pr. Prog.) Hasan is playing tenis Hasan tenis oy-n –uyor (habitual action) Hasan plays tenis

34 Past Two simple past tenses Definite past -DI Reported past -mIş example: Hasan dün operaya git-ti (past) Hasan went to the opera yesterday Hasan dün operaya git-miş (rep. past) Hasan reportedly went to the opera yesterday

35 Future -(AcAK) example: Yarın sana uğra-y-acağ- ım Tomorrow I will drop by at your place

36 Kinship and colour terms
Kinship terms by blood anne- mother baba -father nine -grandmother dede -grandfather anneanne -maternal grandmother babaanne- paternal grandmother çocuk, evlat – child kız – daughter oğul – son torun – grandchild kardeş – sibling erkek kardeş – brother kızkardeş – sister abla – elder sister ağabey – elder brother dayı – maternal uncle amca – paternal uncle teyze – maternal aunt hala – paternal aunt yeğen – niece or nephew, cousin

37 Kinship terms by marriage
bacanak -the husband of one`s wife`s sister baldız -sister- in- law damat - son-in-law dünür - the father and mother -in –law of one`s child elti - sister -in -law enişte - brother -in -law gelin - daughter- in- law, bride görümce - sister- in- law, husband`s sister

38 Colour terms black siyah, kara white beyaz, ak red kırmızı, kızıl, al
yellow sarı green yeşil blue mavi brown kahverengi pink pembe orange- turuncu, portakal rengi (the colour of the orange) Gray-boz, gri, kurşuni, kül rengi mor

39 References Lewis, Geoffrey Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press. Kornfilt, Jaklin Turkish. London: Routledge. Slobin, D. I., Zimmer, K. (ed.) Typological Studies in Language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Underhill, R Turkish Grammar. Cambridge/Massachusetts/London: MIT Press.

40 Thanks for attention! Teşekkürler!

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