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Advances in School Counseling: New Paradigms, Programs, and Preparation Gary L. Troxell, Ed.D Lancaster Bible College Kevin Wilkerson, Ph.D. Co-Director-

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Presentation on theme: "Advances in School Counseling: New Paradigms, Programs, and Preparation Gary L. Troxell, Ed.D Lancaster Bible College Kevin Wilkerson, Ph.D. Co-Director-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Advances in School Counseling: New Paradigms, Programs, and Preparation Gary L. Troxell, Ed.D Lancaster Bible College Kevin Wilkerson, Ph.D. Co-Director- School Counseling Program University of Scranton

2 Presentation Objectives Introductions School Counseling (R)evolution New Paradigms, Programs, and Preparation Illustrations Looking Ahead Resources What next? Questions and Comments

3 Introductions A little about us A little about you Brief professional examples of best practices in School Counseling

4 School Counseling (R)evolution ASCA National Standards for Students (1997) http://ascamodel.timberlakepublishing.com/files/NationalStandards.pdf http://ascamodel.timberlakepublishing.com/files/NationalStandards.pdf ASCA National Model (2003, 2005) http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/Natl%20Model%20Exec%20Summary_final.pdf http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/Natl%20Model%20Exec%20Summary_final.pdf ASCA School Counselor Competencies http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/SCCompetencies.pdf http://www.schoolcounselor.org/files/SCCompetencies.pdf Evidence-Based Practice for School Counselors

5 The ASCA National Model

6 STUDENT AND SYSTEM FOCUSED SCHOOL COUNSELING Moving From Programmatic Pieces to Intentional Integration

7 Mentoring Students Phone Contact Study Skills Group Small Group Classroom Guidance Behavior Management Bully Proofing Program Tutoring Typical Student-Focused School Counseling Program Activities Individual Counseling Random Acts of Guidance Ready! Fire! AIM!

8 Mentoring Students Phone Contact Study Skills Group Small Group Classroom Guidance Behavior Management Bully Proofing Program Tutoring Intentional Student-Focused School Counseling Programs 70% Attendance Rate for Low SES Students Individual Counseling Data Driven Priorities

9 Mentoring Students Phone Contact Study Skills Group Small Group Classroom Guidance Behavior Management Bully Proofing Program Intentional and Integrated Student-Focused School Counseling Programs 70% Attendance Rate for Low SES Students Individual Counseling Data-Driven Priorities AND EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE

10 Intentional and Integrated Student Focused Interventions Interventions IDENTIFIED, EVALUATED, EMPIRCIALLY SUPPORTED, AND designed to directly help students gain knowledge and skills in the areas of academic, career, and personal/social development in order to help them better navigate the educational system

11 Lead Task Force Review Practices Review School Policies Disaggregate Data By ??? Advocate for Task Force Team With Parents & Community Review School Structure Advocate For Change System-Focused School Counseling Programs Student Focus Groups

12 Lead Task Force Review Practices Review School Policies Disaggregate Data By ??? Advocate for Task Force Team With Parents & Community Review School Structure Advocate For Change Intentional System-Focused School Counseling Programs 70% Attendance Rate for Low SES Students Student Focus Groups Data-Driven Priorities

13 Lead Task Force Review Practices Review School Policies Disaggregate Data By ??? Advocate for Task Force Team With Parents & Community Review School Structure Advocate For Change Intentional and Integrated System- Focused Counseling Programs 70% Attendance Rate for Low SES Students Student Focus Groups Data-Driven Priorities AND EVIDENCE BASED

14 Intentional and Integrated System Focused Interventions Interventions IDENTIFIED, EVALUATED, EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED, AND designed to help the system (school) change in order to better meet the needs of the students. Examples: Change educator attitudes, expectations, & priorities Reduce adult resistance to change Change policy Change practice

15 How Can School Counselors Do This Work?  Creating data-driven, evidence- based school counseling programs aligned with the school’s improvement plan serves students better  Taking a leadership role in schools helps bring about systemic change and alter student outcomes

16 Evidenced-Based Practice References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

17 Continuum of Strategies (RTII approaches) DATA ACTION PLAN All Students Large group/ Classroom Small Group Individual Referral Some Students Few Students A Student

18 NEW PARADIGMS, PROGRAMS, AND PREPARATION: ILLUSTRATIONS

19 Transcript Analysis Identifying patterns in our own data to determine whether all of our students are participating in courses that will prepare them for college and careers

20 YearBehindProficientAdvanced 200335.9%49.2%14.9% 200432.6%52.0%15.4% 200546.1%41.4%12.5% 200671.0%22.9%6.1% Percent of Students Behind, Proficient and Advanced in Math Note: The level of proficiency is defined by the course the students are in. For example, in 9 th grade a student who is in algebra is considered proficient, a student who is in general math or pre-algebra is considered behind, and a student in geometry or algebra honors is considered advanced. A student not taking math is also considered behind.

21 All StudentsBehindProficientAdvanced 4.33.94.54.9 4.44.24.54.8 4.34.14.44.7 3.93.74.24.4 Average Number of College-Prep Classes The average should be at least 4.5 to be on trajectory to be College Ready graduation. Note: The level of proficiency is defined by the course the students are in. For example, in 9 th grade a student who is in algebra is considered proficient, a student who is in general math or pre-algebra is considered behind, and a student in geometry or algebra honors is considered advanced. A student not taking math is also considered behind.

22 All StudentsBehindProficientAdvanced 0.61.00.20.1 0.40.70.20.1 0.4 0.1 0.30.20.0 Average Number of Support Classes Note: The level of proficiency is defined by the course the students are in. For example, in 9 th grade a student who is in algebra is considered proficient, a student who is in general math or pre-algebra is considered behind, and a student in geometry or algebra honors is considered advanced. A student not taking math is also considered behind.

23 Master Schedule Analysis Identifying patterns in course offerings, teacher distribution, class sizes, and time efficiency in our schedules

24 Examination of the Master Schedule Analysis Look for: Patterns in these charts and what they indicate Changes you may implement to ensure that students have access to career and college-ready courses and support

25 Distribution of Classes (Percent) 9101112 Math39%23%20%18% ELA32%28%22%19% Science42%23%26%9% Social Studies36%25%19%21% Foreign Language48%28%21%3% Average40%25%22%14% Of all math classes, what percent of them are 9 th grade classes? Enrollment: ~ 1,800

26 Math65% ELA67% Science82% Social Studies87% Foreign Language100% Percent of Courses that are College Prep Of all science classes, what percent of them are college-prep classes?

27 Evidenced-Based Practice The evidenced-based practice movement originally evolved in the field of medicine This approach emphasizes medical practitioners’ use of best available research to guide practice and the integration of this knowledge with clinical skills This movement has resulted in significant changes in medical practice and education (this is particularly true in clinical psychology) References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

28 Evidenced-Based Practice KNOWING WHAT NEEDS TO BE ADDRESSED IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE INTEGRATION OF INSTITUTIONAL DATA ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE WITH DATA FROM SOURCES SUCH AS SCHOOL CLIMATE SURVEYS AND NEEDS ASSESSMENTS KNOWING WHAT IS LIKELY TO WORK IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SURVEY OF OUTCOME RESEARCH LITERATURE AND AN INTEGRATION OF THIS INFORMATION WITH CONSIDERATION OF WHAT ACTUALLY CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN THE COUNSELOR’S SCHOOL SITUATION KNOWING IF THE INTERVENTION MADE A DIFFERENCE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH LOCAL EVALUATION References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

29 Evidenced-Based Practice School Counseling Reform The Education Trust - TSCI (Transforming School Counseling Initiative) In 1996, the Education Trust initiated a project to transform the role of school counselors by connecting school counseling to standards-based education reform and by focusing the profession of school counseling on the goal of eliminating the achievement gap. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

30 Evidenced-Based Practice School Counseling Reform The Education Trust - TSCI (Transforming School Counseling Initiative) The Education Trust defines school counseling as “a profession that focuses on the relations and interactions between students and their school environment with the expressed purpose of reducing the effect of environmental and institutional barriers that impede student academic success.” References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

31 Evidenced-Based Practice School Counseling Reform The Education Trust - TSCI (Transforming School Counseling Initiative) What school counselors do, in short, is the remove barriers to learning. This is directly tied to achievement. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

32 Evidenced-Based Practice The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs (ASCA, 2003) Successful implementation of the management and accountability systems of the National Model requires that school counselors have a broad range of data skills including the following: Using student information systems to monitor student performance References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

33 Evidenced-Based Practice Analyzing student performance, school process, and perceptual data to plan, monitor, and evaluate interventions Analyzing disaggregated student performance, school process, and perceptual data to plan, monitor, and evaluate interventions designed to address achievement gap issues Developing and implementing data-based,decision-making systems in the school counseling program References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

34 Evidenced-Based Practice Identifying researched-based practices and interventions Developing ways to measure and evaluate student outcomes Evaluating interventions Presenting quantitative outcome results to a wide variety of constituencies Conducting effective program evaluation References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

35 Evidenced-Based Practice In short, these three skills combined constitute evidence-based practice in elementary and secondary school counseling: 1.Knowing what needs to be addressed (by collecting and analyzing data) 2.Knowing if the intervention made a difference (by measuring the results of the intervention) 3.Knowing what is likely to work (by referring to the outcome research) References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

36 Evidenced-Based Practice Types of dataDefinition Examples Achievement dataReflect the academic Standardized test scores, learning and progress grade point averages, SAT & of students ACT scores, graduation rates AP test scores Achievement-relatedContribute to students’ Course enrollment patterns, dataability to achieve and discipline referrals, suspension directly impact student rates, attendance, parent involve- achievement data ment, homework completion rates Competency-relatedReflect the student Six- or four-year academic plans, datalearning outcomes of job-shadowing participation rate, the school counseling peer mediation sessions, know- program ledge of graduation requirements References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

37 Evidenced-Based Practice A General Model for Data-Based Decision Making (DBDM) 1.Describing the problem 2.Generating vision data 3.Committing to benchmarks 4.Identifying where and how to intervene 5.Selecting interventions References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

38 Evidenced-Based Practice A General Model for Data-Based Decision Making (DBDM) 6.Evaluating interventions 7.Monitoring problem data References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

39 Evidenced-Based Practice Describing the Problem The DBDM team’s first task is to describe the problem using school data (eventually establishing a quantitative definition of the situation) Important data includes the following: Achievement data (e.g., state and local test scores) Achievement-related data (e.g., attendance) Guidance curriculum competency data (e.g., percentage of students who demonstrate knowledge, attitudes, and skills reference to program learning objectives) References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

40 Evidenced-Based Practice Important data includes the following: School climate survey data Relevant student health and well-being data (e.g., youth behavior rating scale, drug use survey data) Needs assessment data Demographic data (e.g., race, gender, SPED status, ELL status, free-reduced lunch status) References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

41 Evidenced-Based Practice Disaggregated Data Data that has been broken down into smaller, more defined groupings Disaggregating helps compare the data from different groups of students in order to get a better understanding of the meaning and implications of the data References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

42 Evidenced-Based Practice Vision Data Vision data is the anticipated value that currently problematic data will have at some specified time in the future, after interventions have been implemented. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

43 Evidenced-Based Practice Benchmarks Benchmarks are makers in intervals (e.g., yearly) against which progress towards the vision is measured References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

44 Evidenced-Based Practice Action Plans According to the ASCA National Model, for every desired competency and result, there must be a plan outlining how the desired result will be achieved. Each plan contains: (1) competencies addressed, (2) description of the activity, (3) data driving the decision to address the competency, (4) a time line in which the activity is to be completed, References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

45 Evidenced-Based Practice Action Plans Each plan contains: (5) who is responsible for delivery (6) means of evaluating student success (7) expected results for students References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

46 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data As school counselors create action plans, it is helpful to consider how the activities will be evaluated fro effectiveness. The ASCA National Model (2003) recommends collecting process, perception, and results data to measure the effectiveness of a school counseling program improvement. It is important to understand the differences among these three different types of data: References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

47 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data Process Data Process data provide evidence that an event occurred. It tells us who received services, activities, or lessons; when they received it; and for how long. Process data give us the who, what, when, where and how information. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

48 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data Perception Data While process data tells us what a counselor did, perception data tell us what a student learned. Perception data inform us what a student believes, knows, or can demonstrate as a result of a lesson or activity. ASK: “Attitudes” “Skills” “Knowledge” References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

49 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data “ASK” “Attitudes”: Measures the beliefs or feelings a student possesses. For example, twenty-nine percent of the 5th grade males feel safe at school. “Skills”: Competency attainment are measured through a variety of methods, such as having students conduct role plays, complete certain activities, take pre- or posttests, or engage in some other task. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

50 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data “ASK” “Knowledge”: provides an indication that students learn the information as intended. For example, before a series of group counseling sessions, 56% of fifth grade males referred for anger management issues knew three ways to divert anger in a healthy way; after the sessions, 92% of the group’s participants were able to do so. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

51 Evidenced-Based Practice Creating an Action Plan With Evaluation in Mind: Using Process, Perception, and Results Data Results Data Results data are the “hard”data. The application data. Results are the proof that the activity or intervention wither has or has not positively influenced the students’ ability to use ASK (attitudes, skills, and knowledge) to change their behavior. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

52 Evidenced-Based Practice Why Are Research-Based School Counseling Interventions Important? Using research-based interventions can generally ensure that school counseling resources are invested wisely. Using research-based interventions sets a standard for professional practice. Using research-based interventions is more likely to generate good accountability data References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

53 Evidenced-Based Practice Developing Pre- and Posttests If you need to develop your own pre- and posttests, this process is really straightforward. The general process for creating pre- and posttests is as follows: 1.Determine key ideas and concepts using learning goals (knowledge, attitudes, and skills) linked to state curriculum standards and the ASCA National Standards whenever possible. 2.Brainstorm 10 to 15 possible questions that would effectively assess students’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills prior to the lesson and after the concepts have been presented. If the students are able to answer all of the questions without having the lesson, the lesson was not necessary. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

54 Evidenced-Based Practice Developing Pre- and Posttests If you need to develop your own pre- and posttests, this process is really straightforward. The general process for creating pre- and posttests is as follows: 3.Select 5 to 10 questions (out of your original brainstormed list) using multiple choice, true/false, and fill-in-the-blank answer formats. 4.Type the 5 to 10 questions on an 8.5” X 11” page, taking note of the spacing and the organization of the page. The top of the page should include space for a student’s name and the date, and a space to designate whether it is a pre- or posttest. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

55 Evidenced-Based Practice Developing Pre- and Posttests If you need to develop your own pre- and posttests, this process is really straightforward. The general process for creating pre- and posttests is as follows: 5.Photocopy the pre- and posttests - one for every student - on separate sheets of paper. Scantron sheets or an online survey format system such as Survey Monkey (www.surveymonkey.com”) or Zoomerang (www.zoomerang.com) can facilitate this process.www.surveymonkey.comwww.zoomerang.com 6.Administer to pretest before the lesson is taught. Use this data to influence your instruction. Administer the posttest after the lesson 7.Grade to pre- and posttest and calculate the percentage increase in knowledge. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

56 Evidenced-Based Practice Using Surveys to Gather Information Surveys are a systemic way of collecting information from a group of students by asking a series of questions. Surveys can be used to describe or clarify problems. Surveys can be used to develop benchmarks or vision data. Surveys can be used to identify where interventions are needed and which interventions are most likely to be successful. Surveys can be used to evaluate interventions that have occurred. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

57 Evidenced-Based Practice Using Surveys to Gather Information Surveys can help us obtain feedback, impressions, and perceptions about programs. Surveys can help us meet accountability requirements and report about program outcomes to stakeholders. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

58 LOOKING AHEAD

59 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 1.A written mission statement exists and is used as a foundation by all counselors. 2.Services are organized so that all students are well served and have access to them. 3.The program operates from a plan for closing the achievement gap for minority and lower income students. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

60 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 4.The program has a set of clear measurable student learning goals and objectives established for academic, personal/social skills, and career development. 5.Needs assessments are completed regularly and guide program planning. 6.All student receive classroom guidance lessons designed to promote academic, social/personal, and career development. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

61 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 7.The program ensures that all students have academic plans that include testing, individual advisement, long-term planning, and placement. 8.The program has an effective referral and follow-up system for handling student crises. 9.School counselors use student performance data to decide how to meet student needs. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

62 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 10.School counselors analyze student data by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic level to identify interventions to close achievement gaps. 11.School counselor job descriptions match actual duties. 12.School counselors spend at least 80% of their time in activities that directly benefit students. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

63 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 13.The school counseling program includes interventions designed to improve the school’s ability to educate all students to high standards. 14.An annual review is conducted to get information for improving next year’s programs. 15.School counselors use computer software to: (a) access student data; (b) analyze student data, and; (c) use data for school improvement. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

64 A Great School Guidance & Counseling Program Key Points 16.The school counseling program has the resources to allow counselors to complete appropriate professional development activities. 17.School counseling priorities are represented on curriculum and education committees. 18.School counselors communicate with parents to coordinate student achievement and gain feedback for program development. References: American School Counselor Association. (2003); Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007).

65 What Next? Change hiring practices Look for SC’s who can articulate a new vision for School Counseling Introduce new interview questions “How do you determine the impact of your work?” “What processes do you use to identify achievement gaps and remove barriers to learning? Conduct serious program audits and assessments Rethink School Counselor professional development

66 Questions and Comments Today’s Pp presentation will be available at www.papsa-web.orgwww.papsa-web.org E-mail addresses Gary- gtroxell@lbc.edugtroxell@lbc.edu Kevin- wilkersonk2@scranton.eduwilkersonk2@scranton.edu

67 Resources American School Counselor Association. (2003). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author. Dimmitt, C, Carey, J. & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidenced-based school counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. The Education Trust - NCTSC (National Center for Transforming School Counseling )


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