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Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School

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1 Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School
Ground School Private Pilot Airplane Crosswinds Flight School

2 Requirements for private pilot
17 years of age Able to read, write and converse in English Obtain at least a 3rd class medical certificate Receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home study course Pass a knowledge test scoring 70% or better

3 Requirements cont. Accumulate at least 40 hours of flight time
At least 20 hours from an authorized flight instructor, including at least : 3 hr. cross-country 3 hr. at night including 1 cross-country flight over 100 NM total distance 10 takeoff and landings to a full stop 3 hr. instrument training 3 hr. in airplanes in preparation for the practical test within 60 days prior

4 Solo Requirements 10 hr. solo flight time
5 hr. of solo cross country flights 1 solo cross-county of at least 150 NM total distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of 3 points and with one segment consisting of at least a 50 NM leg between the takeoff and landing locations 3 solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport with an operating control tower.

5 Requirements cont. Obtain a logbook sign-off by your CFI for:
Preflight preparation/procedures Airport/seaport base operations Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds Performance maneuvers Ground reference maneuvers Navigation Slow flight and stalls Basic instrument maneuvers Emergency operations Night operations Post flight procedures Successfully complete a practical flight test with FAA

6 Day 1 Aircraft Training Airports Aerodynamics
Airplane Stability, Load Factors, and Wake

7 Aircraft Training Dispatch procedures Use of checklists
Certificates and Documents Location and Use Aircraft Preflight Aeronautical Decision Making and Judgment Recovery Procedures Engine Controls Flight Controls Emergency Equipment & survival gear Aircraft Servicing Fuel grades

8 Dispatch procedures Scheduling Aircraft key control procedures
Aircraft and airport security/access procedures Handling of aircraft and discrepancies found during preflight including re-dispatch in a new aircraft, if appropriate

9 The foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety
Use of checklists The foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety Preflight inspection Before engine start Engine starting Before taxi Before takeoff After takeoff Cruise Descent Before landing After landing Engine shutdown/ securing emergency

10 Certificates and documents location and use
A airworthiness certificate R registration R radio license (not required in US) O operation limitations – may be any combination of FAA –approved airplane Flight manual and/or pilot’s operating handbook, placards, instrument markings W weight and balance info

11 Aircraft preflight Follow the checklist!

12 Aeronautical decision making and judgment
Decisions with time constraints immediate action Aviate Navigate communicate Decisions without time constraints Gather information Consider alternative action

13 Hazardous attitudes Antiauthority - resents supervision, does not like
to be bound by schedules or habits, prefers to do things when they feel ready Impulsivity - the inclination of an individual to initiate behavior without adequate forethought as to the consequences of their actions Invulnerability – resistant to harm and impact Macho - trying to cover up their complex Resignation – believes they can’t do it and gives in

14 Recovery procedures Ground handling after flight – fueling
Securing the aircraft Locking and securing keys Paperwork after flight Notification of aircraft discrepancies Return of aircraft to the way it was found

15 Engine controls Primer – if engine is cold
Master switch – battery/alternator Throttle – pump 3 times Ignition – turn to start

16 Flight controls Ailerons Rudder Elevator

17 Emergency equipment and survival gear
ELT – required Water Food First aid kit Aviation fire extinguisher Cell phone Flotation device – if over water Emergency strobe/flash light – batteries Blanket/hat/coat/gloves – cold weather gear

18 Aircraft servicing Money or credit card for fuel/oil
Make sure you are able to self-service

19 Fuel grades Low-lead 100- octane ( 100LL ) Dyed blue
Distinctive AVGAS odor Jet-A Clear or straw colored Kerosene scent and oily to touch Automotive gas –MOGAS (appropriate aircraft)

20 Airports Wind Direction Indicators Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Signs
Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Markings Airport, Runway, and Taxiway Lighting Radio Calls and Checks CTAF Obtaining Airport Advisories

21 Wind direction indicators

22 Traffic pattern indicators

23 Airport, runway, and taxiway signs
Airport signs – color is key Red- mandatory Black/yellow letters – position Yellow/black letters - directional

24 Airport signage

25 Airport, runway, and taxiway markings

26 Radio calls and checks Phonetic alphabet Use the 5 W’s
Who are you calling – “Crosskeys traffic” Who are you – “Cessna 14H” Where are you – “Departing/downwind/final/clear” What your intentions are - “For 27/9” Who are you calling – for clarification – “Crosskeys”

27 CTAF-common traffic advisory frequency
For airports without a control tower May be a: UNICOM Multicom FSS Tower frequency (when closed) and is identified in appropriate aeronautical publications.

28 CTAF continued Multicom – a mobile service not open to public
UNICOM – a nongovernmental communications facility which may provide information at certain airports. Multicom – a mobile service not open to public Correspondence used to provide communications essential to conduct the activities being performed by or directed from private aircraft.

29 Flight service station
1-800 WX-brief FSS – Air traffic facilities which provide Pilot briefings En route communication VFR search and rescue services Assist lost aircraft and aircraft in emergencies Relay ATC clearances Originate Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) Broadcast aviation wx and NAS (National air service) information Receive and process flight plans Monitor NAVAIDs

30 Flight service station continued
In addition, at selected locations, FSSs provide En route Flight Advisory Service (Flight watch) Flight Watch is the common name in the United States for an Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) dedicated to providing weather to and collecting it from pilots operating at lower altitudes (mostly general aviation). Take weather observations Issue airport advisories Advise customs and immigrations of trans- boarder flights

31 Obtaining airport advisories
Local airport advisory is provided by flight service stations or the military at airports not serviced by an operating control tower Provides information to arriving and departing aircraft concerning wind direction and speed, favored runway, altimeter setting, pertinent know traffic, pertinent know field conditions, airport taxi routes and traffic patters, and authorized instrument approaches. This information is advisory only – not an ATC clearance

32 Obtaining airport advisories
Other airport advisories common at non- tower airports may be obtained over the CTAF from other aircraft in the pattern or through the UNICOM. Pilots landing at non-tower airports should monitor the CTAF at least miles out to hear other traffic in the pattern. If unable, request an airport advisory miles out. Check wind sock.

33 Airports continued Runway Incursions
Use of Aircraft Lighting during Taxi and Traffic Pattern Operations Collision avoidance Scanning for Traffic Traffic Pattern Operations Practice Area Operations

34 Runway incursions Never taxi onto any runway without first looking for landing traffic. Always monitor the CTAF and/or the appropriate ATC frequencies while operating on the surface of an airport.

35 Right-of-way rules General – see and avoid
In distress – has the right of way above all Converging – the aircraft to the right or the least maneuverable (glider, balloon, airship) or an aircraft towing another aircraft. Head-on – each alters to the right Overtaking – the aircraft being overtaken, the overtaking aircraft alters course to the right. Landing – aircraft on final, or the lower aircraft.

36 Use of lighting during taxi and traffic pattern operations
Engine running - beacon Taxiing – navigation, position, anti- collision Crossing runway – all exterior lights Taxi to takeoff – all lights that silhouette Takeoff – landing light on when cleared Day or night – landing light should be left on until well clear of the pattern and turned on well before reaching the pattern.

37 Collision avoidance Look outside the aircraft
Use the radio to announce intentions Determine relative altitude of other aircrafts. Take appropriate action – (right-of-way) Multiple threats – climb, descend, turn Collision course – appear to not be moving High hazard areas – airports, VORs Cockpit management – proper flight planning ATC support – request flight following

38 Scanning for traffic Eyes can observe an approximate 200 degree arc at a glance but only a small part of the eye can focus in on a point. Use a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements, 10 degrees at a time for 1 minute each. Use the whole scanning area even behind each wing

39 Traffic pattern operations

40 Practice area operations
Review practice area Clearing turns Look for traffic Maintain a safe altitude

41 Aerodynamics 4 Forces of Flight Angle of Attack Airframe (Components)
Three Axes of Flight Forces Acting on a Climbing Aircraft Forces Acting on a Descending Aircraft Forces Acting on a Turning Aircraft Effects of Flaps Critical Angle of Attack/Stalls Spin Awareness

42 4 forces of flight

43 Lift Supporting force for flight in an atmosphere
Acts perpendicular to the relative wind Generated through Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Law

44 Bernoulli ‘s Principle
As a fluid passes through a pipe that narrows or widens, the velocity and pressure of the fluid vary. As the pipe narrows, the fluid flows more quickly. Surprisingly, Bernoulli's Principle tells us that as the fluid flows more quickly through the narrow sections, the pressure actually decreases rather than increases! _animation

45 Newton’s 1st Law

46 Newton 2nd law

47 Newton’s 3rd law

48 Newton’s 3rd law

49 Parts of an airfoil

50 Thrust Considered to act parallel and just about on the longitudinal axis Produced by movement of the air by propeller or the expansion of air in a turbine

51 Weight/Gravity Mass X acceleration (gravity)
Always act toward the center on the earth Considered to act from the center of gravity CG is the point on the aircraft, that if suspended it would balance.

52 Drag drag During straight & level Steady state flight
Two types- parasite & induced Retarding force Acts parallel to relative wind During straight & level Lift = Weight Thrust = Drag Steady state flight Upward and downward forces are equal Forward = retarding forces

53 Parasite drag – friction

54 Induced drag-induced by the creation of lift

55 Induced drag

56 Drag curve

57 Angle of attack The acute angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the direction of the relative wind At angles less that the critical angle of attack, an increase in the angle of attack will increase lift provided that all other factors are the same

58 Angle of attack

59 3 axes of flight

60 Airframe construction (components)

61 Airframe componets Fuselage Wings Empennage
Monocoque – skin carries all of the stress Truss – internal structure with non-load carrying skin Semi-monocoque – inside formers & stringers Wings Provides all the lift that supports aircraft in flight Empennage Vertical stabilizer – directional balance Rudder – direction of yaw Horizontal stabilizer – longitudinal balance Elevator – controls the pitch

62 Primary flight controls
Rudder - yaw about the vertical axis Elevator – pitch about the lateral axis Ailerons – bank (roll) around the longitudinal axis

63 Rudder

64 Elevator

65 Ailerons

66 Secondary flight controls
Trim tabs -for trimming and balancing aircraft Trim tabs Servo tabs Balance tabs Anti-servo tabs Spoilers & dive brakes – increase descent without an increase in airspeed Wing flaps – increase lift and drag Split Slotted Fowler

67 Flaps

68 Landing gear Retractable vs. fixed
Tricycle vs. conventional (tail wheel)

69 Forces acting on a climbing aircraft

70 Climbs Vy – best rate Vx – best angle Cruise climb Steady state climb
most altitude over time Vx – best angle most altitude over distance Cruise climb Used for improved engine cooling and visibility Steady state climb Constant rate & airspeed climb

71 Left turning tendencies – the need for right rudder at high power
P-factor – descending propeller blade produces more lift and pulls aircraft to the left (yaw) Torque reaction - twisting on engine creates roll and yaw Spiraling slip stream - twisting air around fuselage creates roll and yaw Gyroscopic precession – propeller act as a gyroscope

72 Left turning tendencies

73 Forces acting on a descending aircraft
Lift May be the same as level Component acts forward from vertical due to the line of flight Thrust Pilots prerogative Weight Always acts toward the center of the earth Drag May increase Best glide -Most distance per unit of altitude

74 Forces on a turning aircraft

75 Forces on a turning aircraft
Bank the aircraft in order to change the direction of flight Rudder yaws but does not create the unbalance of forces needed to change direction Slip – tail inside Skid – tail outside Adverse yaw Raised wing creates more lift and more drag. Aircraft tries to turn opposite the turn. creates added drag

76 Correct by making Coordinated turns

77 Types of turns Horizontal turns Shallow - 0 to 20 degrees of bank
Lift vector is tilted Creates an acceleration Shallow - 0 to 20 degrees of bank Medium – 20 to 45 degree of bank Steep – more than 45 degree of bank Apply coordinated aileron and rudder initially for the turn, then increase back pressure, once the turn is established pressure on controls can be relaxed

78 Level/Medium/Steep turns

79 Constant turns

80 Overbanking tendencies
The raised wing creates more lift than the lowered wind. Especially in steeper turns the lift on the raised wing will continue to increase and will need aileron applied opposite the turn in order to correct.

81 Effect of flaps Extending the flaps increases: Wing camber
Wing area (some types) Angle of attack of the wing These changes increase lift and drag (induced and parasite Allows the pilot to make a steeper approach without increasing airspeed May provide increased lift required for certain maneuvers

82 Critical angle of attack/Stalls
An airplane will fly as long as the wing is creating sufficient lift to counteract the load imposed on it The angle of attack at which a wing stalls regardless of airspeed, flight attitude, or weight is known as the critical angle of attack

83 Critical angle of attack/Stalls
The direct cause of every stall is an excessive angle of attack The smooth flow of air over the top of the wing is disturbed at this critical angle of attack The stalling speed of a particular airplane is not a fixed value for all flight situations A given airplane will always stall at the same angle of attack regardless of airspeed, weight, load factor, or density altitude The angle is typically from degrees, depending on the airplane’s design

84 Angle of attack vs flight path

85 Critical angle of attack/Stalls
The critical angle of attack can be exceeded at any attitude or airspeed At low airspeed, the angle of attack will tend to be high Abrupt control application and/or higher bank angles will be involved with exceeding the critical angle of attack at higher airspeeds or lower pitch attitudes Recovery from a stall requires the pilot to reduce the angle of attack to allow the smooth air over the wing to begin again Considerable altitude may be lost during recovery

86 Spin awareness A spin may be defined as an aggravated stall that results “autorotation” and the airplane follows a downward corkscrew path The “autorotation” results from an unequal angle of attack on the airplane’s wings The rising wing is less stalled The descending wing has exceeded the critical angle of attack and is more stalled Spins may occur during stalls with a sideslip or yaw acting on the airplane at the time of the stall

87 4 phases of a spin Entry - stall
Incipient – lasts about 4 to 6 seconds approximately 2 turns Developed – airspeed vertical speed, and rate of rotation are stabilized. Altitude loss approximately 500 feet each 3 second turn Recovery - wings regain lift recovery in about ½ to ¼ turn after anti-spin inputs are applied

88 Spin recovery Reduce the throttle to idle
Position the ailerons to neutral Apply full opposite rudder Apply positive forward movement of the elevator forward of neutral to break the stall After spin rotation stops, neutralize the rudder Begin applying back pressure to raise the nose to level flight

89 Spin avoidance Spin avoidance and recovery require positive control applications Intentional spins should only be practiced within the limitations of a properly rigged airplane with a qualified instructor at an altitude allowing recovery prior to descent below 3000ft AGL

90 Airplane Stability (PIO), Load Factors, and Wake
Static Stability (Positive/Negative) Dynamic Stability (Positive/Negative) Dihedral Effect Ground Effect Wing Tip Vortices Wake Static Stability (Positive/Negative) Wake Turbulence and Avoidance Load Factor and Gusts 

91 Stability defined Stability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibrium Controllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputs Maneuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver

92 Positive/Neutral/Negative
Positive – when moved out of equilibrium the more likely it is to return to equilibrium Neutral – when moved out of equilibrium it will tend to stay in the new position Negative – when moved out of equilibrium the more likely it is to continue in the new direction

93 Relationships to stability
In inherently stable aircraft returns to it’s original position after being disturbed The location of the center of gravity (CG) determines the longitudinal stability Too much stability is detrimental to maneuverability Too little stability can be detrimental to controllability

94 Types of Stability

95 Static stability (positive/negative)
Stability - the inherent quality of an airplane to correct for conditions that may disturb it from equilibrium Controllability - the airplane’s capability to respond to a pilot’ control inputs Maneuverability - the ability of the aircraft to change direction about the three exes and withstand the forces imposed by the maneuver

96 Dynamic stability (positive/negative)
The result over time when reacting to a disturbance from equilibrium Dynamic stability requires positive static stability as the initial reaction An aircraft with positive dynamic stability will tend to return to equilibrium through smaller and smaller oscillations An aircraft with neutral dynamic stability will tend to continue oscillation with the same magnitude for each oscillation An aircraft with negative dynamic stability will continue oscillating with the magnitude of each oscillation increasing

97 Dihedral effect Dihedral is the angle at which the wings are slanted upward from the root to the tip Dihedral’s stabilizing effect is the result of a slight sideslip which occurs when one wing is forced down The sideslip creates a difference between the angle of attack on the upper and lower wings with the lower wing having a greater angle of attack (creating more lift) and raises the lowered wing

98 Dihedral effect

99 Pilot induced oscillations (PIO)
By over-controlling/correcting the aircraft the pilot disturbs the inherent stability creating oscillations that increase in magnitude until the aircraft become impossible to control

100 Ground effect The condition of improved performance encountered when the aircraft is near the ground (approximately a wing span) The ground changes the airflow around the wing and creates a cushion of air This reduces the upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices Results in a reduction of induced drag

101 Upwash / downwash

102 Uses and dangers of ground effect
Good stuff Allows the pilot to reduce wear and tear on the aircraft and increase acceleration when operating from a soft-field May be utilized to soften a landing Bad stuff May allow the aircraft to takeoff before the aircraft is ready to continue flying which can result in settling May cause excessive float on landing

103 Wing tip vortices

104 Wing tip vortices

105 Wake turbulence & avoidance

106 Wake turbulence Strongest wake Jet blast Heavy (larger AOA)
Clean (no changes in the wing) Slow (larger AOA) Jet blast Exhaust from a jet can flip a light aircraft Stay back 500 ft.

107 Wake turbulence & avoidance
Wake turbulence avoidance in flight Avoid 5+ miles behind the aircraft Avoid 1,000ft below the aircraft Wake turbulence avoidance landing Approach above the larger aircraft’s path Touchdown beyond the larger aircraft’s touchdown point Land prior to the larger aircraft’s rotation point Be cautious of crosswinds that can make them drift Wake turbulence avoidance departing Rotate prior to and climb above the flight path Wait 2-3 minutes if departing for dissipation

108 A load is a force which is supported by the wings of the aircraft
Load factor A load is a force which is supported by the wings of the aircraft the load in straight-and-level unaccelerated flight is the weight of the aircraft and its contents (1 G) A load factor is a ratio of the total load supported by the wings to the actual weight of the aircraft and its contents Also referred to as G’s (gravities) Climbing or turning will increase the G load The load factor in turning flight is determined by the bank angle

109 Load factor chart

110 Load factor in a turn

111 Increase of load factor with increase of bank angle

112 Increase in weight in turns

113 Stall speed and load factor
In order to maintain level flight during a turn, the wings must produce enough lift to support the weight of the aircraft multiplied by the load factor The increased angle of attack required to produce the extra lift at any given bank angle will increase the stall speed of the aircraft (multiply the stall speed by the square root of the load factor to determine the higher stall speed)

114 Category of aircraft Designed to handle without breaking apart
Normal = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0 to -1.52 (weight dependent) Utility = +4.4/-1.76 Acrobatic = +6.0/-3.0 Transport = +2.5 to +3.8/-1.0

115 Va – maneuvering speed Va – the maximum speed that the aircraft will stall before a damaging load factor results or the maximum speed at which full of abrupt control movements may be used without overstressing the aircraft Va changes with the weight of the aircraft Va is typically published for max gross weight (at weights less than max Va is lower)

116 Vertical gusts/Turbulence
Vertical air currents or gusts may impose an increased load factor on an airplane These gusts are felt by the pilot and passengers as turbulence The aircraft’s speed must be kept below Vno (normal operating range) in any turbulence to prevent damage It should be kept below Va in severe of greater turbulence to allow an additional safety factor

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