Presentation on theme: "Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School"— Presentation transcript:
1 Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School Ground SchoolPrivate Pilot AirplaneCrosswinds Flight School
2 Requirements for private pilot 17 years of ageAble to read, write and converse in EnglishObtain at least a 3rd class medical certificateReceive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home study coursePass a knowledge test scoring 70% or better
3 Requirements cont. Accumulate at least 40 hours of flight time At least 20 hours from an authorized flight instructor, including at least :3 hr. cross-country3 hr. at night including1 cross-country flight over 100 NM total distance10 takeoff and landings to a full stop3 hr. instrument training3 hr. in airplanes in preparation for the practical test within 60 days prior
4 Solo Requirements 10 hr. solo flight time 5 hr. of solo cross country flights1 solo cross-county of at least 150 NM total distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of 3 points and with one segment consisting of at least a 50 NM leg between the takeoff and landing locations3 solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport with an operating control tower.
5 Requirements cont. Obtain a logbook sign-off by your CFI for: Preflight preparation/proceduresAirport/seaport base operationsTakeoffs, landings, and go-aroundsPerformance maneuversGround reference maneuversNavigationSlow flight and stallsBasic instrument maneuversEmergency operationsNight operationsPost flight proceduresSuccessfully complete a practical flight test with FAA
6 Day 1 Aircraft Training Airports Aerodynamics Airplane Stability, Load Factors, and Wake
7 Aircraft Training Dispatch procedures Use of checklists Certificates and Documents Location and UseAircraft PreflightAeronautical Decision Making and JudgmentRecovery ProceduresEngine ControlsFlight ControlsEmergency Equipment & survival gearAircraft ServicingFuel grades
8 Dispatch procedures Scheduling Aircraft key control procedures Aircraft and airport security/access proceduresHandling of aircraft and discrepancies found during preflight including re-dispatch in a new aircraft, if appropriate
9 The foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety Use of checklistsThe foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safetyPreflightinspectionBefore enginestartEngine startingBefore taxiBefore takeoffAfter takeoffCruiseDescentBefore landingAfter landingEngine shutdown/securingemergency
10 Certificates and documents location and use A airworthiness certificateR registrationR radio license (not required in US)O operation limitations – may beany combination of FAA –approved airplaneFlight manual and/or pilot’s operatinghandbook, placards, instrument markingsW weight and balance info
12 Aeronautical decision making and judgment Decisions with time constraintsimmediate actionAviateNavigatecommunicateDecisions without time constraintsGather informationConsider alternative action
13 Hazardous attitudes Antiauthority - resents supervision, does not like to be bound by schedules or habits, prefers to dothings when they feel readyImpulsivity - the inclination of an individual toinitiate behavior without adequate forethought asto the consequences of their actionsInvulnerability – resistant to harm and impactMacho - trying to cover up their complexResignation – believes they can’t do it and gives in
14 Recovery procedures Ground handling after flight – fueling Securing the aircraftLocking and securing keysPaperwork after flightNotification of aircraft discrepanciesReturn of aircraft to the way it was found
15 Engine controls Primer – if engine is cold Master switch – battery/alternatorThrottle – pump 3 timesIgnition – turn to start
17 Emergency equipment and survival gear ELT – requiredWaterFoodFirst aid kitAviation fire extinguisherCell phoneFlotation device – if over waterEmergency strobe/flash light – batteriesBlanket/hat/coat/gloves – cold weather gear
18 Aircraft servicing Money or credit card for fuel/oil Make sure you are able to self-service
19 Fuel grades Low-lead 100- octane ( 100LL ) Dyed blue Distinctive AVGAS odorJet-AClear or straw coloredKerosene scent and oily to touchAutomotive gas –MOGAS (appropriate aircraft)
20 Airports Wind Direction Indicators Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Signs Airport, Runway, and Taxiway MarkingsAirport, Runway, and Taxiway LightingRadio Calls and ChecksCTAFObtaining Airport Advisories
26 Radio calls and checks Phonetic alphabet Use the 5 W’s Who are you calling – “Crosskeys traffic”Who are you – “Cessna 14H”Where are you – “Departing/downwind/final/clear”What your intentions are - “For 27/9”Who are you calling – for clarification – “Crosskeys”
27 CTAF-common traffic advisory frequency For airports without a control towerMay be a:UNICOMMulticomFSSTower frequency (when closed) and is identified in appropriate aeronautical publications.
28 CTAF continued Multicom – a mobile service not open to public UNICOM – a nongovernmental communicationsfacility which may provide information at certainairports.Multicom – a mobile service not open to publicCorrespondence used to provide communicationsessential to conduct the activities beingperformed by or directed from private aircraft.
29 Flight service station 1-800 WX-briefFSS – Air traffic facilities which providePilot briefingsEn route communicationVFR search and rescue servicesAssist lost aircraft and aircraft in emergenciesRelay ATC clearancesOriginate Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS)Broadcast aviation wx and NAS (National air service) informationReceive and process flight plansMonitor NAVAIDs
30 Flight service station continued In addition, at selected locations, FSSs provideEn route Flight Advisory Service (Flight watch)Flight Watch is the common name in the United States foran Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) dedicated toproviding weather to and collecting it from pilotsoperating at lower altitudes (mostly general aviation).Take weather observationsIssue airport advisoriesAdvise customs and immigrations of trans- boarder flights
31 Obtaining airport advisories Local airport advisory is provided by flight service stations or the military at airports not serviced by an operating control towerProvides information to arriving and departing aircraft concerning wind direction and speed, favored runway, altimeter setting, pertinent know traffic, pertinent know field conditions, airport taxi routes and traffic patters, and authorized instrument approaches.This information is advisory only – not an ATC clearance
32 Obtaining airport advisories Other airport advisories common at non- tower airports may be obtained over the CTAF from other aircraft in the pattern or through the UNICOM.Pilots landing at non-tower airports should monitor the CTAF at least miles out to hear other traffic in the pattern.If unable, request an airport advisory miles out.Check wind sock.
33 Airports continued Runway Incursions Use of Aircraft Lighting during Taxi and Traffic Pattern OperationsCollision avoidanceScanning for TrafficTraffic Pattern OperationsPractice Area Operations
34 Runway incursionsNever taxi onto any runway without first looking for landing traffic.Always monitor the CTAF and/or the appropriate ATC frequencies while operating on the surface of an airport.
35 Right-of-way rules General – see and avoid In distress – has the right of way above allConverging – the aircraft to the rightor the least maneuverable (glider, balloon,airship) or an aircraft towing another aircraft.Head-on – each alters to the rightOvertaking – the aircraft being overtaken, theovertaking aircraft alters course to the right.Landing – aircraft on final, or the lower aircraft.
36 Use of lighting during taxi and traffic pattern operations Engine running - beaconTaxiing – navigation, position, anti- collisionCrossing runway – all exterior lightsTaxi to takeoff – all lights that silhouetteTakeoff – landing light on when clearedDay or night – landing light should be left on until well clear of the pattern and turnedon well before reaching the pattern.
37 Collision avoidance Look outside the aircraft Use the radio to announce intentionsDetermine relative altitude of other aircrafts.Take appropriate action – (right-of-way)Multiple threats – climb, descend, turnCollision course – appear to not be movingHigh hazard areas – airports, VORsCockpit management – proper flight planningATC support – request flight following
38 Scanning for trafficEyes can observe an approximate 200 degree arc at a glance but only a small part of the eye can focus in on a point.Use a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements, 10 degrees at a time for 1 minute each.Use the whole scanning area even behind each wing
40 Practice area operations Review practice areaClearing turnsLook for trafficMaintain a safe altitude
41 Aerodynamics 4 Forces of Flight Angle of Attack Airframe (Components) Three Axes of FlightForces Acting on a Climbing AircraftForces Acting on a Descending AircraftForces Acting on a Turning AircraftEffects of FlapsCritical Angle of Attack/StallsSpin Awareness
43 Lift Supporting force for flight in an atmosphere Acts perpendicular to the relative windGenerated through Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Law
44 Bernoulli ‘s Principle As a fluid passes through a pipe that narrows or widens, the velocity and pressure of the fluid vary. As the pipe narrows, the fluid flows more quickly. Surprisingly, Bernoulli's Principle tells us that as the fluid flows more quickly through the narrow sections, the pressure actually decreases rather than increases!_animation
50 ThrustConsidered to act parallel and just about on the longitudinal axisProduced by movement of the air by propeller or the expansion of air in a turbine
51 Weight/Gravity Mass X acceleration (gravity) Always act toward the center on the earthConsidered to act from the center of gravityCG is the point on the aircraft, that if suspended it would balance.
52 Drag drag During straight & level Steady state flight Two types- parasite & inducedRetarding forceActs parallel to relative windDuring straight & levelLift = WeightThrust = DragSteady state flightUpward and downward forces are equalForward = retarding forces
57 Angle of attackThe acute angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the direction of the relative windAt angles less that the critical angle of attack, an increase in the angle of attack will increase lift provided that all other factors are the same
61 Airframe componets Fuselage Wings Empennage Monocoque – skin carries all of the stressTruss – internal structure with non-load carrying skinSemi-monocoque – inside formers & stringersWingsProvides all the lift that supports aircraft in flightEmpennageVertical stabilizer – directional balanceRudder – direction of yawHorizontal stabilizer – longitudinal balanceElevator – controls the pitch
62 Primary flight controls Rudder - yaw about the vertical axisElevator – pitch about the lateral axisAilerons – bank (roll) around the longitudinal axis
70 Climbs Vy – best rate Vx – best angle Cruise climb Steady state climb most altitude over timeVx – best anglemost altitude over distanceCruise climbUsed for improved engine cooling and visibilitySteady state climbConstant rate & airspeed climb
71 Left turning tendencies – the need for right rudder at high power P-factor – descending propeller blade producesmore lift and pulls aircraft to the left (yaw)Torque reaction - twisting on engine createsroll and yawSpiraling slip stream - twisting air aroundfuselage creates roll and yawGyroscopic precession – propeller act as agyroscope
73 Forces acting on a descending aircraft LiftMay be the same as levelComponent acts forward from vertical due to the line of flightThrustPilots prerogativeWeightAlways acts toward the center of the earthDragMay increaseBest glide -Most distance per unit of altitude
75 Forces on a turning aircraft Bank the aircraft in order to change the direction of flightRudder yaws but does not create the unbalance of forces needed to change directionSlip – tail insideSkid – tail outsideAdverse yawRaised wing creates more lift and more drag.Aircraft tries to turn opposite the turn.creates added drag
77 Types of turns Horizontal turns Shallow - 0 to 20 degrees of bank Lift vector is tiltedCreates an accelerationShallow - 0 to 20 degrees of bankMedium – 20 to 45 degree of bankSteep – more than 45 degree of bankApply coordinated aileron and rudder initially for the turn, then increase back pressure, once the turn is established pressure on controls can be relaxed
80 Overbanking tendencies The raised wing creates more lift than the lowered wind. Especially in steeper turns the lift on the raised wing will continue to increase and will need aileron applied opposite the turn in order to correct.
81 Effect of flaps Extending the flaps increases: Wing camber Wing area (some types)Angle of attack of the wingThese changes increase lift and drag (induced and parasiteAllows the pilot to make a steeper approach without increasing airspeedMay provide increased lift required for certain maneuvers
82 Critical angle of attack/Stalls An airplane will fly as long as the wing is creating sufficient lift to counteract the load imposed on itThe angle of attack at which a wing stalls regardless of airspeed, flight attitude, or weight is known as the critical angle of attack
83 Critical angle of attack/Stalls The direct cause of every stall is an excessive angle of attackThe smooth flow of air over the top of the wing is disturbed at this critical angle of attackThe stalling speed of a particular airplane is not a fixed value for all flight situationsA given airplane will always stall at the same angle of attack regardless of airspeed, weight, load factor, or density altitudeThe angle is typically from degrees, depending on the airplane’s design
85 Critical angle of attack/Stalls The critical angle of attack can be exceeded at any attitude or airspeedAt low airspeed, the angle of attack will tend to be highAbrupt control application and/or higher bank angles will be involved with exceeding the critical angle of attack at higher airspeeds or lower pitch attitudesRecovery from a stall requires the pilot to reduce the angle of attack to allow the smooth air over the wing to begin againConsiderable altitude may be lost during recovery
86 Spin awarenessA spin may be defined as an aggravated stall that results “autorotation” and the airplane follows a downward corkscrew pathThe “autorotation” results from an unequal angle of attack on the airplane’s wingsThe rising wing is less stalledThe descending wing has exceeded the critical angle of attack and is more stalledSpins may occur during stalls with a sideslip or yaw acting on the airplane at the time of the stall
87 4 phases of a spin Entry - stall Incipient – lasts about 4 to 6 secondsapproximately 2 turnsDeveloped – airspeed vertical speed, and rateof rotation are stabilized. Altitude lossapproximately 500 feet each 3 second turnRecovery - wings regain lift recovery in about ½ to ¼ turn after anti-spin inputs are applied
88 Spin recovery Reduce the throttle to idle Position the ailerons to neutralApply full opposite rudderApply positive forward movement of the elevator forward of neutral to break the stallAfter spin rotation stops, neutralize the rudderBegin applying back pressure to raise the nose to level flight
89 Spin avoidanceSpin avoidance and recovery require positive control applicationsIntentional spins should only be practiced within the limitations of a properly rigged airplane with a qualified instructor at an altitude allowing recovery prior to descent below 3000ft AGL
90 Airplane Stability (PIO), Load Factors, and Wake Static Stability (Positive/Negative)Dynamic Stability (Positive/Negative)Dihedral EffectGround EffectWing Tip VorticesWake Static Stability (Positive/Negative)Wake Turbulence and AvoidanceLoad Factor and Gusts
91 Stability definedStability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibriumControllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputsManeuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver
92 Positive/Neutral/Negative Positive – when moved out of equilibrium themore likely it is to return to equilibriumNeutral – when moved out of equilibrium itwill tend to stay in the new positionNegative – when moved out of equilibrium themore likely it is to continue in the new direction
93 Relationships to stability In inherently stable aircraft returns to it’s original position after being disturbedThe location of the center of gravity (CG) determines the longitudinal stabilityToo much stability is detrimental to maneuverabilityToo little stability can be detrimental to controllability
95 Static stability (positive/negative) Stability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibriumControllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputsManeuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver
96 Dynamic stability (positive/negative) The result over time when reacting to a disturbance from equilibriumDynamic stability requires positive static stability as the initial reactionAn aircraft with positive dynamic stability will tend to return to equilibrium through smaller and smaller oscillationsAn aircraft with neutral dynamic stability will tend to continue oscillation with the same magnitude for each oscillationAn aircraft with negative dynamic stability will continue oscillating with the magnitude of each oscillation increasing
97 Dihedral effectDihedral is the angle at which the wings are slanted upward from the root to the tipDihedral’s stabilizing effect is the result of a slight sideslip which occurs when one wing is forced downThe sideslip creates a difference between the angle of attack on the upper and lower wings with the lower wing having a greater angle of attack (creating more lift) and raises the lowered wing
99 Pilot induced oscillations (PIO) By over-controlling/correcting the aircraft the pilot disturbs the inherent stability creating oscillations that increase in magnitude until the aircraft become impossible to control
100 Ground effectThe condition of improved performance encountered when the aircraft is near the ground (approximately a wing span)The ground changes the airflow around the wing and creates a cushion of airThis reduces the upwash, downwash, and wingtip vorticesResults in a reduction of induced drag
102 Uses and dangers of ground effect Good stuffAllows the pilot to reduce wear and tear on the aircraft and increase acceleration when operating from a soft-fieldMay be utilized to soften a landingBad stuffMay allow the aircraft to takeoff before the aircraft is ready to continue flying which can result in settlingMay cause excessive float on landing
106 Wake turbulence Strongest wake Jet blast Heavy (larger AOA) Clean (no changes in the wing)Slow (larger AOA)Jet blastExhaust from a jet can flip a light aircraftStay back 500 ft.
107 Wake turbulence & avoidance Wake turbulence avoidance in flightAvoid 5+ miles behind the aircraftAvoid 1,000ft below the aircraftWake turbulence avoidance landingApproach above the larger aircraft’s pathTouchdown beyond the larger aircraft’s touchdown pointLand prior to the larger aircraft’s rotation pointBe cautious of crosswinds that can make them driftWake turbulence avoidance departingRotate prior to and climb above the flight pathWait 2-3 minutes if departing for dissipation
108 A load is a force which is supported by the wings of the aircraft Load factorA load is a force which is supported by the wings of the aircraftthe load in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight is the weight of the aircraft and its contents (1 G)A load factor is a ratio of the total load supported by the wings to the actual weight of the aircraft and its contentsAlso referred to as G’s (gravities)Climbing or turning will increase the G loadThe load factor in turning flight is determined by the bank angle
113 Stall speed and load factor In order to maintain level flight during a turn, the wings must produce enough lift to support the weight of the aircraft multiplied by the load factorThe increased angle of attack required to produce the extra lift at any given bank angle will increase the stall speed of the aircraft (multiply the stall speed by the square root of the load factor to determine the higher stall speed)
114 Category of aircraft Designed to handle without breaking apart Normal = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0 to -1.52(weight dependent)Utility = +4.4/-1.76Acrobatic = +6.0/-3.0Transport = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0
115 Va – maneuvering speedVa – the maximum speed that the aircraft will stall before a damaging load factor resultsorthe maximum speed at which full of abrupt control movements may be used without overstressing the aircraftVa changes with the weight of the aircraftVa is typically published for max gross weight (at weights less than max Va is lower)
116 Vertical gusts/Turbulence Vertical air currents or gusts may impose an increased load factor on an airplaneThese gusts are felt by the pilot and passengers as turbulenceThe aircraft’s speed must be kept below Vno (normal operating range) in any turbulence to prevent damageIt should be kept below Va in severe of greater turbulence to allow an additional safety factor
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