Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: School Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10: School Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D. The Department of PsychologyThe University of West Florida
2 Patterns of Schooling: USA USA: Mandatory attendance ages based on states law(FL: students may drop out of school with parent’s permission at 16 years)Organization of school systems based on state and school district political systemsCurriculum is state or local decisionNational requirements based on No Child Left Behind (NCLB) but dependent on state level assessment
3 Patterns of Schooling in USA Elementary School—kindergarten through 5th or 6th gradeMiddle School—6th grade through 8th gradeJunior High School—7th grade through 9th gradeHigh School—9th or 10th grade through 12th gradeAlternative plan: Primary (K-8) & Secondary (9-12)—tends to be more adaptive.
4 Patterns of Schooling: A Global Perspective Globally the compulsory age varies by country.Frequently attendance is required through basic school which goes through 8th or 9th grade.Assessments frequently determine the type of post basic education (gymnasium=college prep; professional=technical career; vocational=trade or guild)Decisions about profession and type of school made quite early
5 Patterns of Schooling: A Global Perspective Education in Post Conflict RegionsLow Numbers of Trained TeachersUniversities and Teacher Training Centers lack trained facultyDependent upon foreign trainers and facultyNumber of females in secondary schools significantly lower than malesTextbooks typically outdated and shared by multiple students
8 Effective Schools for Adolescents Two dimensions for consideration:School climate & belongingness:the degree to which adolescents feel part of the social fabric of the schoolAdolescents’ sense of support and care from peers, faculty, and administrationAcademic achievementLevel of academic performanceTest scoresClass levels (advanced, basic, remedial)Class grades
9 School climate & Belongingness School Size:500 students is likely optimalAbove 1000 students isolation of shy, neglected students more frequentSchool-within-a-schoolWithin larger schools, students and teachers form smaller learning communitiesTeacher as AdvisorEach teacher is assigned a small group of students to maintain contact across the middle or high school years
10 School climate & Belongingness Transition from Primary to Secondary School:Teacher expectations generally negative re: adolescents (Eccles and associates)Multiple teachers across subjectsBroader range of peer groupsAge at transition less important than school, peer, & parental factors
11 School Climate & Academic Achievement Factors predicting academic achievement (Stewart, 2007/2008):School Attachment: the extent to which students care about and have positive feelings for school.School Commitment: students’ perceptions that education is important to themselves
12 School Climate & Academic Achievement Factors predicting academic achievement (Stewart, 2007/2008):Positive Peer Affiliations: values peers who have high academic aspirations and prosocial behaviorsParent-Child Discussions: parents who engage in conversations with their children about school and school-related topics in the home
13 School Climate Norms of Secondary Education: Greater teacher control of the teaching/learning processMore negative stereotype about adolescents in generalLow expectations for most studentsLess individualized attention than in primary schools
14 School Climate Creating Positive School Climates High Demandingness High and appropriate expectations of all studentsHigh ResponsivenessProvide necessary and appropriate support for student needs to meet or exceed expectations.Create a safe and warm atmosphereSound familiar????
15 Teacher Attitudes that Foster Positive School Climate All students are capable of learningExpectations are high for all studentsTeachers value free and positive interactions with all studentsTeacher student relationship reflects authoritative styleTeachers freely provide and receive feedback that is encouraging & informative
17 Attribution for Success & Failure Middle & High School:FemalesTend to attribute success in science or math to luck or task (easy)Tend to attribute failure in science or math to ability(Dickhauser & Wulf-Uwe, 2006)MalesTend to attribute success in science or math to abilityTend to attribute failure in science or math to luck or lack of effort (self-handicapping)
18 Attribution for Success & Failure College students:females more than males indicated lack of ability for failure and effort for success (males attributed success to ability)(Beyer ,1998)Attributions of internal and variable factors for success and failure linked to greater perception of control.
19 Motivation Orientation and Engagement Dweck’s Motivation Orientationtask/mastery orientation—the completion of the task and learning the material or mastering the skill is keyTends to have a more intrinsic motivational set
20 Motivation Orientation and Engagement Dweck’s Motivation Orientationperformance/ability orientation—Focus is on external evaluation; getting the gradeTends to have more extrinsic motivational setSchooling typically requires both!!!
21 Beyond School Climate: Student Engagement Family factors in Student Engagement:Parental expressions of value of educational attainment (e.g. Stewart, 2007/2008)Parental monitoring of students’ homework and academic progressParental models for literacyParents provide a text rich environmentAuthoritative parenting related to higher engagement regardless of social class.How might a parent with low skills and little financial resources accomplish this?
22 Peers, Friends, & SchoolFriends typically share similar levels of engagement and achievementLarger peer groups (e.g. crowds) can influence social comparisonsSelective schools/programs can have differential impacts on peer status
23 Work, Leisure, & School Broad issue is linked to competing priorities Work of greater than 10 hours/wk linked to:reduced engagement in school,lower academic performance,increased psychological difficulties, andover all poorer outcomesStudents from lower SES families tend to work to provide partial family incomeOthers tend to work for disposable income (e.g. car)
24 Ethnic Differences in Schooling: Engagement and Achievement Cautionary Notes:Ethnic differences are confounded by economic factorsAs much intragroup variability exists as intergroup variabilityWhen economic, prejudice, and peer influences are considered, little difference in engagement and academic achievement exist
25 Gender Differences Cautionary Notes Differences in academic achievement related to social support from peers, teachers, and familiesOverall females achieve higher than malesDomain specific differences (e.g. science & math) likely due to socialization (Nosak’s work)
26 Academic AchievementWhat are factors that impact one’s level of academic achievement?Educational historyParenting factorsIndividual motivationPeers and friendsPsychological/Learning disabilitiesTeacher expectations
27 Academic Achievement Accommodations for Differences Special needs programs (Exceptional Student Education) within schoolsDifferent schools (Charter Schools)Individual interventions (e.g. medication, therapy, tutoring)Tracking (grouping by achievement levels)
28 Tracking Research on tracking Snow (1986) with tracking "low" kids tend to be alienated from schoolGamoran & Mare (1989) When achievement is held constant, tracking predicts drop out better than scores on achievement tests.Page (1990) kids in low tracks tend to think that luck and guessing is more fruitful than hard work and skills
29 School Dropouts/School Leavers Old-for-grade (retained one or more grades)Disengagement from social fabric of the schoolRelevant peer groups outside of schoolDisengagement from the process of learningRepeated failure with no sense of possibility of recoveryBehavioral ProblemsRejected peer group
30 School Dropouts/School Leavers Family Factors:Competing priorities in the homeNeed for additional incomeNeed for child care or care for ill parentNeglectful ParentingLittle parental monitoringLittle encouragement to succeed in school
31 School Dropouts/School Leavers PreventionSchool within a schoolActive learning strategiesModels/MentorsCooperative learning with mixed ability groupsFamily involvement programsAlternative programs/PathwaysAdult High School (Pensacola Junior College)Cooperative Education (.5 day academics/.5 day work placement)
32 On the next slide are some questions I’d like you to prepare for our discussion. Do not spend too much time but make some notes for yourself for our discussion on School and Adolescence.
33 Education during Emerging Adulthood: The College Years Think about your first year in college.How would you describe your peer group?How has it changed since that year?How would you describe your own educational experience to date in your college tenure?In what ways have you as a person changed during your college years?What other priorities have you had to handle during your college years?