Presentation on theme: "San Francisco Unified School District Restorative Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1 San Francisco Unified School District Restorative Practices “Schools are not buildings, curriculum timetables and meetings. Schools are relationships and interactions among people.”Johnson & Johnson, 1994
2 SFUSD RP Training References and Contributions The content for the SFUSD Restorative Practices trainings stems from a combination of resources from across the nation. Specifically, we want to recognize the following leading restorative practitioners and organizations for their contribution:The International Institute for Restorative PracticesDavid Yusem: Oakland Unified School DistrictAmos CliffordHoward ZehrRita AlfredLorraine Stutzman Amstutz and Judy MulletCheryl GravesNancy Riestenberg
3 Restorative Practices Definition Restorative Practices are based on principles and processes that emphasize the importance of positive relationships as central to building community and restoring relationships when harm has occurred.Relationship Based PrinciplesBuilding Relationships/ RestoringCommunity Relationships & Community
4 Defining the Need Board Resolution: #96-23A1, October 13, 2009 In support of a Comprehensive School Climate, Restorative Justice, and Alternatives to Suspension/ExpulsionsAim: 1. To reduce overall numbers of suspensions and expulsions within the district2. address the disproportionate numbers of African- American, Latino, and Pacific Islander students who are suspended.
5 Suspension Data 2010-2011 school year African American students comprise 10.8% of the student population, yet they made up 48% of the suspensions.In : AA students made up 52% of expulsion referrals, and 62% of those actually expelled.Latino students comprise 23% of student population with a suspension rate of 29%.We are only beginning to collect out-of-class counseling office referral data at this time.
6 What is the #1 reason for out-of-class referrals and suspensions in SFUSD ?
7 What are the Causes?What are the contributing factors to both district and national disciplinary disproportionality?
8 The School-to-Prison Pipeline Who is in the Pipeline?Students of colorStudents with disabilitiesSecond Language LearnersStudents of color - are far more likely than their white peers to be suspended, expelled, or arrested for the same kind of conduct in schoolStudents with disabilities represent 8.6% of public school children yet make up 32% of youth in juvenile centers and are represented in jail at a rate of nearly four times that.English learner students and families are particularly vulnerable in this context due to language barriers and inadequate translation.
9 Root Causes of Disproportionality 1. Fundamental Attribution BiasRoot Causes of DisproportionalityThe tendency to infer that another person's mishap, mistake, or problem is due to an internal, static trait, disability or condition rather than something related to the situational context.
10 Root Causes of Disproportionality 2. Implicit Stereotypes and BiasA stereotype is the association of a person with a consistent set of traits regardless of whether they are true or not. We develop stereotypes from experiences, through the media, books, parents, etc.“Implicit stereotypes operate outside of one's conscious awareness but nevertheless impact one's judgment, decision making, and actions. They are most often triggered by a combination of racial and gender characteristics of a person.”Clayton Cook, Ph.D. Assistant Prof University of WashingtonRoot Causes of Disproportionality
11 Root Causes of Disproportionality The most pervasive set of implicit racial stereotypes exist for African American males.“When an African American male student struggles academically and/or behaviorally (i.e., has a problem), an educator is not only likely to attribute it to an internal trait but also embed this interpretation within the entire network of implicit racial stereotype. The combination of the FAB and implicit racial stereotypes puts African American males at an increased risk for erroneous decision making and ineffective practices within our educational, judicial, and mental health systems” Clayton Cook, Ph.D. Assistant Prof University of WA
12 What to Do About Discipline Disproportionality Caused By: Zero-Tolerance Policies Fundamental Attribution Bias and Implicit Stereotypes?Continue to shift away from Zero-Tolerance practices utilizingRP conferences that get to the root causes of behaviors.We need to recognize that:unconscious bias is everywhere!bias can have profound effect on our expectations and ourperception.“The tricky part of implicit biases is that we don't think we have them because they tend to operate outside of our conscious awareness.” Dr. Clay CookWe need to have strong awareness and a reflective practiceto focus on building authentic and trusting relationships!!
13 RP is an Effective Alternative: “Utilizing RJ principles, when applied to school discipline practices, can stem the school-to-prison pipeline. With the potential of teaching conflict resolution skills, fostering understanding and empathy, and building stronger relationships in schools and communities, RJ has proven to be an effective alternative to punitive and exclusionary responses to problem student behavior.” The Advancement ProjectHave a Reflective Practice Using RP!Teachers and staff are the first line of defense against the overuse of suspensions by:Cultivating meaningful relationshipsPracticing the RP principlesPromoting high responsibility and high accountabilityUsing behavioral situations as teachable momentsUtilizing the Social Discipline Window, doing “WITH” not “To”
14 Circle Components Role of Circle Keeper Circle set up Purpose of CircleSelecting circle promptsIntroduction of CircleCircle roundsClosing of Circle
15 Small Group Circle Keeping The circle keeper will:Circle keeper silently reviews the RP Question and Circle Card and selects one circle prompt to propose to the group.Introduce the purpose of the circle to the groupReview the circle guidelines and ensure everyone agrees to follow themPresent the circle promptAsk for a volunteer to begin, hand them the talking piece, and ask which direction they would like for the circle to move in prior to responding to the prompt.To close the circle ask for feedback from the group about how they did following the guidelines (can be a thumbs up/thumbs down activity)
16 Values and Principles of Restorative Practices and Discipline Relationships are central to building communityAddresses misbehavior and harm in a way that strengthens relationshipsFocuses on harm done rather than only on rule-breakingGives voice to the person harmedEngages in collaborative problem-solvingEmpowers change and growthEnhances responsibilityAmstutz, L. & Mullet,.J. The Little Book of Restorative Discipline for Schools. (2005)
17 Paradigm Shift Traditional Restorative School and rules violated People and relationships violatedJustice focuses on establishing guiltJustice identifies needs and obligationsAccountability = punishmentAccountability = understanding impact, repairing harmJustice directed at offender, victim ignoredOffender, victim and school all have direct roles in justice processFocus is on punishment when rules are broken and harm has occurred.Offender is responsible for harmful behavior, repairing harm and working toward positive outcomesNo opportunity for remorse or amendsOpportunity given for amends and expression of remorse
18 Restorative Language What is the relationship like? Who was impacted or affected by what happened?What was the resulting harm?What needs do those involved have?What needs to happen to repair the harm?
19 Social Discipline Window Wachtel & Costello (2009), The Restorative Practices Handbook, pg 50
20 Social Discipline Window The underlying premise of Restorative Practices rests with the belief that people will make positive changes when those in positions of authority do things with them rather than to them or for them.Wachtel & Costello (2009), The Restorative Practices Handbook, pg 50
21 Fair Process Three core components of Fair Process: 1 - Engagement: Involving individuals in decisions that affect them by asking for their input and allowing them to refute the merit of one another’s ideas.2 - Explanation: Everyone involved and affected should understand why final decisions are made as they are. Creates powerful feedback loop that enhances learning.3 - Expectation Clarity: Once decisions are made, new rules are clearly stated, so that everyone understands the new boundaries and consequences of failure.
23 MANAGING DIFFICULTIES & DISRUPTIONS Targeted InterventionsRESTORING COMMUNITYFormal Restorative Conferencing, Re-entry1-5% of populationAffective Statements, Restorative Dialogue, Responsive Circles (Problem Solving Circles), Peer MediationSelected InterventionsMANAGING DIFFICULTIES & DISRUPTIONSRelational Practices School/ClassroomPolicies, curriculum, social skills, affective statements, community building circlesUniversal/Prevention FocusDEVELOPING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL CAPACITY: BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNITYAccountabilityResponsibility for self & othersWorking Together: InclusionCommunity BuildingAdapted from Blood, 2004
24 Affective Statements the starting point for all restorative processes active non-judgmental listeningauthentic expression of feelings and impact* building strengthened relationships by genuinely presenting oneself as someone who cares and has feelings.Ex. typical response: “Phillip, stop talking!”affective statement: “Phillip, I find it very frustrating to hear a student talking while I'm trying to give directions to the class.”
25 Restorative Discussion and Questions A restorative approach to help those harmed by other's actions, as well as responding to challenging behavior consists in asking key questions:Restorative Questions:What happened, and what were you thinking at the time?What have you thought about since?Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way?What about this has been hardest for you?What do you think you need to do to make things as right as possible?
26 Circles When to Use Circles (examples): Proactive: Community/ Team buildingResponsive: Problem solving/repairing harmWhen to Use Circles (examples):community building problem-solving reflectingintroducing new studentsConflict resolutionBrainstormingfarewell to students leavingHealing/ diffusing tensionfamily issuescommunity violence debriefing
27 Responsive Circle Planning Classroom issue: student use of profanity PurposeCircle PromptFor students to learn the impact that profanity has on the classroom community.How do you feel when you hear words in the classroom that you feel uncomfortable with?To identify the language students and teachers are uncomfortable hearing in the classroom.Written or verbal prompt- What words do you hear in the class that you feel uncomfortable with?(read out loud in the circle)Reinforce guidelines about student behavior in relation to using respectful language.1. How are we doing following the classroom guideline of using respectful language?2. What is one thing you can commit to doing to ensure the use of respectful language in the classroom.
28 Benefits of Group Conferencing Give victims a chance to express their feelings directly to offenders, supported by family and friendsLet offenders hear directly from the people they’ve affectedEmpower offenders to take responsibility for their actionsHold offenders accountableCollaborative: provides opportunities for all involved to decide what needs to happen to repair harmProvides an opportunity for healing for victims, offenders and their communities of careWorks toward reintegrating offenders back into their communityBreak cycles of misbehavior and disruption
29 When is Conferencing Appropriate? What are some examples of issues you may be able to address at your school site by using a restorative conference?
30 When is conferencing appropriate? Interpersonal conflictsTardiness/TruancyTheftVandalismBullying/HarassmentDrug/Alcohol useFighting/AssaultArson
31 Conferencing Process1) Pre-conference: meet separately with all parties involved2) Identification, recruitment, and preparation of supporters and other involved parties3) Conference4) Follow-up
32 Seating Arrangements FACILITATOR Victim SUPPORTER Person who harmed Was harmedOffenderSUPPORTERMEMBER OFCOMMUNITYSCHOOLADMINISTRATOROR LAWENFORCEMENTPOLICEHUMANSERVICES &/ORPROBATION
33 Stages of Conferencing Conferencing follows a specific order of stages, carefully constructed to support a safe flow of dialogue and ensure all parties are given a space to share their thoughts and feelings.The following stages incorporate the conference:Preamble (welcome and introduction)Offender speaksVictim speaksVictim supporters speakOffender supporters speakOffender respondsReaching an agreementClosing the conference
34 Pupil Services and Counseling Depts. Thank you!Feel free to contact the restorative practices team with any further questions(415)Pupil Services and Counseling Depts.
35 Restorative Practices Trivia Question #1:Restorative Practices are based on ____________?Name 2 of them.
36 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 2:Describe the restorative paradigm shift in your own words.How is it different to a traditional model of discipline?
37 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 3:What is the fundamental hypothesis of Restorative Practices?
38 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 4:What are the 2 elements required to be in the “with” box? (social discipline window)
39 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 5:In what way does Fair Process support the fundamental hypothesis of restorative practices?
40 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 6:Name the restorative practices on the continuum in order from informal to formal.
41 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 7Define the two components that are required when using an affective statement.
42 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 8:What are the common restorative questions?Name a situation where the questions can be useful.
43 Restorative Practices Trivia Question 9Bullying is happening in your class.What type of circle is appropriate to facilitate and name a possible circle prompt?
44 Restorative Practices Trivia FINAL QUESTION!!!Define Restorative Practices in your own words.