Presentation on theme: "Discipline in Schools: Moving Beyond Zero Tolerance Special Focus: Policy Reform and Charter Schools."— Presentation transcript:
Discipline in Schools: Moving Beyond Zero Tolerance Special Focus: Policy Reform and Charter Schools
Charter School Authorization Section 27A of the Illinois School Code allows for the creation of charter schools. Charter schools are authorized by: – Local school districts OR – Illinois Charter School Commission. Charter schools enter into contracts with their authorizer. Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) reviews and certifies the contracts.
Applicable Law Charter schools are required to follow: – Federal and state constitutional law – Federal civil rights laws – Article 27A of the Illinois School Code (Charter School Law) – The Illinois Educational Labor Relations Act – Federal and state laws and regulations regarding special education and the instruction of English language learners – Certain other state law provisions – Their charters – Their own codes of conduct and student handbooks Charter schools are exempt from most provisions of the Illinois School Code and state regulations governing public schools and local school board policies
Governing Law Regarding Discipline in Charter Schools Federal and state constitutional law Federal civil rights laws (Title VI, Title IX, and Section 504) Federal and state disciplinary protections for students with disabilities State law regarding maintenance of discipline in schools but not statutory law regarding suspensions/expulsions and student searches Their charters Their codes of conduct and student handbooks
Quick Overview Charter Schools In Illinois 148 campuses, including 134 in Chicago 63,000 students 90% of charter school students are in Chicago – In 2013-14, 23% of high school students and 10% of elementary students attended charter schools Source: Illinois Network of Charter Schools (INCS)
Charter Enrollment Growth Source: INCS analysis of ISBE data
SCHOOL DISCIPLINE JESSICA SCHNEIDER, STAFF ATTORNEY EDUCATIONAL EQUITY PROJECT OCTOBER 17, 2014
Source: CPS data release and data to EFE. See CPS: Expulsion Rate at Higher at Charter Schools, Chicago Tribune, Feb. 26, 2014, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014- 02-26/news/ct-chicago-schools-discipline-met-20140226_1_charter-schools- andrew-broy-district-run-schoolshttp://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014- 02-26/news/ct-chicago-schools-discipline-met-20140226_1_charter-schools- andrew-broy-district-run-schools 13 EXCLUSIONARY DISCIPLINE 2012-13Students%ExpulsionsRate per 10,000 CPS~350,00086%1825 Charter Schools~55,00014%30761 CPS Disposition of students expelled from charter schools. Expelled124% No consequence145% SMART28191%
A charter school shall be subject to all federal and State laws and constitutional provisions prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, race, creed, color, gender, national origin, religion, ancestry, marital status, or need for special education services. 105 ILCS 5/27A-4(a) IDEA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, ADA U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights “Dear Colleague” Letter of May 14, 2014 http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague- 201405-charter.pdf http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague- 201405-charter.pdf
Manifestation Determination Review (MDR) if removed more than 10 days (some exceptions) Exception: 45 school day placement for: ◦ 1) Weapon ◦ 2) Drugs ◦ 3) Serious bodily injury Right to an alternative education: “participate in general education curriculum” and “progress towards meeting goals set out in IEP.”
Chicago Public Schools Chicago Charter Schools 20th day last day Change% change20th day last day Change% change LRE 1 21,37448% 22,37048% 9965% 4,86768% 4,93271% 651% LRE 2 14,74533% 16,28135% 1,53610% 1,97728% 1,81126% (166)-8% LRE 3 6,56815% 6,70814% 1402% 3124% 2474% (65)-21% Specialized School 1,0142% 9462% 0% Out-of-District 5851% 6261% 0% TOTAL 44,286 46,931 2,6456% 7,156 6,990 (166)-2% Placement during the 2013-14 School Year: Data from Chicago Public Schools
Source: CPS data release and data to EFE. See CPS: Expulsion Rate at Higher at Charter Schools, Chicago Tribune, Feb. 26, 2014, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-02-26/news/ct-chicago- schools-discipline-met-20140226_1_charter-schools-andrew-broy- district-run-schools http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-02-26/news/ct-chicago- schools-discipline-met-20140226_1_charter-schools-andrew-broy- district-run-schools % with an IEPCPSCharter Total Student12.3%11.9% Expelled Students18.6%24.1% 2012-13Students%ExpulsionsRate per 10,000 CPS~350,00086%1825 Charter Schools~55,00014%30761 CPS Disposition of students expelled from charter schools. Expelled124% No consequence145% SMART28191%
EFE analysis of Illinois charter school discipline codes 15 codes outside Chicago (2013-14) 35 codes in Chicago (2014-15, final & draft)
- At least 15 of 50 codes had errors in the description of the procedural rights for students with disabilities - Chicago Public Schools standard language is spreading in 2014-15. Source: EFE analysis of 2013-14 and 20140-15 charter school codes of conduct.
NetworkStudents % of Charter Students Profanity, Max Fighting, Min Levels of FightingDemerits Restorative Practices CPS~350,0003 ISS9Yes Noble Street9,07117% No suspension 5 OSS2Yes CICS8,71216%5 OSS2 UNO*7,20713%10 OSS1 YCCS4,0167%3 ISS9Yes LEARN*2,6595%5 OSS3 Perspectives2,2194%10 OSS1 OSS4Yes UCCS1,8963%5 ISS8 Catalyst1,8253%Uses CPS Code Urban Prep1,4273% No suspension 1Yes ASPIRA1,2992%Uses CPS Code * Draft codes for 2014-15
Increasing adoption of the CPS code of conduct. 2013-14: 8 charters with 11 campuses, ~4,200 students 2014-15: 11 charters with 19 campuses, ~7,400 students This year: 5 charters adopted and 2 dropped the CPS code CPS code for 2014-15: Prologue, Academy for Global Citizenship, ASPIRA, Catalyst, KIPP, Legacy, TMSE, Namaste, Frazier, Horizon*, Chicago Virtual.
MOVING BEYOND ZERO TOLERANCE: POLICY REFORM IN CHARTER SCHOOLS JULIE WATERSTONE VISITING CLINICAL PROFESSOR NORTHWESTERN LAW SCHOOL, BLUHM LEGAL CLINIC
TRADITIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOLS Total CA Enrollment = 6,174, 717 Total Expulsion = 18, 445 (.3%) CHARTER SCHOOLS Total CA Enrollment = 319,657 Total Expulsion = 374 (.1%) Traditional Public Schools v. Charter Schools (California 2010-2011)
Expulsion Rates Across the Nation Source: Education Week, May 16, 2013
Discipline Data – LAUSD Source: Education Week analysis of LAUSD data
CA Court of Appeals found that dismissal by a charter school does not require the same due process rights as an expulsion Scott B. v. Bd. of Trustees of Orange Cnty. High Sch. of Arts, 217 Cal.App.4th 117 (2013) District Court in Hawaii ruled that a dismissal is not a deprivation of a property interest and does not entitle student to a hearing. Lindsay v. Mayatoshi, 950 F.Supp.2d 1159 (D. Haw. 2013) Courts’ Interpretation of Due Process in Charter Schools
“Charters can and should adopt sensible suspension/expulsion policies that provide appropriate “due process”, but not time-consuming district-like processes” “some form of confidential “hearing” if parents request it..., If hearing not requested, the process is over and you’re done” Provided in Training for Charter Administrators by Counsel
Procedures sometimes listed in charter policies, but that are otherwise not required (and we don’t recommend them) Recorded or “transcribed” hearing Closed session hearing with board (works for districts but not charters) Special readmission policy for expelled students Restricting the charter to Ed Code grounds for expulsion (works for districts but not charters) Multi-level, complex appeals over 30-day periods or longer Administrative panel hearings References to Ed Code 48900 Rehabilitation plans More on the training…