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The development and characteristics of Turkish in comparison to English Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN.

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Presentation on theme: "The development and characteristics of Turkish in comparison to English Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN."— Presentation transcript:

1 The development and characteristics of Turkish in comparison to English Banu Bostan, Figen Kahraman Hauptstudium, LN

2 Overview 1. General overview of Turkish 2. Historical background 3. Borrowings 4. Vowels 5. Consonants 6. Word classes 7. Word formation process 8. Case 9. Tense 10. Kinship and colour terms

3 General overview of Turkish Main geographic locations of Turkish languages Main geographic locations of Turkish languages 1. Turkey (Turkish) 2. Azerbaidjan (Azerbaidjani) 3. The formerly Soviet Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Southern Siberia (Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmenian, Kirghiz) 4. On the Volga (Tatar) 5. In northwestern China (Uighur)

4 The Altaic language families: The Altaic language families: the Turkic languages, Mongolic languages, Tungusic languages, Korean and the Japonic languages. the Turkic languages, Mongolic languages, Tungusic languages, Korean and the Japonic languages. The Turkic languages include Chuvash, Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Crimean Tatar, Urum, Qashqai, Khorasani, Salar, Gagauz, Khalaj, Tatar, Bashkir, Baraba, Urum, Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Karaim, Krymchak, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Nogay, Uzbek, Uyghur, Lop, Kyrgyz, Altay,Yakut,Tuvan, Khakas, Shor, Fuyü Gïrgïs, Chulym, Tofa, Dolgan, Western Yugur, and Northern Altay The Turkic languages include Chuvash, Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Crimean Tatar, Urum, Qashqai, Khorasani, Salar, Gagauz, Khalaj, Tatar, Bashkir, Baraba, Urum, Karachay-Balkar, Kumyk, Karaim, Krymchak, Kazakh, Karakalpak, Nogay, Uzbek, Uyghur, Lop, Kyrgyz, Altay,Yakut,Tuvan, Khakas, Shor, Fuyü Gïrgïs, Chulym, Tofa, Dolgan, Western Yugur, and Northern Altay

5 Common features Ural - Altaic languages: Ural - Altaic languages: principle of vowel harmony principle of vowel harmony are agglutinative are agglutinative SOV word order SOV word order no grammatical gender no grammatical gender

6 Regions Turkish is spoken in: Turkey, Caucasus, Cyprus, Balkans

7

8 Historical background 10 th century: the Turks had begun to convert to Islam and to adopt the Arabo – Persian alphabet 10 th century: the Turks had begun to convert to Islam and to adopt the Arabo – Persian alphabet 11 th century: under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty they overran Persia, Persian became the language of administration and literary culture (Persian borrowed many words from Arabic) 11 th century: under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty they overran Persia, Persian became the language of administration and literary culture (Persian borrowed many words from Arabic) This hybrid language became the official language of the Ottoman dynasty This hybrid language became the official language of the Ottoman dynasty Until 1922 the language of Turkey was known as Osmanlıca or Ottoman Turkish Until 1922 the language of Turkey was known as Osmanlıca or Ottoman Turkish

9 The downfall of the Ottoman dynasty made it necessary to find a new name to distinguish this language from all other members of the same linguistic family The downfall of the Ottoman dynasty made it necessary to find a new name to distinguish this language from all other members of the same linguistic family Formally the language is called Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkey -Turkish) Formally the language is called Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkey -Turkish)

10 The language-reform movement: With the establishment of the Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted his people to turn their backs on their Asian past With the establishment of the Republic Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wanted his people to turn their backs on their Asian past In 1928 he introduced the Latin alphabet in place of the Arabo – Persian In 1928 he introduced the Latin alphabet in place of the Arabo – Persian The Turkish Language Society (Türk Dil Kurumu –TDK) made up a list of pure Turkish words (Öztürkçe) The Turkish Language Society (Türk Dil Kurumu –TDK) made up a list of pure Turkish words (Öztürkçe) The language reform reached the Press the schools and the general public The language reform reached the Press the schools and the general public

11 Main points 11 th century Turkish speakers arrived in Turkey 11 th century Turkish speakers arrived in Turkey Turkish history (three periods): Turkish history (three periods): 1. Old Anatolian Turkish (Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) 2. Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca) 3. Modern Turkish (Yeni Türkçe) 1928 introduction of the Latin alphabet 1928 introduction of the Latin alphabet

12 Borrowings Words from Arabic, Persian, French, Italian, German and English Words from Arabic, Persian, French, Italian, German and EnglishExample: Ask for your bill (hesap) in a restoran (restoran) and the odds are that what the garson (garson) brings you will be headed adisiyon (adisiyon).

13 Arabic: Arabic: haqq- right – hak haqq- right – hak afw - pardon – af afw - pardon – af tamass - contact - temas tamass - contact - temas ism - name – isim ism - name – isim adl - justice - adil adl - justice - adil qism - part - kısım qism - part - kısım aql - intelligence – akıl aql - intelligence – akıl matn- text – metin matn- text – metin umr - life – ömür umr - life – ömür fıkr - thought - fikir fıkr - thought - fikir French: station - station - istasyon statisque -statistics- istatistik sport - sports - spor club - club - klüp groupe - group - grup principe - principle - prensip

14 Italian: Italian: scala - quay - iskele scala - quay - iskele sgombro - mackerel - uskumru sgombro - mackerel - uskumru spirito - alcohol – ispirto spirito - alcohol – ispirto German: German: Schlepp - cargo- boat – şilep Schlepp - cargo- boat – şilep Groschen - kuruş Groschen - kuruş English: screw - uskur steam – istim or islim train – tren Persian: shahr - city – şehir zahr - poison – zehir tukhm - seed - tohum

15 Vowels Turkish has 8 vowels

16 The vowels 4 front vowels (e, i, ö, ü) 4 front vowels (e, i, ö, ü) 4 back vowels (a, ı, o, u) 4 back vowels (a, ı, o, u) 4 high vowels (i, ı, u, ü) 4 high vowels (i, ı, u, ü) 4 low vowels (e, a, o, ö) 4 low vowels (e, a, o, ö) 4 rounded vowels (o, ö, u, ü) 4 rounded vowels (o, ö, u, ü) 4 unrounded vowels (a, e, i, ı) 4 unrounded vowels (a, e, i, ı)examples: akıl, okul, öpücük, elli

17 Vowel harmony rules 1. Front vowel must be followed by a front vowel (dolap – cupboard) 2. First vowel is unrounded so the other once are also unrounded 3. First vowel is rounded, the following vowels are rounded and close or unrounded and open (erik - plum, uzak – far away)

18 Exceptions 1. Foreign words tiyatro- theatre, edebiyat- literature 2. Words which changed during the time into standard Turkish ana - anne (mother), alma – elma (apple) 3. Compound words Karadeniz - Black Sea, bugün – today 4. Five invariable suffixes (I)yor, -ki, - ken, - leyin, - (I)mtrak

19 Consonants

20 Consonants b, f, m, p, s, z, y are pronounced as in English b, f, m, p, s, z, y are pronounced as in English The consonant k stands for two sounds in Turkish A front k (key) A front k (key) A back k (cool) A back k (cool)example: ek affix (front k) ak white (back k)

21 The consonant l stands for two sounds A front l bal (honey) A front l bal (honey) A back l bel (waist) A back l bel (waist) The consonant v At the beginning it is pronounced as in English, in the middle and at the end it is weaker than the English v, after a vowel or before a consonant it is pronounced as bilabial fricative At the beginning it is pronounced as in English, in the middle and at the end it is weaker than the English v, after a vowel or before a consonant it is pronounced as bilabial fricative tavşan (rabbit), yavru (young animal)

22 The Turkish consonant g two sounds /g/ and /ğ/ (called the soft g) two sounds /g/ and /ğ/ (called the soft g) /ğ/ is not found at the beginning of a word /ğ/ is not found at the beginning of a word /g/ does not occur after or between vowels, except words of European origin ( sigara - cigarette, sigorta - insurance) /g/ does not occur after or between vowels, except words of European origin ( sigara - cigarette, sigorta - insurance) If /ğ/ is between back vowels it is not pronounced ( ağaç- tree, ağır - heavy) If /ğ/ is between back vowels it is not pronounced ( ağaç- tree, ağır - heavy) After a back vowel, before a consonant or at the end of a word ğ is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened ( dağ – mountain, doğru - right) After a back vowel, before a consonant or at the end of a word ğ is dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened ( dağ – mountain, doğru - right)

23 In some dialects ğ is pronounced as [y] In some dialects ğ is pronounced as [y] ( diğer - other, değirmen - mill ) Consonant assimilation in suffixes: When a suffix beginning with c, d or g is added to a word ending in one of the unvoiced consonants ç,f,h,k,p,s,ş,t the initial consonant of the suffix is unvoiced to ç, t or k When a suffix beginning with c, d or g is added to a word ending in one of the unvoiced consonants ç,f,h,k,p,s,ş,t the initial consonant of the suffix is unvoiced to ç, t or k example: kitap + cı = kitapçı, elektrikçi example: kitap + cı = kitapçı, elektrikçi

24 Syllable final plosives and affricatives are devoiced Syllable final plosives and affricatives are devoicedexample: şarap (wine) şarap (wine) şarap + -I (Acc.) = şarab-ı kitap – kitab- ı

25 Word classes Nouns Nouns Turkish nouns can take endings indicating Turkish nouns can take endings indicating the person of a possessor the person of a possessor case-endings case-endings Plural endings Plural endingsExample: ev -house evler - the houses evin - your house evimde - at my house

26 Verbs Verbs Turkish verbs indicate person Turkish verbs indicate person can be made negative or im/-potential can be made negative or im/-potential can be progressive, future, present, past, conditional, imperative can be progressive, future, present, past, conditional, imperativeexample: gel- (to)come gelme- not (to) come geleme- not (to) be able to come gelebil- (to) be able to come

27 Adjectives Adjectives Most adjectives can be used as nouns and adverbs Most adjectives can be used as nouns and adverbsexample: ihtiyar - old (adj.) -the old one (noun) bir ihtiyar – an old one, an old person ihtiyarlar – old ones, old people Hasan yavaş yürüdü (adverb) Hasan walked slowly

28 Pronouns Personal pronouns Personal pronouns ben ( I ) ben ( I ) sen ( you ) sen ( you ) o ( he, she, it ) o ( he, she, it ) biz ( we ) biz ( we ) siz ( you ) siz ( you ) onlar ( they ) onlar ( they ) Possessive pronoun ben-im ( my ) sen-in ( your ) on- un ( his, her, its ) biz-im ( our ) siz-in ( your ) on-lar-ın ( their )

29 Word formation process Nouns: göz eye gözlük eyeglasses gözlükçü someone who sells eyeglasses gözlükçülük the business of selling eyeglasses Verbs: yat- lie down yatır- lay down [that is, cause to lie down] yatırım instance of laying down: deposit, investment yatırımcı depositor, investor

30 Case Türkiye'de modayı gazete sayfalarına taşıyan,gazetemiz yazarlarından N. S. yaşamını yitirdi. “ One of the writers of our newspaper, N. S., who brought fashion to newspaper pages in Turkey, lost her life." Türkiye'de "in Turkey“ (locative) modayı "fashion" (accusative of moda) gazete "newspaper" (nominative) sayfalarına "to its pages" (dative; sayfa "page", sayfalar "pages", sayfaları "its pages")taşıyan, "carrying" (present participle of taşı-)gazetemiz "our newspaper" (nominative) gazete "newspaper"yazarlarından "from its writers" (ablative; yazar "writer") N. S. [person's name] (nominative) yaşamını "her/his life" (accusative; yaşam "life") yitirdi. "lost" (past tense of yitir- "lose“ from yit- "be lost")

31 The Turkish language has got 6 cases: Nominative/absolute -Ø (Ahmet) Nominative/absolute -Ø (Ahmet) Accusative/objective - (y)I (gazete-yi, the newspaper) Accusative/objective - (y)I (gazete-yi, the newspaper) Dative - (y)A (konser-e, to the concert) Dative - (y)A (konser-e, to the concert) Locative - DA (büro-da, in the office) Locative - DA (büro-da, in the office) Ablative - DAn (iş-ten, from work) Ablative - DAn (iş-ten, from work) Genitive - nIn (Ali`-nin, Ali`s) Genitive - nIn (Ali`-nin, Ali`s)

32 Tense Most tense markers in Turkish have aspectual functions or function as mood markers Most tense markers in Turkish have aspectual functions or function as mood markers Present Present The so- called broad tense ( -(I)r biçimbirim, geniş zaman) the general present tense, expresses habitual actions and general events The so- called broad tense ( -(I)r biçimbirim, geniş zaman) the general present tense, expresses habitual actions and general eventsexample: Hasan her sabah kahvaltı ed –er Hasan has breakfat every morning Bil know, bil –ir she knows

33 Present (Progressive) Present (Progressive) -(I)-yor -(I)-yorexample: Hasan tenis oy-n -uyor (Pr. Prog.) Hasan is playing tenis Hasan tenis oy-n –uyor (habitual action) Hasan plays tenis

34 Past Past Two simple past tenses Two simple past tenses 1. Definite past -DI 2. Reported past -mIş example: Hasan dün operaya git-ti (past) Hasan went to the opera yesterday Hasan dün operaya git-miş (rep. past) Hasan reportedly went to the opera yesterday

35 Future Future -(AcAK) -(AcAK)example: Yarın sana uğra-y-acağ- ım Tomorrow I will drop by at your place

36 Kinship and colour terms Kinship terms by blood Kinship terms by blood anne- mother anne- mother baba -father baba -father nine -grandmother nine -grandmother dede -grandfather dede -grandfather anneanne -maternal grandmother anneanne -maternal grandmother babaanne- paternal grandmother babaanne- paternal grandmother çocuk, evlat – child çocuk, evlat – child kız – daughter kız – daughter oğul – son torun – grandchild kardeş – sibling erkek kardeş – brother kızkardeş – sister abla – elder sister ağabey – elder brother dayı – maternal uncle amca – paternal uncle teyze – maternal aunt hala – paternal aunt yeğen – niece or nephew, cousin

37 Kinship terms by marriage Kinship terms by marriage bacanak -the husband of one`s wife`s sister bacanak -the husband of one`s wife`s sister baldız -sister- in- law baldız -sister- in- law damat - son-in-law damat - son-in-law dünür - the father and mother -in –law of one`s child dünür - the father and mother -in –law of one`s child elti - sister -in -law elti - sister -in -law enişte - brother -in -law enişte - brother -in -law gelin - daughter- in- law, bride gelin - daughter- in- law, bride görümce - sister- in- law, husband`s sister görümce - sister- in- law, husband`s sister

38 Colour terms black siyah, kara black siyah, kara white beyaz, ak white beyaz, ak red kırmızı, kızıl, al red kırmızı, kızıl, al yellow sarı yellow sarı green yeşil green yeşil blue mavi blue mavi brown kahverengi brown kahverengi pink pembe pink pembe orange- turuncu, portakal rengi (the colour of the orange) orange- turuncu, portakal rengi (the colour of the orange) Gray-boz, gri, kurşuni, kül rengi Gray-boz, gri, kurşuni, kül rengi mor mor

39 References Lewis, Geoffrey Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press. Lewis, Geoffrey Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press. Kornfilt, Jaklin Turkish. London: Routledge. Kornfilt, Jaklin Turkish. London: Routledge. Slobin, D. I., Zimmer, K. (ed.) Typological Studies in Language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Slobin, D. I., Zimmer, K. (ed.) Typological Studies in Language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Underhill, R Turkish Grammar. Cambridge/Massachusetts/London: MIT Press. Underhill, R Turkish Grammar. Cambridge/Massachusetts/London: MIT Press.

40 Thanks for attention! Thanks for attention! Teşekkürler! Teşekkürler!


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