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Leadership in Implementing School-wide PBIS February 27 Rob Horner University of Oregon OSEP TA-Center on PBIS www.pbis.org.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership in Implementing School-wide PBIS February 27 Rob Horner University of Oregon OSEP TA-Center on PBIS www.pbis.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership in Implementing School-wide PBIS February 27 Rob Horner University of Oregon OSEP TA-Center on PBIS

2 Goals Define current status of SWPBIS implementation Define lessons learned about effective leadership in implementation of SWPBIS. Define role of the Implementation Blueprint Detail how the collection and use of data affects implementation of SWPBIS Provide opportunity for questions.

3 Themes Affecting Education: Multi-tiered Systems, Evidence-based Practices, Implementation Science Performance Assessment (Fidelity) Coaching Training Selection Systems Intervention Facilitative Administration Decision Support Data System Competency Organization Effective Implementation Multi-tiered Systems of Support Evidence-based Practices Implementation Science Adaptive Technical Leadership Drivers

4 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

5 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support? School-wide PBIS is: A framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

6 Why SWPBIS? The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective learning environments. Predictable Consistent Positive Safe

7 Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf, P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: 1.Reduction in problem behavior 2.Increased academic performance 3.Increased attendance 4.Improved perception of safety 5.Reduction in bullying behaviors 6.Improved organizational efficiency 7.Reduction in staff turnover 8.Increased perception of teacher efficacy 9.Improved Social Emotional competence

8 Summary of Research School-wide PBIS is an evidence-based practice Implementation is related to improved academic and social behavior. Tier I SWPBIS can be implemented with fidelity by any school in the U.S. without new resources or dramatic reorganization. Successful Schools: Define a clear commitment to school-wide social culture Add data systems (fidelity and Student Outcomes) Provide the leadership to allow effective team-based decision- making. Tier II and Tier III supports will require more adaptation

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10 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT 27 Main Ideas: 1.Invest in prevention first 2.Multiple tiers of support intensity 3.Early/rapid access to support

11 Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Reading Behavior Math Health

12 Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since ,054

13 Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State February, 2013 Illinois 14 States > 500 Schools Arizona

14 Proportion of Schools Implementing SWPBIS by State February, states over 40% of all schools implementing SWPBIS Arizona

15 Using the PBIS Implementation Blueprint Exploration Annual Assessment Action Planning

16 Leadership Team Active Coordination Funding Visibility Political Support TrainingCoachingEvaluation Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations Behavioral Expertise Policy Sugai et al.,

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18 GOAL: District and/or state level capacity to establish, sustain, and scale-up of accurate implementation of a continuum (multi-tiered) of SWPBS across multiple schools. Month Activity/Action (Person/s) Leadership/ Coordination Coaching/ Facilitation Training Evaluation Behavioral Expertise Funding Visibility Political Support Policy Ju l AugAug S ep O ct N ov D ec Ja n Fe b M ar A pr M ay Ju n Ju l AugAug S ep O ct D ec Ja n Action Planning: For Items not Implemented: 1. Select next action/activity (and for each action define who will perform, and when action will be accomplished). 2. The active actions become items for weekly/monthly meetings

19 Implementation Takes Time: 2 – 4 Years Exploration Installation Initial Implementation Full Implementation Stages of Implementation

20 FocusStageDescription Exploration/ Adoption Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. InstallationSet up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. Full Implementation Expand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Improvement/ Regeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices. Work to do it right! Work to do it better! Should we do it! Steve Goodman

21 Scaling up School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: The Experiences of Seven States with Documented Success Rob Horner, Don Kincaid, George Sugai, Tim Lewis, Lucille Eber, Susan Barrett, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Mary Richter, Erin Sullivan, Cyndi Boezio, Nancy Johnson ExplorationInstallationInitial ImpFull ImpInnovationSustainability Leadership Team Funding Visibility Political Support Policy Training Coaching Expertise Evaluation Demos

22 Exploration and Adoption InstallationInitial Implementation Full Implementation Innovation and sustainability Leadership Team (coordination) Do you have a state leadership team? If you do, how was your first leadership team developed? Who were members? Who supported/lead the team through the exploration process? Was any sort of self- assessment completed (e.g. the PBIS Implementation Blueprint Assessment)? What was the role of State agency personnel in the exploration phase? What were critical issues that confronted the team as it began to install systems changes? What were specific activities the team did to ensure success of the initial implementation efforts? Did the team change personnel or functioning as the # of schools/districts increased? What has the Leadership team done to insure sustainability? In what areas is the State “innovating” and contributing to the research and practice of PBIS (e.g. linking PBIS with literacy or math)?

23 Descriptive Summary: Oregon Exploration / Installation / Initial Imp /Full Imp & Innovate

24 Descriptive Summary: Missouri Exploration / Installation /Initial Imp / Full Imp & Innovate

25 Descriptive Summary: North Carolina Exploration / Installation / Initial & Full Imp / Innovate

26 Descriptive Summary: Colorado Exploration / Installation / Initial & Full Imp / Innovate

27 Descriptive Summary: Florida Exploration/ Installation/ Initial Imp / Full Imp / Innovate

28 Descriptive Summary: Maryland Exploration / Installation / Initial Imp / Full Imp / Innovate

29 Descriptive Summary: Illinois Exploration / Installation / Initial Imp /Full Imp & Innovate

30 Lessons Learned Multiple approaches to achieving scaled implementation Colorado: Started with Leadership Team Illinois: Started with Leadership Advocates and built team only after implementation expanded. Missouri: Strong initial demonstrations led to strong state support All states began with small “demonstrations” that documented the feasibility and impact of SWPBIS. Only when states reached demonstrations did scaling occur. Four core features needed for scaling: Administrative Leadership / Support/ Funding Technical capacity (Local training, coaching, evaluation and behavioral expertise) Local Demonstrations of feasibility and impact ( ) Evaluation data system (to support continuous improvement) Essential role of Data: Fidelity data AND Outcome data

31 Lessons Learned Scaling is NOT linear Sustained scaling requires continuous regeneration Threats to Scaling: Competing initiatives The seductive lure of the “new idea” Leadership turnover Legislative mandates Fiscal constraint Regular Dissemination of Fidelity and Impact data is the best “protective factor” for threats to scaling

32 Lessons Learned Scaling requires planned efficiency The unit cost of implementation must decrease as the number of adoptions increases. Shift from external trainers to within state/district trainers Use local demonstrations as exemplars Increased coaching capacity can decrease investment in training Improved “selection” of personnel decreases turnover and development costs Use existing professional development and evaluation resources differently Basic Message: The implementation practices that are needed to establish initial exemplars may be different from the practices used to establish large scale adoption. Jennifer Coffey, 2008

33 Effective PBIS Leadership Define a five year vision: Number of districts/ schools Extend that vision to incorporate at least 80% of all schools in the state Clarify role of Leadership Team Active leadership and guidance. Not just “informational” or “consultative” Meet regularly, carry tasks between meetings, use data Need formal “coordinator” role… to ensure that things get done Establish Workgroups Policy/ Funding Training Evaluation Coordination/Communication

34 Summary Leadership is essential for successful implementation of PBIS. Vision, Local Capacity, Assess, Adapt.

35 Effective Leadership Clarity of vision Building Capacity Select Train Coach Performance Feedback Self-assessment Teams Authority Time Data for effective decision-making Implementation Fidelity Student outcomes Avoiding competing and conflicting initiatives Fixsen, Blase et al., 2010 McIntosh, Predy, Upreti, Hurne, Turri & Mathews 2012

36 Working Smarter Summary

37 Lesson #7: Invest in Intensive Supports (Tier II, III) Establish the organizational capacity to support students with more severe problem behavior. The three areas of “knowledge” needed by a team. Bennazi et al., (2006) Knowledge about student Knowledge about context Knowledge about behavioral theory The importance of understanding “function” of behavior. Sheldon Loman and Kathleen Strickland-Cohen (2013) Typical school personnel can assess and manage “Basic” individual behavior challenges.

38 School-wide PBS Establishing additional supports for students with more intense needs

39 Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Supporting data *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Indicated, evidence-based interventions *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence

40 Lesson #8: Collect and use Data for Active Decision-Making Give each team concrete measures that they can use to determine if they are successful. Measure use of practices: Are we doing what we want to be doing? Team Checklist Benchmark of Quality EBS Survey SET Measure impact on valued outcomes Office discipline referrals Attendance Suspension/Expulsion rates Student academic achievement Student Individual Intensive Supports

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