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School Wide Positive Behavior Support Overview & Team Process

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1 School Wide Positive Behavior Support Overview & Team Process
Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University

2 Challenge… Schools are facing an increasingly diverse and challenging population of students with fewer financial resources How to enhance schools’ capacity to respond effectively, efficiently, & relevantly to range of problem behaviors observed in schools. “Work Smarter”

3 Goals of this Training Series
Develop and/or strengthen existing School-wide PBS systems at school sites Develop a district framework/support for ongoing support of PBS systems at school sites Provide a clearer understanding of how to maximize PBS implementation efforts across all 3 levels of the triangle

4 Positive Behavior Support
PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.

5 Cost Benefit Analysis Reactive Discipline v. PBS
Oregon Middle School Example 5100 referrals = 76, min./referral = 1275 hrs. = hrs/day almost an entire school year Principal was at work 16 hr./day and it didn’t help Implemented PBS and referrals were reduced by over half in first year

6 Positive Behavior Support
Is based on decades of research from the fields of: Behavioral theory Effective Instruction Systems Change

7 PBS is Not specific practice or curriculum…it’s general approach to preventing problem behavior Not limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students Not new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies

8 Values of PBS & Mission for School PBS Teams
Improving school/student performance Tying all efforts to the benefit of students Never changing things that are working Always making the smallest change that will have the biggest impact on students/school

Tertiary Prevention: FBABSP for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students

10 School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom
Setting Systems Nonclassroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems

11 Components of SW PBS Focus of Year 1 School-wide System
SW-PBS Team School Rules Define & Teach: Expectations Routines Acknowledgment System Consequences & Decision Making Handbook Classroom Support Training/ Support opportunities Individual Teacher Support Individual Student System Targeted Group Interventions FBA/BSP – Intensive Individualized Interventions Focus of Year 1

12 Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

13 Components of School Wide System
Developing School Rules Defining & Teaching expectations across settings Defining & Teaching School-wide routines in common areas Acknowledgment system Consequences System & Decision Making

14 School Culture v. PBS Shell
Developed materials Posters on wall Handbook Is there staff participation and buy-in 80% + participation by staff Do staff & students know rules? Is the acknowledgment system reaching all students? Is a leadership team focused on School-wide PBS programs meeting regularly to maintain the strength of SW-PBS systems?

15 School Culture v. District Culture
District level -- PBS Leadership Team Sustainability Support for schools through changes in school PBS team leaders, staff, and administrators Ongoing support to schools from district organization

16 Team Process PBS is active, alive -- not static
It’s not something we’ve done – it’s something we’re doing Requires regular team meetings with a team that represents ALL school staff Team keeps PBS alive through ongoing planning, support, and decision making to address needs as they arise Looking at data & maintaining & developing programs to meet needs

Team SW - PBS GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Staff Feedback Agreements Data-based Action Plan SAY: In general, the implementation of a school-wide PBS approach at the school level is built around five main implementation steps. Evaluation Implementation

18 Identifying SW-PBS Team members
Team should be representative of all staff Across grades, departments, houses in school (if multiple houses), classified staff, etc. Allows for all persons in school to have a voice or receive updates Encourage teams to have a team leader who is not the building administrator

19 Non-Teaching Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status
Representation Specialized Support Administrator Team Community Data-based Decision Making Administrator Student Teaching Communications SAY: One of the most important steps is to establish or identify an existing group of individuals who can lead the establishment of a school-wide PBS approach. This team must be made of school staff who are respected, have effective communication skills and means, and can influence school policy, organization, and operations. An important factor in effective leadership teaming is ensuring that members of the team agree on how they will conduct business (e.g., agenda, problem solving, voting, etc.). The Conducting Leadership Team Meetings Checklist (see Appendix.1) can be used to assess for and establish agreements about how team meetings will be conducted.

20 Responsibilities of Team
Initially take the lead with development and implementation of SW PBS programs Seek feedback from staff throughout development After initial implementation Maintain SW PBS programs Monitor data and problem solve areas of concern Continued development of SW-PBS programs Secondary Prevention to support at-risk students (mid-triangle)

21 What is the focus of your current PBS team?
Characteristics of Team focused on School-wide system Focus on overall school climate Focus on maintenance and development of SW systems Efforts impact all/majority of students in school Efforts of team aimed at influencing practices of all building staff Look at School-wide data May ID individual students, but not focused on support planning Characteristics of Individual Student System Focus on individual students who pose significant behavioral concerns Work to develop plan for single student(s) Both teams are necessary, but the focus of each team is different & must be kept clear

22 Fostering Buy-in & Support
Make PBS visible thru frequent updates and communication w/ staff Build a PBS minute into all staff meetings Post progress on PBS programs & data on a PBS Bulletin Board in the staff room No surprises, process is important Seek feedback from all staff Before finalizing decisions, get feedback from staff Make sure ALL staff have access to using the program – get the materials out

23 Fostering Buy-in & Support
Administrative support and participation is essential, but I encourage you to have team members present PBS updates, so it doesn’t appear to be a top/down mandate Build in incentives for staff participation in the program Link w/ student incentives – staff name drawn get prized parking spot for week Might start with focus on prominent area of concern among staff Maybe hallways in middle schools offer significant concern

24 “80% Rule” Apply triangle to adult behavior!
Regularly acknowledge staff behavior Individualized intervention for non-responders

25 School-wide Rules: Creating a Culture
Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University (503)

26 Guidelines for Developing School-wide Rules
3-5 Positively Stated Rules Rules should be: Broad enough to cover all potential behavior Stated positively Brief and easy to remember Catchy – personalized to your school Common Examples Be Safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful

27 Why 3-5 Positively Stated Rules?
They are easier to Learn & Remember Increased Generalization of Rules: Same rules can be used across staff & settings

28 Publicly Post School Rules
Make easily visible rules posters & post them in every room/area of the school Posters should be visible from nearly any location in the school Why Post the Rules? Prompts staff & students to acknowledge positive, not only negative behavior Increases accountability for staff and students to use language & follow rules Signs can reduce personal focus of confrontation – now point to the rules poster and site school rule being broken, no longer my rule you’re breaking

29 Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment
School Rules NO Food NO Weapons NO Backpacks NO Drugs/Smoking NO Bullying

30 Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged

31 Increasing Staff Buy-In
Staff (& student) buy-in can be increased if staff feel they are active in the development of programs Give staff (& students) opportunities to provide feedback and generate ideas in the developments of programs, including: School Rules Poster design Give regular updates & opportunities for staff feedback at monthly staff meetings

32 Defining Behavioral Expectations & Routines

33 Plan Ahead (before school year & each day)
Before we can teach, reinforce, and enforce anything in our classrooms, We must clearly define: fair behavioral expectations & effective behavioral routines To do this effectively, we must know: physical layout of the school # of students Daily school schedule (breaks, lunch, recess, etc.) Traffic patterns

34 Defining Expectations
Guided by school rules Outline expectations specific to each setting Seek input from staff, especially from those who work in specific settings Positively stated expectations Walk in the hallway v. No running Helps cue staff to recognize positive, not just negative behavior Focus on clear, specific behaviors Keep hands & feet to self v. Keep body under control

35 Behavioral Expectation Grid Defining Expected Behavior across Settings
School Rules Settings Be Safe Responsible Respectful Hallway Walk on the right side Allow others to pass Hold door open for person behind you Have a pass during class time Use quiet voices Keep hands & feet to self Playground Stay in boundaries No play fighting Be aware of people around you Put equipment away at break Include everyone Follow game rules

36 Behavioral Expectation Grid Defining Expected Behavior across Classroom Routines
School Rules Be Safe Responsible Respectful Classroom Keep hands and feet to self, know emergency drills Be prepared and participate Listen quietly, follow teacher directives, respect others thoughts Routine Class entry Walk quietly into the room and find seat Take out materials for this class, put other stuff on floor under desk Talk with an appropriate volume and respectful tone Group Instr. Chair legs on floor Keep hands, feet and objects to self Be prepared and ready to participate Raise your hand to speak & wait patiently; follow teacher directives Hallway Pass Walk, look out for opening doors, sign out and take pass Go directly to/from the location of your pass Talk in a hallway voice, keep hands and feet to self

37 MATRIX Expectations SETTING All Settings Hallways Playgrounds
Cafeteria Library/ Computer Lab Assembly Bus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk. Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations

38 RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor)
Classroom Hallway/ Commons Cafeteria Bathrooms Respect Be on time; attend regularly; follow class rules Keep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to pass Put trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and students Keep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toilet Achievement Do your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questions Keep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to class Check space before you leave, keep track of personal belongings Be a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found it Honor Do your own work; tell the truth Be considerate of yours and others’ personal space Keep your own place in line, maintain personal boundaries Report any graffiti or vandalism

39 RAH – Athletics RAH Practice Competitions Eligibility Lettering
Team Travel Respect Listen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel. Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter-actions with refs, umps, etc. Show up on time for every practice and competition. Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%. Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be. Achievement Set example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever. Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates. Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absences Demonstrate academic excellence. Complete your assignments missed for team travel. Honor Demonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit. Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct. Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others. Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor. Cheer for teammates. Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.

40 E’ Ola Pono- to live the proper way School Behavioral Standards
All Settings Walkways Playground Recess P.E. Cafeteria Restrooms Arrival/ Dismissal Assembly Field Trips Kuleana Be Responsible Be on time Be prepared w/ necessary supplies Be accountable for choices Respond to/complete tasks Keep area clean & litter free Plan ahead Walk directly to destination Take care of equipment/facilities Plan appropriate times for drinks/ restroom visits Have lunch card ready Be orderly in all lines Flush Turn off water Use restroom at designated times Use facilities for intended purposes Have money/pass ready Listen attentively Keep hands and feet to yourself Turn in paperwork/$ on time Wear appropriate footwear/clothing Bring home lunch Ho’ihi Respectful Use appropriate voice Listen to/follow directions of staff Respect self, others property Be polite/use manners Express appreciation Accept/respect differences in people Use quiet voices when classes are in session Be a good sport Include others in your play Use proper table manners Eat your own food Observe privacy of others Use polite words and actions Listen to JPO’s supervisors and bus driver Use quiet voice and polite words on bus Focus on program Sit quietly Clap at appropriate times Care for the field trip site Listen to speakers Laulima Cooperative Be helpful Participate with a positive attitude Be patient; share/ wait your turn Acknowledge others Play in designated areas only Keep movement flowing Share equipment and play space Follow rules/ procedures Wait patiently/ quietly Enter/exit vehicles in an orderly fashion Share bus seats Sit properly in designated area Enter/exit in an orderly fashion Remain seated unless asked to do otherwise Stay with your chaperone/group Malama Be Safe Immediately report dangerous situations Remain in designated areas Practice healthy behaviors/universal precautions Use appropriate footwear Follow safety rules in all areas Walk at all times Avoid rough, dangerous play Use equipment properly Wash hands Chew food well; don’t rush Use designated restroom Walk Wait in designated area Remain seated when riding the bus Watch out for traffic Use crosswalk only Be careful when approaching or leaving the stage area Use the buddy system Follow school/bus rules King Kaumualii on Kauai

41 Playground / Recess / P.E.
Kuleana: Be Responsible Take care of equipment/facilities Plan appropriate times for drinks/restroom visits Ho’ihi: Be Respectful Be a good sport Laulima: Be Cooperative Follow rules/ procedures Malama: Be Safe Avoid rough, dangerous play Use equipment properly King Kaumualii on Kauai

42 Cafeteria Kuleana: Be Responsible Have lunch card ready
Be orderly in all lines Ho’ihi: Be Respectful Use proper table manners Eat your own food Laulima: Be Cooperative Wait patiently/ quietly Malama: Be Safe Walk at all times Wash hands Chew food well; don’t rush Cafeteria King Kaumualii on Kauai

43 Setting Fair & Reasonable Expectations
By setting unreasonable expectations we set ourselves up to be inconsistent in enforcing expectations Inconsistency = reduced credibility If we believe expectations are unfair or unreasonable, we will not enforce them Lining up in hallway Be careful not to set yourself up with expectations you will not enforce


45 Teaching Behavioral Expectations & Routines

46 Teaching Behavioral Expectations & Routines
Basic Strategy for Establishing Behavioral Routines Explain Specify Student Behaviors Model Desired Behavior Lead - Student Practice – each individual student should get an opportunity to practice the routine Test/ Monitor Follow-up -- reinforce & review regularly

47 Teaching Behavioral Expectations & Routine
Make lessons fun and engaging, just like any lesson should be Make instruction developmentally appropriate Lessons can be more challenging with older kids; may rely more on verbal explanation of rules, with practice as a response for not following rules & regular reinforcement for following rules Although, practice is always very valuable Choose skills to teach wisely Presentation & attitude are important

48 Difference between Teaching & Nagging
Nagging = repeatedly stating to a student what they are doing wrong Reactive response Teaching provides students with support to ensure they can perform the expected behavior, with the opportunity to practice & clear feedback (positive feedback or corrective feedback) Can be used proactively or reactively

49 What great teachers do…
Have students physically practice the behavior in the setting Simply talking about the rules or describing them is not nearly as powerful as having the student practice and “show you” they can do it Teacher should demonstrate the wrong way Have students explain why this is the wrong way Students should practice the right way

50 What great teachers do…
Learning takes frequent practice of “doing it the right way”, so we build in frequent opportunities to practice the right way to do it Students also need to know if they are doing it the right way or wrong way, so we… Provide immediate feedback when students do it the right way “great job of ….., that was just like we practiced” or provide corrective feedback if they do it wrong way and provide them more opportunities to do it the right way “whoa, remember what we practiced, can you show me what we’ve been practicing?”

51 Teaching Expectations across Settings

52 How will you teach expectations?
Teach expectations in the identified setting (i.e. cafeteria, hallway, etc.) Have staff who are present in the settings participate/lead lessons (i.e. recess staff lead lesson) Schedule specific times for trainings to occur across settings Have principal & leadership team provide support across settings for teaching

53 Advanced Teaching How will new students who move to your school be taught the lessons? How will new staff or substitute teachers be introduced to rules and expectations? How will review and booster sessions be handled?

54 Do we need to tweak our action plan?
+ If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students + Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment Do we need to tweak our action plan? How often? Who? What? Where? When? How much? If problem, Which students/staff? What system? What intervention? What outcome?

55 Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context

56 How will you teach expectations?
Teach expectations in the identified setting (i.e. cafeteria, hallway, etc.) Have staff who are present in the settings participate/lead lessons (i.e. recess staff lead lesson) Schedule specific times for trainings to occur across settings Have principal & leadership team provide support across settings for teaching

57 Advanced Teaching How will new students who move to your school be taught the lessons? How will new staff or substitute teachers be introduced to rules and expectations? How will review and booster sessions be handled?

58 “Traveling Passports”
Precorrecting new kids Procedures Meet with key adults Review expectations Go to class

59 “Cool Tool” Skill Name Getting Help
(How to ask for assistance for difficulty tasks) Teaching Examples 1. When you’re working on a math problem that you can’t figure out, raise your hand and wait until the teacher can help you. 2. You and a friend are working together on a science experiment but you are missing a piece of lab equipment, ask the teacher for the missing equipment. 3. You are reading a story but you don’t know the meaning of most of the words, ask the teacher to read and explain the word. Kid Activity 1. Ask 2-3 students to give an example of a situation in which they needed help to complete a task, activity, or direction. 2. Ask students to indicate or show how they could get help. 3. Encourage and support appropriate discussion/responses. Minimize attention for inappropriate responses. After the Lesson (During the Day) 1. Just before giving students difficult or new task, direction, or activity, ask them to tell you how they could get help if they have difficulty (precorrection). 2. When you see students having difficulty with a task (e.g., off task, complaining), ask them to indicate that they need help (reminder). 3. Whenever a student gets help the correct way, provide specific praise to the student.

60 Tasks for teams Schedule site meetings
Decide on School Rules/ evaluate current rules Complete Expectations grid/ evaluate current grid Develop lesson plans across settings/ evaluate current lessons Identify when and how lessons will be taught Good to model a lesson for staff Schedule time at staff meeting to discuss SW PBS and programs in development Share & seek feedback from staff frequently

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