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San Francisco Unified School District Restorative Practices “Schools are not buildings, curriculum timetables and meetings. Schools are relationships and.

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Presentation on theme: "San Francisco Unified School District Restorative Practices “Schools are not buildings, curriculum timetables and meetings. Schools are relationships and."— Presentation transcript:

1 San Francisco Unified School District Restorative Practices “Schools are not buildings, curriculum timetables and meetings. Schools are relationships and interactions among people.” Johnson & Johnson, 1994 Johnson & Johnson,

2 SFUSD RP Training References and Contributions The content for the SFUSD Restorative Practices trainings stems from a combination of resources from across the nation. Specifically, we want to recognize the following leading restorative practitioners and organizations for their contribution: ► ► The International Institute for Restorative Practices ► ► David Yusem: Oakland Unified School District ► ► Amos Clifford ► ► Howard Zehr ► ► Rita Alfred ► ► Lorraine Stutzman Amstutz and Judy Mullet ► ► Cheryl Graves ► ► Nancy Riestenberg 2

3 Restorative Practices Definition Restorative Practices are based on principles and processes that emphasize the importance of positive relationships as central to building community and restoring relationships when harm has occurred. Relationship Based Principles Building Relationships/ Restoring Building Relationships/ Restoring Community Relationships & Community Community Relationships & Community 3

4 Defining the Need Board Resolution: #96-23A1, October 13, 2009 In support of a Comprehensive School Climate, Restorative Justice, and Alternatives to Suspension/Expulsions Aim: 1. To reduce overall numbers of suspensions and expulsions within the district 2. address the disproportionate numbers of African- American, Latino, and Pacific Islander students who are suspended. 2. address the disproportionate numbers of African- American, Latino, and Pacific Islander students who are suspended. 4

5 Suspension Data school year African American students comprise 10.8% of the student population, yet they made up 48% of the suspensions. In : AA students made up 52% of expulsion referrals, and 62% of those actually expelled. Latino students comprise 23% of student population with a suspension rate of 29%. We are only beginning to collect out-of-class counseling office referral data at this time. 5

6 What is the #1 reason for out-of-class referrals and suspensions in SFUSD ? 6

7 What are the Causes? What are the contributing factors to both district and national disciplinary disproportionality? 7

8 The School-to-Prison Pipeline ► Who is in the Pipeline? 1.Students of color 2.Students with disabilities 3.Second Language Learners  Students of color - are far more likely than their white peers to be suspended, expelled, or arrested for the same kind of conduct in school  Students with disabilities represent 8.6% of public school children yet make up 32% of youth in juvenile centers and are represented in jail at a rate of nearly four times that.  English learner students and families are particularly vulnerable in this context due to language barriers and inadequate translation. 8

9 Root Causes of Disproportionality 1. Fundamental Attribution Bias 1. Fundamental Attribution Bias ► The tendency to infer that another person's mishap, mistake, or problem is due to an internal, static trait, disability or condition rather than something related to the situational context. 9

10 Root Causes of Disproportionality 2. Implicit Stereotypes and Bias A stereotype is the association of a person with aconsistent set of traits regardless of whether they aretrue or not. We develop stereotypes from experiences,through the media, books, parents, etc.“ Implicit stereotypes operate outside of one's conscious awareness but nevertheless impact one's judgment,decision making, and actions. They are most oftentriggered by a combination of racial and gendercharacteristics of a person. ” Clayton Cook, Ph.D. Assistant Prof University of Washington 10

11 Root Causes of Disproportionality The most pervasive set of implicit racial stereotypes exist for African American males. ► ► “When an African American male student struggles academically and/or behaviorally (i.e., has a problem), an educator is not only likely to attribute it to an internal trait but also embed this interpretation within the entire network of implicit racial stereotype. The combination of the FAB and implicit racial stereotypes puts African American males at an increased risk for erroneous decision making and ineffective practices within our educational, judicial, and mental health systems” Clayton Cook, Ph.D. Assistant Prof University of WA 11

12 What to Do About Discipline Disproportionality Caused By: Zero-Tolerance Policies Fundamental Attribution Bias and Implicit Stereotypes? ► ► Continue to shift away from Zero-Tolerance practices utilizing RP conferences that get to the root causes of behaviors. We need to recognize that: ► ► unconscious bias is everywhere! ► ► bias can have profound effect on our expectations and our perception. “The tricky part of implicit biases is that we don't think we have them because they tend to operate outside of our conscious awareness.” Dr. Clay Cook We need to have strong awareness and a reflective practice to focus on building authentic and trusting relationships!! 12

13 RP is an Effective Alternative: “Utilizing RJ principles, when applied to school discipline practices, can stem the school-to-prison pipeline. With the potential of teaching conflict resolution skills, fostering understanding and empathy, and building stronger relationships in schools and communities, RJ has proven to be an effective alternative to punitive and exclusionary responses to problem student behavior.” The Advancement Project ► Have a Reflective Practice Using RP!  Teachers and staff are the first line of defense against the overuse of suspensions by: ► Cultivating meaningful relationships ► Practicing the RP principles ► Promoting high responsibility and high accountability ► Using behavioral situations as teachable moments ► Utilizing the Social Discipline Window, doing “WITH” not “To” 13

14 Circle Components ► Role of Circle Keeper ► Circle set up ► Purpose of Circle ► Selecting circle prompts ► Introduction of Circle ► Circle rounds ► Closing of Circle 14

15 Small Group Circle Keeping The circle keeper will: Circle keeper silently reviews the RP Question and Circle Card and selects one circle prompt to propose to the group Introduce the purpose of the circle to the group Review the circle guidelines and ensure everyone agrees to follow them Present the circle prompt Ask for a volunteer to begin, hand them the talking piece, and ask which direction they would like for the circle to move in prior to responding to the prompt To close the circle ask for feedback from the group about how they did following the guidelines (can be a thumbs up/thumbs down activity) 15

16 Values and Principles of Restorative Practices and Discipline ► Relationships are central to building community ► Addresses misbehavior and harm in a way that strengthens relationships ► Focuses on harm done rather than only on rule- breaking ► Gives voice to the person harmed  Engages in collaborative problem-solving  Empowers change and growth ► Enhances responsibility Amstutz, L. & Mullet,.J. The Little Book of Restorative Discipline for Schools. (2005) 16

17 Paradigm Shift TraditionalRestorative School and rules violated People and relationships violated Justice focuses on establishing guilt Justice identifies needs and obligations Accountability = punishment Accountability = understanding impact, repairing harm Justice directed at offender, victim ignored Offender, victim and school all have direct roles in justice process Focus is on punishment when rules are broken and harm has occurred. Offender is responsible for harmful behavior, repairing harm and working toward positive outcomes No opportunity for remorse or amends Opportunity given for amends and expression of remorse 17

18 Restorative Language ► What is the relationship like? ► Who was impacted or affected by what happened? ► What was the resulting harm? ► What needs do those involved have? ► What needs to happen to repair the harm? 18

19 Social Discipline Window Wachtel & Costello (2009), The Restorative Practices Handbook, pg 50 19

20 Social Discipline Window The underlying premise of Restorative Practices rests with the belief that people will make positive changes when those in positions of authority do things with them rather than to them or for them. Wachtel & Costello (2009), The Restorative Practices Handbook, pg 50 20

21 Fair Process Three core components of Fair Process: ► 1 - Engagement: Involving individuals in decisions that affect them by asking for their input and allowing them to refute the merit of one another’s ideas. ► 2 - Explanation: Everyone involved and affected should understand why final decisions are made as they are. Creates powerful feedback loop that enhances learning. ► 3 - Expectation Clarity: Once decisions are made, new rules are clearly stated, so that everyone understands the new boundaries and consequences of failure. 21

22 Continuum of Practices Informal Formal Affective Restorative Pro-active Responsive Restorative Statements Questions Community-Building Repairing Harm Meetings/ (Impromptu dialogue) Circles Circles Conferences (Impromptu dialogue) Circles Circles Conferences 22

23 23 Targeted Interventions RESTORING COMMUNITY Selected Interventions MANAGING DIFFICULTIES & DISRUPTIONS Relational Practices School/Classroom Policies, curriculum, social skills, affective statements, community building circles Formal Restorative Conferencing, Re-entry Affective Statements, Restorative Dialogue, Responsive Circles (Problem Solving Circles), Peer Mediation 1-5% of population Universal/Prevention Focus DEVELOPING SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL CAPACITY: BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNITY Accountability Responsibility for self & others Working Together: Inclusion Community Building Adapted from Blood, 2004

24 Affective Statements ► the starting point for all restorative processes  active non-judgmental listening  authentic expression of feelings and impact * building strengthened relationships by genuinely presenting oneself as someone who cares and has feelings. * building strengthened relationships by genuinely presenting oneself as someone who cares and has feelings. Ex. typical response: “Phillip, stop talking!” ► affective statement: “Phillip, I find it very frustrating to hear a student talking while I'm trying to give directions to the class.” 24

25 Restorative Discussion and Questions ► A restorative approach to help those harmed by other's actions, as well as responding to challenging behavior consists in asking key questions: Restorative Questions: Restorative Questions: ► What happened, and what were you thinking at the time? ► What have you thought about since? ► Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way? ► What about this has been hardest for you? ► What do you think you need to do to make things as right as possible? 25

26 Circles 1. Proactive: Community/ Team building 2. Responsive: Problem solving/repairing harm When to Use Circles (examples): ► community building problem-solving reflecting ► introducing new students ► Conflict resolution ► Brainstorming ► farewell to students leaving ► Healing/ diffusing tension ► family issues ► community violence debriefing 26

27 Responsive Circle Planning Classroom issue: student use of profanity Purpose Circle Prompt For students to learn the impact that profanity has on the classroom community. How do you feel when you hear words in the classroom that you feel uncomfortable with? To identify the language students and teachers are uncomfortable hearing in the classroom. Written or verbal prompt- What words do you hear in the class that you feel uncomfortable with? (read out loud in the circle) Reinforce guidelines about student behavior in relation to using respectful language. 1. How are we doing following the classroom guideline of using respectful language? 2. What is one thing you can commit to doing to ensure the use of respectful language in the classroom. 27

28 Benefits of Group Conferencing ► Give victims a chance to express their feelings directly to offenders, supported by family and friends ► Let offenders hear directly from the people they’ve affected ► Empower offenders to take responsibility for their actions ► Hold offenders accountable ► Collaborative: provides opportunities for all involved to decide what needs to happen to repair harm ► Provides an opportunity for healing for victims, offenders and their communities of care ► Works toward reintegrating offenders back into their community ► Break cycles of misbehavior and disruption 28

29 When is Conferencing Appropriate? What are some examples of issues you may be able to address at your school site by using a restorative conference? What are some examples of issues you may be able to address at your school site by using a restorative conference? 29

30 When is conferencing appropriate? ► Interpersonal conflicts ► Tardiness/Truancy ► Theft ► Vandalism ► Bullying/Harassment ► Drug/Alcohol use ► Fighting/Assault ► Arson 30

31 Conferencing Process 1) Pre-conference: meet separately with all parties involved 2) Identification, recruitment, and preparation of supporters and other involved parties 3) Conference 4) Follow-up 31

32 Seating Arrangements FACILITATOR Offender SUPPORTER SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR OR LAW ENFORCEMENT POLICE HUMAN SERVICES &/OR PROBATION Victim SUPPORTER Person who Was harmed MEMBER OF COMMUNITY Person who harmed 32

33 Stages of Conferencing Conferencing follows a specific order of stages, carefully constructed to support a safe flow of dialogue and ensure all parties are given a space to share their thoughts and feelings. Conferencing follows a specific order of stages, carefully constructed to support a safe flow of dialogue and ensure all parties are given a space to share their thoughts and feelings. The following stages incorporate the conference: ► Preamble (welcome and introduction) ► Offender speaks ► Victim speaks ► Victim supporters speak ► Offender supporters speak ► Offender responds ► Reaching an agreement ► Closing the conference 33

34 Thank you! Feel free to contact the restorative practices team with any further questions (415) Pupil Services and Counseling Depts. 34

35 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question #1: Restorative Practices are based on ____________? Name 2 of them. 35

36 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 2: Describe the restorative paradigm shift in your own words. How is it different to a traditional model of discipline? 36

37 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 3: What is the fundamental hypothesis of Restorative Practices? 37

38 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 4: What are the 2 elements required to be in the “with” box? (social discipline window) 38

39 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 5: In what way does Fair Process support the fundamental hypothesis of restorative practices? 39

40 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 6: Name the restorative practices on the continuum in order from informal to formal. 40

41 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 7 Define the two components that are required when using an affective statement. 41

42 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 8: What are the common restorative questions? Name a situation where the questions can be useful. 42

43 Restorative Practices Trivia ► Question 9 Bullying is happening in your class. What type of circle is appropriate to facilitate and name a possible circle prompt? 43

44 Restorative Practices Trivia ► FINAL QUESTION!!! Define Restorative Practices in your own words. 44


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