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Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Six: Schools Insert.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Six: Schools Insert."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Adolescence 9th edition By Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D. Chapter Six: Schools Insert Photo of Text

2 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 Chapter 6 Overview The context of secondary education in AmericaThe context of secondary education in America –What should schools teach? –What are the problems specific to inner-city schools? The social organization of schoolsThe social organization of schools –Which is more important: school size or class size? –Should students be put in special tracks? Why does the climate of the classroom matter?Why does the climate of the classroom matter? Beyond high school: college and non-college-bound studentsBeyond high school: college and non-college-bound students What are the main characteristics of a good school?What are the main characteristics of a good school?

3 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Secondary Education Middle schools, junior highs, and high schools are all forms of secondary educationMiddle schools, junior highs, and high schools are all forms of secondary education The proportion of the 14- to 17-year-old population enrolled in school increased dramatically between 1910 and 1940The proportion of the 14- to 17-year-old population enrolled in school increased dramatically between 1910 and 1940 Today, nearly 95% of individuals this age are in schoolToday, nearly 95% of individuals this age are in school

4 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Origins of Compulsory Education in America IndustrializationIndustrialization –Greater need for skilled and reliable (adult) workers –Many jobs required strength beyond the capacity of many youth Urbanization and ImmigrationUrbanization and Immigration –Rapid population growth led to overcrowding, slums, crime –Compulsory secondary education was a means of social control, to improve lives of poor and working classes

5 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 The Rise of the Comprehensive High School Before secondary education was compulsory, high schools were for the socioeconomic eliteBefore secondary education was compulsory, high schools were for the socioeconomic elite By 1920s, educators called for curricular reform to match changes in social composition of schoolsBy 1920s, educators called for curricular reform to match changes in social composition of schools –Focus on intellectual training –New focus on preparing youth for life in modern society (roles of work and citizenship) Comprehensive high schoolComprehensive high school –General education, college preparation, vocational education all housed under one roof

6 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 School Reform: What Should Schools Teach? History of curricular reform in American education has been one of shifting between an emphasis on rigor and relevanceHistory of curricular reform in American education has been one of shifting between an emphasis on rigor and relevance Rigor has ruled for the past three decadesRigor has ruled for the past three decades Critics of American education have been calling for a return to a curriculum that stresses the basics and that attempts to ensure that all students master themCritics of American education have been calling for a return to a curriculum that stresses the basics and that attempts to ensure that all students master them Return to basics has been accompanied by what is called standards-based reformReturn to basics has been accompanied by what is called standards-based reform

7 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 School Reform: What Should Schools Teach? No Child Left Behind Act (2002)No Child Left Behind Act (2002) –Mandates that all states ensure that all students, regardless of economic circumstances, achieve academic proficiency on standardized annual tests –Schools that repeatedly fail face losing funding, being forced to close Addresses problem of social promotionAddresses problem of social promotion Advancing students regardless of their academic competence or performanceAdvancing students regardless of their academic competence or performance Introduces problem of teaching to the test for teachers who are under pressure to get kids to pass annual examsIntroduces problem of teaching to the test for teachers who are under pressure to get kids to pass annual exams

8 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 School Reform: Education in Inner Cities Some have argued that low American academic achievement was concentrated among poor/minority youth in inner citiesSome have argued that low American academic achievement was concentrated among poor/minority youth in inner cities Why has school reform failed in urban schools?Why has school reform failed in urban schools? –Increasing concentration of poverty in certain inner-city communities has led to a population of students with very grave academic and behavioral problems –Urban school districts are burdened by administrative bureaucracies that impede reform –Students report less sense of belonging to their schools –Erosion of job opportunities: Little incentive to remain in school or put effort into academic pursuits

9 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 The Organization of Schools: School Size Schools grew larger to offer a wider range of courses and services to studentsSchools grew larger to offer a wider range of courses and services to students Student performance and interest in school improve when schools are more intimateStudent performance and interest in school improve when schools are more intimate –Schools within schools Smaller school size encourages participationSmaller school size encourages participation –Ideal size: Between 600 and 900 students –In larger schools, students tend to be observers rather than participants –Especially important for students whose grades are not very good to begin with

10 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 The Organization of Schools: Class Size Classroom sizeClassroom size –Research findings misinterpreted by politicians who began emphasizing importance of small classes –Does not affect scholastic achievement during adolescence, except in remedial courses –Adolescents learn as much in classes of 40 students as in classes of 20 students Insert photo from DAL

11 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Age Grouping and School Transitions Early 1900sEarly 1900s –Two-school system –Elementary School (6 or 8 grades) –Secondary School (6 or 4 grades) Compulsory Secondary EducationCompulsory Secondary Education –Introduction of Junior Highs More recent yearsMore recent years –Introduction of Middle Schools –Some schools have returned to a two-school model Insert Photo from DAL

12 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Age Grouping and School Transitions As children move into middle school or junior highAs children move into middle school or junior high –School grades and academic motivation drop –Scores on standardized achievement tests do not decline –Student motivation and changes in grading practices may be changing, not student knowledge Schools can combat these changes by reducing anonymity, hiring teachers with training in adolescent development, and strengthening ties between the school and communitySchools can combat these changes by reducing anonymity, hiring teachers with training in adolescent development, and strengthening ties between the school and community

13 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Age Grouping and School Transitions Classroom environment in middle school/junior high is different than elementary schoolClassroom environment in middle school/junior high is different than elementary school Teachers in middle school/ junior high:Teachers in middle school/ junior high: –hold different beliefs about students –are less likely than other teachers to feel confident about their teaching ability –are less likely to trust their students and more likely to emphasize discipline –more likely to believe that students’ abilities are fixed and not easily modified through instruction Developmental mismatch between what adolescents need and what they get from teachersDevelopmental mismatch between what adolescents need and what they get from teachers

14 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Individual Differences in the Extent of Transitional Problems Among Black and Latino students, transitioning to a school where the proportion of students from the same ethnic background is lower than it had been at their previous school is associated with:Among Black and Latino students, transitioning to a school where the proportion of students from the same ethnic background is lower than it had been at their previous school is associated with: –greater disengagement from school –lower grades –more frequent absences 14

15 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Social Organization of Schools: Tracking Separating students, by academic ability, into different classes within the same schoolSeparating students, by academic ability, into different classes within the same school Proponents argue that ability-grouping allows teachers to design class lessons that are more finely tuned to students’ abilitiesProponents argue that ability-grouping allows teachers to design class lessons that are more finely tuned to students’ abilities Critics argue tracking leads to problemsCritics argue tracking leads to problems –Students who are placed in the remedial track generally receive a poorer quality education, not just a different education –Socialize only with peers from same track –Difficult to change tracks once in place, especially for minority students

16 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Social Organization of Schools: Tracking Sex differencesSex differences –Girls score higher on math tests in elementary school, yet are less likely to be placed in high math track Gifted students–score 130 or higher on IQ testGifted students–score 130 or higher on IQ test Learning disabled studentsLearning disabled students –Actual academic performance less than expected from IQ tests, no emotional explanation for discrepancy –Assumed to have neurological problems Mainstreaming of gifted and learning disabled students into regular classroomsMainstreaming of gifted and learning disabled students into regular classrooms –Big fish—little pond effect for gifted students –Problematic for learning disabled students

17 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 The Organization of Schools: Ethnic Composition Landmark U.S. Supreme Court rulings legally ended segregation of schools (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954; 1955)Landmark U.S. Supreme Court rulings legally ended segregation of schools (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954; 1955) How does desegregation affect school achievement? Research findings mixed:How does desegregation affect school achievement? Research findings mixed: –Desegregation has little impact on achievement levels of either minority or White adolescents –Minority youngster’s self-esteem is higher when they attend schools in which they are in the majority

18 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Public Schools vs. Private Schools Public Schools vs. Private Schools To encourage better schools and competition among schools for better students, parents given more choices of where to send their childrenTo encourage better schools and competition among schools for better students, parents given more choices of where to send their children Government-subsidized school vouchersGovernment-subsidized school vouchers –Used to “purchase” education at a school of one’s choosing– private or public schools Charter schoolsCharter schools –independent public schools that operate as they wish

19 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Public Schools vs. Private Schools Recent research has suggested that private schools aren’t necessarily more effective than public schoolsRecent research has suggested that private schools aren’t necessarily more effective than public schools –Family background is more important influence on achievement than school quality Exception is Catholic (private) school:Exception is Catholic (private) school: –Climate is different from public schools –Strong community values promote social capital, give students additional resources

20 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Public Schools vs. Private Schools 20

21 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 The Climate of the Classroom How teachers interact with students, use class time, and the expectations they hold for students all influence learning and academic achievementHow teachers interact with students, use class time, and the expectations they hold for students all influence learning and academic achievement Students achieve more when attending schools that are responsive and demanding, where teachers are supportive but in controlStudents achieve more when attending schools that are responsive and demanding, where teachers are supportive but in control Similar to the authoritative family environmentSimilar to the authoritative family environment

22 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Teacher Expectations and Student Performance Strong correlation between teacher expectations and student performanceStrong correlation between teacher expectations and student performance –2 reasons: Teachers’ expectations are often accurate reflections of their students’ abilityTeachers’ expectations are often accurate reflections of their students’ ability Teachers’ expectations actually create self-fulfilling propheciesTeachers’ expectations actually create self-fulfilling prophecies Which pathway is more powerful?Which pathway is more powerful? –80% of the relation between teacher expectations and student achievement results from teachers’ having accurate perceptions –20% is an effect of the self-fulfilling prophecy –Might be stronger for academically weaker students 22

23 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parents’ Role in Relation Between Teacher Expectation and Student Performance 23

24 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Importance of Student Engagement 24

25 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 School Violence One in four American high school students has been the victim of violence in or around schoolOne in four American high school students has been the victim of violence in or around school –Violence more common in overcrowded schools in poor urban neighborhoods –Zero-tolerance policies Lethal school violenceLethal school violence –Widely publicized but rare, school shootings declined since 1990s –Increase in number of school-shooting related deaths because of automatic weapons –Impossible to predict which students will commit these acts

26 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Beyond High School: The College Bound  1900  Four percent of 18-21 year olds in college  Today  Two-thirds of high school graduates enroll in college immediately after high school)

27 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Growth of College Enrollment 27

28 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Beyond High School: The College Bound College in the United States relative to other countriesCollege in the United States relative to other countries –More diverse and accessible –Wider variety of liberal arts, technical, vocational, pre-professional schools Rates of graduation lag far behind rates of enrollmentRates of graduation lag far behind rates of enrollment –Fewer than 60% of all students who enroll in a 4- year college complete their degree within 6 years

29 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Beyond High School: The Non-College-Bound Secondary schools are geared almost exclusively toward college-bound youngsters, even though one third of adolescents do not go on to collegeSecondary schools are geared almost exclusively toward college-bound youngsters, even though one third of adolescents do not go on to college Rise in minimum-wage service jobs means less chance of making decent living without college experienceRise in minimum-wage service jobs means less chance of making decent living without college experience Critics argue we should ease transition to adult world of work for those not interested in college by providing apprenticeship and advanced skilled job trainingCritics argue we should ease transition to adult world of work for those not interested in college by providing apprenticeship and advanced skilled job training

30 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 What Do Good Schools Look Like? Emphasize intellectual activities over athletics or extracurricular activitiesEmphasize intellectual activities over athletics or extracurricular activities Employ teachers who are strongly committed to students and have enough freedom to teach effectivelyEmploy teachers who are strongly committed to students and have enough freedom to teach effectively Links with the community–Schools are well integrated into the communities they serve (e.g., with local colleges and employers)Links with the community–Schools are well integrated into the communities they serve (e.g., with local colleges and employers) Composed of classrooms with good climate, where students are active participants who are challenged to think criticallyComposed of classrooms with good climate, where students are active participants who are challenged to think critically Staffed by teachers who have received specific training in teaching adolescentsStaffed by teachers who have received specific training in teaching adolescents

31 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Schools and Adolescent Development Low SES students –Rates of academic progress during the school year are equal to high SES students –Scores decline in the summer Summer school may prevent widening of achievement gap between affluent and poor studentsSummer school may prevent widening of achievement gap between affluent and poor students

32 Copyright © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Schools and Adolescent Development Most schools are not structured to promote psychosocial developmentMost schools are not structured to promote psychosocial development For most adolescents, school is a primary setting for socializingFor most adolescents, school is a primary setting for socializing


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