Presentation on theme: "Smart School ID System Presented By: Alpa Kothari Neha Dua ENPM 613 – Systems Engineering Design Project."— Presentation transcript:
Smart School ID System Presented By: Alpa Kothari Neha Dua ENPM 613 – Systems Engineering Design Project
Smart School ID System The Need: –A school generally deals with the following high priority security risks: Student accountability in normal and Emergency operations Need to restrict outsider access
Smart School ID System The Solution: –We propose a Smart School ID system that will provide presence detection/access control and notification services as well. –The presence detection/access control function is comprised of a wired/wireless sensor network of readers that is installed in school buildings to detect presence of students with badges or tags. –All school students will be supplied photo school ID cards that provide automated access to designated school entrances during school hours. The ID cards will be worn at school throughout the day. –As a part of the roll call, student IDs will be tapped into the system when each student arrives or leaves the school. This automates time and attendance reconciliation.
Smart School ID System Approach: –The system would be analyzed and UML definitions will be used to accurately define the system behavior. –Formal requirements for a particular school would then be created. –Finally system requirements will be verified to ensure that the system satisfies the properties required.
Smart Student ID System System Goals: –Goal 1: The system must be secure –Goal 2: The system must be efficient –Goal 3: The system must be usable –Goal 4: The system must be reliable –Goal 5: The system must be easy to maintain –Goal 6: The system must track accurately and maintain data integrity –Goal 7: The system must provide authorized access
The Technology Various ID Systems: –Bar Code –Biometric –Voice Identification –Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems –RFID
The Technology RFID: –Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology uses radio waves to automatically identify physical objects (either living beings or inanimate items). Therefore, the range of objects identifiable using RFID includes virtually everything on this planet (and beyond). –Thus, RFID is an example of automatic identification (Auto-ID) technology by which a physical object can be identified automatically.
Advantages of RFID over Bar Code Advantages: –Human intervention is required to scan a barcode, whereas in most applications an RFID tag can be detected "hands off." –Barcodes must be visible on the outside of product packaging. RFID tags can be detected regardless of their orientation –You must have "line of sight" to read a barcode. Line of sight is not required for RFID tagged objects –The readability of barcodes can be impaired by dirt, moisture, abrasion, or packaging contours. RFID tags are not affected by those conditions. –RFID tags have a longer read range than barcodes. –RFID tags have read/write memory capability; barcodes do not. –More data can be stored in an RFID tag than can be stored on a barcode.
How it Works A radio device called a tag is attached to the object that needs to be identified. Unique identification data about this tagged object is stored on this tag. When such a tagged object is presented in front of a suitable RFID reader, the tag transmits this data to the reader (via the reader antenna). The reader then reads the data and has the capability to forward it over suitable communication channels, such as a network or a serial connection, to a software application running on a computer. This application can then use this unique data to identify the object presented to the reader. It can then perform a variety of actions such as updating the location information of this object in the database, sending an alert to the floor personnel, or completely ignoring it (if a duplicate read, for example).
RFID System An RFID system is an integrated collection of components that implement an RFID solution. –Tag. This is a mandatory component of any RFID system. –Reader. This is a mandatory component, too. –Reader antenna. This is another mandatory component. Some current readers available today have built-in antennas –Controller. This is a mandatory component. However, most of the new- generation readers have this component built in to them. –Sensor, actuator, and annunciator. These optional components are needed for external input and output of the system. –Host and software system. Theoretically, an RFID system can function independently without this component. Practically, an RFID system is close to worthless without this component. –Communication infrastructure. This mandatory component is a collection of both wired and wireless network and serial connection infrastructure needed to connect the previously listed components together to effectively communicate with each other.
Smart Student ID System Level 1 Requirements Created Level 2 Requirements Derived Component Requirements & Specifications Developed requirements.xls
Smart Student ID System Use Case diagrams –We developed use case descriptions and diagrams to define the requirements of the system. –Identified the users of the systems and the roles –16 use cases were developed to cover the system functionality.
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification Test Procedure –Test the effect of environments with different medium, humidity, and electromagnetic wave etc. –Test the difference between HF and UHF frequency, 96 bits and 2K bytes volume, active and passive tag, and the compatibility with bar code –Include both Field and lab testing as well Test Specifications –“A Test Method of Tag on Thing’s Surface” Static Spectrum Analyzing Test, to confirm five candidate places Medium Replacement Test, to suggest the casing material Apparatus: signal generator, display device, real-time RF signal analyzer, thermometer, speed measurer, speed- adjustable conveyor, network analyzer, dimension measuring devices etc
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification Technical Variables for the testing procedures The technical variables that should be considered while designing & implementing RFID solutions are listed below: Frequency of operation Tags Readers Antennas Operating Conditions Application Software & Hardware Database Management System Integration testing
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification Technical Variables for the testing procedures for RFID Tag The technical variables to be tested are: Type Readability which is effected by read distance, tag motion, tag orientation, operating environment. Data capacity Physical properties for checking the dimensions & weight
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification Technical Variables for the testing procedures for RFID Reader & RF Communications The technical variables to be tested are: Features: type, Installation Readability: Anti collision, false Reads Operating Conditions Reader Collision Distance Calculation Signal Strength and Power usage Effect of communication medium and environmental interference.
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification: A table to show interference provided to RF frequencies by various materials MaterialLFHFUHFMicrowave ClothingRF-lucent Dry woodRF-lucent RF-absorbent GraphiteRF-lucent RF-opaque Liquids (some types)RF-lucent RF-absorbent MetalsRF-lucent RF-opaque Motor oilRF-lucent Paper productsRF-lucent PlasticsRF-lucent RF-lucent (some types) ShampooRF-lucent RF-absorbent WaterRF-lucent RF-absorbent Wet woodRF-lucent RF-absorbent
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification Some of the tests are: Access Control testing Test Database Security Test Accurate Tracking Traffic handling test Reader and Tag testing Antenna Test Speed Test Anti collision Test Read Distance Test Tag near conductor test Radiation pattern test
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification: Sample Test Case
Smart Student ID System Validation & Verification: Formal Test Procedure to test the tag performance in presence of metal The presence of a material near a tag often changes the performance of the tag in significant ways. Conductors, such as metal, provide some of the greatest challenges for RFID tags. Conductors are everywhere, including places one might least expect them. Boxes of dishwasher detergent (used for our conveyor testing, for example,) are lined with a metal foil. Even a very thin foil of metal is enough to make products difficult to tag. To assess the performance of tags near metal: Place each tag at varying distances from a large, flat piece of steel. The tags and metal plate here are separated by air. Place the tag at about 3 feet away from the reader antenna. Use an attenuator to determine the dB attenuation level at which the tag could no longer read. A higher attenuation level, expressed in dB, corresponds to a longer reading distance. This provides with an approximate maximum read distance for each tag. (The RFID Alliance Lab report contains charts of the dB attenuation level for each tag with an approximate conversion into read distance in feet.)
Smart Student ID System Requirement Traceability Matrix requirements.xls
Smart Student ID System Tasks to be Accomplished: Formal Test Procedures for various system specifications to be developed