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School Choice and Supplementary Education in S. Korea Misook Kim Korea National Univ. of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "School Choice and Supplementary Education in S. Korea Misook Kim Korea National Univ. of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 School Choice and Supplementary Education in S. Korea Misook Kim Korea National Univ. of Education

2 Expanding Supplementary Education(SE) 1)SE expenditure proportional to GDP 1985: 0.53, 1990: 1.41, 1995: 1.86, 2000: 1.81, 2005: 2.57, 2008: ) Participation Rate(%) 1980(elementary: 12.9, Middle: 15.3, High:26.2) 2000(elementary: 73.5, Middle: 50.7, High:39.8) 2007(elementary: 88.2, Middle: 78.4, High:63.1)

3 Two Perspectives on SE 1)Neo-liberal - increasing school satisfaction - competition among schools - school choice 2) Status Competition -school satisfaction is not significant, -school admission competition and social status struggle (Kim, M. et al., 2007; Kim, S. & Song, H., 2009)

4 Ignoring the role of the State In 1968, abolishing entrance examination of junior high schools In 1974, abolishing entrance examination of high schools and introducing equalization policy that applicants for general high schools are assigned to a school in their residential district In 1980, prohibition of private tutoring In 1983, establishing special purpose high school(SPH) (science academy)

5 The Role of the State In 1989, allowing students' attendance in private institutes during vacation In 1990, establishing foreign language high school (SPH) In 2000, constitutional court's decision that the government's intervention in people's participation in supplementary education is unconstitutional SPH occupy 4.2 % of all high schools and 6.3 % of general high school

6 My Approach 1)Interactions among class relations, private institutes, and the State in growing SE 2)Focusing on lower and upper middle class 3) Interview Students who got admission from foreign language high schools but did not attend yet Three lower middle class students and their mothers three upper middle class students and their mothers three lecturers in lower class area two lecturers in middle class area two school teachers in lower class area

7 School Choice of Upper Middle class 1) the concept of SPH SPH as social distinction that differentiates from others SPH as a step to go to elite domestic and foreign universities thinking about SPH from elementary or early junior high school general high schools in their residential area are good choice between good and better schools

8 Choice of Upper middle class 2) parents' support teaching a number of foreign languages experience of foreign study reading books when their kids are studying moving to a better living area where there are good schools and good private institutes academic management(time and study habit)

9 Choice of Upper Middle class 3) participation in SE deciding a private institute after checking their management, curriculum and reputation attending English language institute for English listening, comprehension, dialogue skills for two or three years attending comprehensive class that provides all subjects or courses to be needed to take entrance examinations at the second semester of the third year paying around $1,000-1,500 a month

10 Choice of lower middle class 1) the concept of SPH little aware of SPH SPH as unavailable choice because of higher tuition choose SPH around the second semester of junior high school due to largely private institute lecturers or others choice to avoid bad schools in their residential area a choice between bad schools and good schools

11 Choice of lower middle class 2) parents' support emotional support heavily relying on private institutes ("it is their job") asking their daughter to go to a college that gives scholarship paying around $500 a month could not prepare for their old age because of the economic burden for their children's education

12 Choice of lower middle class 3) SE selected by students than parents comprehensive class because of limited financial resource comprehensive class from the second semester (or summer vacation) of the third year of junior high schools for SPH preparation

13 Private Institutes’ Strategy 1.Upper middle class customers upper mc know very well about admission process of SPH and university frequent parent meetings on SPH and university admission process the importance of systemic management for SPH entrance examination running specialized institutes that provide specific instruction on a particular subject or course related to SPH entrance examinations submitting difficult questions intentionally to show off their quality informing students' academic development and weakness, and attendance to parents

14 Private Institutes’ Strategy 2) lower middle class customers little information about SPH and college entrance examinations difficult economic conditions not push children's hard working emphasis on the importance of good schools for social success Comprehensive class teaching various subjects related to SPH entrance exam helping students prepare for second- class SPH in Gyun-gi province because of their lower English ability

15 Private Institutes’ Strategy 3) common strategy actively provoking middle class people's desire for social mobility through PHS emphasizing that preparation for SPH is not waste of money but future investment naming higher track as SPH track so that higher track students and parents are regarded as going SPH as taken for granted

16 Conflict between SE and schools Encouraging students to take rest or sleep in school and to concentrate on studying in private institutes Studying in private institutes until 12 at night or 1 am Sleeping 3-4 hours Irrelevant acts (sleeping, preparing for SPH entrance examination) in class of higher achieved students whose attitude had been good in class School teachers’ complaining since the higher achieved students' inappropriate behavior could infect other students and create bad climate Challenge to schooling teachers’ teaching based on learning in private institues

17 Sum and Discussion 1. School Choice of Middle Class 1)B. Bernstein - visible pedagogy and old middle class - invisible pedagogy and new middle class 2) Who attend in a particular school rather than its curriculum - higher achieved, competition, no interruption of lower achieved, distinction 3) Under a highly credential society and high stake test system, preferring elite high schools which run in a traditional way

18 2. Employing SE to go to a good school -lower class people’s desire for SPH was actively constructed by private institutes to expand its market. -By operating highest group as SPH class, students assigned in there were automatically led to prepare for SPH. -mobilizing Korean’s persistent desire to have good college credential, helping their desire to be realized, and thus let them more dependent on private supplementary education. -Supplementary education is expanded through certain SPH selection system mediated by the State’s policy -Entrance examinations have questions to cover up high school level -Counted only the school activity records of the first semester of third year of middle school -Neglecting instruction in middle school and instead relying on SE

19 The State’s Contradictory Role Establishing SPH and giving selection autonomy to SPH allow advantage to middle class in social status competition through schooling In 2010, the state announced that SPH's student selection should not be based on writing examination but the school grades of middle school, study plan, principal's recommendation, and interview to resolve SE problems However the State has increased private and public autonomous schools, another kind of elite schools, for the name of diversification

20 Conclusion To explore the growth of SE, we need to understand the interplay among class relation, the State and supplementary education. Gender relation in the process should be investigated - middle class mother and father in the school choice process


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