Presentation on theme: "Leadership in Implementing School-wide PBIS February 27"— Presentation transcript:
1 Leadership in Implementing School-wide PBIS February 27 Rob HornerUniversity of OregonOSEP TA-Center on PBIS
2 Goals Goals Define current status of SWPBIS implementation Define lessons learned about effective leadership in implementation of SWPBIS.Define role of the Implementation BlueprintDetail how the collection and use of data affects implementation of SWPBISProvide opportunity for questions.
3 Effective Implementation Themes Affecting Education: Multi-tiered Systems, Evidence-based Practices, Implementation ScienceEvidence-based PracticesPerformance Assessment (Fidelity)CoachingTrainingSelectionSystems InterventionFacilitative AdministrationDecision Support Data SystemCompetencyOrganizationEffective ImplementationAdaptiveTechnicalLeadership DriversMulti-tiered Systems of SupportImplementation Science
4 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters.A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainabilityMultiple tiers of intensity
5 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support? School-wide PBIS is:A framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students.Evidence-based features of SWPBISPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
6 Why SWPBIS?The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective learning environments.PredictablePositiveConsistentSafe
7 Experimental Research on SWPBIS SWPBIS Experimentally Related to:Reduction in problem behaviorIncreased academic performanceIncreased attendanceImproved perception of safetyReduction in bullying behaviorsImproved organizational efficiencyReduction in staff turnoverIncreased perception of teacher efficacyImproved Social Emotional competenceBradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):
8 Summary of Research School-wide PBIS is an evidence-based practice Implementation is related to improved academic and social behavior.Tier I SWPBIS can be implemented with fidelity by any school in the U.S. without new resources or dramatic reorganization.Successful Schools:Define a clear commitment to school-wide social cultureAdd data systems (fidelity and Student Outcomes)Provide the leadership to allow effective team-based decision-making.Tier II and Tier III supports will require more adaptation
10 Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity SCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTTertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk Behavior~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsMain Ideas:Invest in prevention firstMultiple tiers of support intensityEarly/rapid access to support~80% of Students27
11 MathRemember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students.Avoid creating a new disability labeling system.BehaviorHealthReading
12 Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000 19,054
13 Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State February, 201314 States > 500 SchoolsIllinoisArizona
14 Proportion of Schools Implementing SWPBIS by State February, 201312 states over 40% of all schools implementing SWPBISArizona
15 Using the PBIS Implementation Blueprint ExplorationAnnual AssessmentAction Planning
16 Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations VisibilityPoliticalSupportFundingPolicyLeadership TeamActive CoordinationTrainingCoachingBehavioralExpertiseEvaluationLocal School/District Teams/DemonstrationsSugai et al.,
18 For Items not Implemented: GOAL: District and/or state level capacity to establish, sustain, and scale-up of accurate implementation of a continuum (multi-tiered) of SWPBS across multiple schools.MonthActivity/Action (Person/s)Leadership/ CoordinationCoaching/ FacilitationTrainingEvaluationBehavioral ExpertiseFundingVisibilityPolitical SupportPolicyJulA u gS epO ctN ovD ecJa nFe bM arA prM ayJu nJu lAction Planning:For Items not Implemented:1. Select next action/activity (and for each action define who will perform, and when action will be accomplished). 2. The active actions become items for weekly/monthly meetings
19 Stages of Implementation Implementation Takes Time: 2 – 4 YearsExplorationInstallationInitial ImplementationFull ImplementationStages of Implementation
20 Stages of Implementation Steve GoodmanFocusStageDescriptionExploration/ AdoptionDecision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation.InstallationSet up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan.Initial ImplementationTry out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts.Full ImplementationExpand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation.Continuous Improvement/ RegenerationMake it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices.Should we do it!Work to do it right!Implementation is not an eventA mission-oriented process involving multiple decisions, actions, and correctionsWork to do it better!
21 Scaling up School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: The Experiences of Seven States with Documented Success Rob Horner, Don Kincaid, George Sugai, Tim Lewis, Lucille Eber, Susan Barrett, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Mary Richter, Erin Sullivan, Cyndi Boezio, Nancy JohnsonExplorationInstallationInitial ImpFull ImpInnovationSustainabilityLeadership TeamFundingVisibilityPolitical SupportPolicyTrainingCoachingExpertiseEvaluationDemos
22 Exploration and Adoption Installation Initial Implementation Full ImplementationInnovation and sustainabilityLeadership Team (coordination)Do you have a state leadership team?If you do, how was your first leadership team developed?Who were members?Who supported/lead the team through the exploration process?Was any sort of self-assessment completed (e.g. the PBIS Implementation Blueprint Assessment)?What was the role of State agency personnel in the exploration phase?What were critical issues that confronted the team as it began to install systems changes?What were specific activities the team did to ensure success of the initial implementation efforts?Did the team change personnel or functioning as the # of schools/districts increased?What has the Leadership team done to insure sustainability?In what areas is the State “innovating” and contributing to the research and practice of PBIS (e.g. linking PBIS with literacy or math)?Do you have a state leadership team?If you do, how was your first leadership team developed?Who were members?Who supported/lead the team through the exploration process?Was any sort of self-assessment completed (e.g. the PBIS Implementation Blueprint Assessment)?What was the role of State agency personnel in the exploration phase?
30 Lessons Learned Multiple approaches to achieving scaled implementation Colorado: Started with Leadership TeamIllinois: Started with Leadership Advocates and built team only after implementation expanded.Missouri: Strong initial demonstrations led to strong state supportAll states began with small “demonstrations” that documented the feasibility and impact of SWPBIS.Only when states reached demonstrations did scaling occur. Four core features needed for scaling:Administrative Leadership / Support/ FundingTechnical capacity (Local training, coaching, evaluation and behavioral expertise)Local Demonstrations of feasibility and impact ( )Evaluation data system (to support continuous improvement)Essential role of Data: Fidelity data AND Outcome data
31 Lessons LearnedScaling is NOT linearSustained scaling requires continuous regenerationThreats to Scaling:Competing initiativesThe seductive lure of the “new idea”Leadership turnoverLegislative mandatesFiscal constraintRegular Dissemination of Fidelity and Impact data is the best “protective factor” for threats to scaling
32 Lessons Learned Scaling requires planned efficiency The unit cost of implementation must decrease as the number of adoptions increases.Shift from external trainers to within state/district trainersUse local demonstrations as exemplarsIncreased coaching capacity can decrease investment in trainingImproved “selection” of personnel decreases turnover and development costsUse existing professional development and evaluation resources differentlyBasic Message: The implementation practices that are needed to establish initial exemplars may be different from the practices used to establish large scale adoption.Jennifer Coffey, 2008
33 Effective PBIS Leadership Define a five year vision:Number of districts/ schoolsExtend that vision to incorporate at least 80% of all schools in the stateClarify role of Leadership TeamActive leadership and guidance. Not just “informational” or “consultative”Meet regularly, carry tasks between meetings, use dataNeed formal “coordinator” role… to ensure that things get doneEstablish WorkgroupsPolicy/ FundingTrainingEvaluationCoordination/Communication
34 Summary Leadership is essential for successful implementation of PBIS. Vision, Local Capacity, Assess, Adapt.
35 McIntosh, Predy, Upreti, Hurne, Turri & Mathews 2012 Effective LeadershipClarity of visionBuilding CapacitySelectTrainCoachPerformance FeedbackSelf-assessmentTeamsAuthorityTimeData for effective decision-makingImplementation FidelityStudent outcomesAvoiding competing and conflicting initiativesFixsen, Blase et al., 2010McIntosh, Predy, Upreti, Hurne, Turri & Mathews 2012
36 Working Smarter Summary If we do “X” (PBIS) what two things will we stop doing?Does “X” (PBIS) align with our most important goals for students?Does “X” (PBIS) have high probability of delivering the expected outcomes (research?)Do we have the capacity to implement “X” (PBIS) with high fidelity and sustainability?Does “X” (PBIS) fit with what we already do well?
37 Lesson #7: Invest in Intensive Supports (Tier II, III) Establish the organizational capacity to support students with more severe problem behavior.The three areas of “knowledge” needed by a team.Bennazi et al., (2006)Knowledge about studentKnowledge about contextKnowledge about behavioral theoryThe importance of understanding “function” of behavior.Sheldon Loman and Kathleen Strickland-Cohen (2013)Typical school personnel can assess and manage “Basic” individual behavior challenges.
38 School-wide PBSEstablishing additional supports for students with more intense needs
39 Behavior Support Elements *Response class*Routine analysis*Hypothesis statement*Supporting data*Alternative behaviors*Competing behavior analysis*Indicated, evidence-based interventions*Contextual fit*Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomesProblem BehaviorFunctional Assessment*Implementation support*Data planTeam-basedBehavior competenceIntervention & Support Plan*Continuous improvement*Sustainability planFidelity of ImplementationImpact on Behavior & Lifestyle
40 Lesson #8: Collect and use Data for Active Decision-Making Give each team concrete measures that they can use to determine if they are successful.Measure use of practices:Are we doing what we want to be doing?Team ChecklistBenchmark of QualityEBS SurveySETMeasure impact on valued outcomesOffice discipline referralsAttendanceSuspension/Expulsion ratesStudent academic achievementStudent Individual Intensive Supports