2% efficiency improvement per jaar 20% sustainable energy in 2020 30% CO 2 reduction in 2020 refered to 1990 Necessary investments: 8-9 biljon Euro per year (study of ECN) And what are the Dutch actions???? New government with new (lower) targets: Free market (optimization to Profit) Poldermodel The Dutch targets for 2020 where:
For a stabilization of CO2 emissions by the year 2050 we need to: Wind energy: 50 x more wind energy Bio-energy 50 x more ethanol production Solar cells: 700 x more capacity Revolution Efficiency All cars: Double the efficiency All buildings: Improve to best e-level Nuclear energy: Triple the number of power plants ‘clean fossil’: Store CO 2 of 800 power plants Evolution Bron: Carbon Mitigation Initiative; www.princeton.edu
International Energy Agency ACTS scenario: De CO 2 concentration in 2050 back to the level of 2005 Blue scenario: De CO 2 concentration in 2050 50% lower than in 2005 Energy scenario’s
Energiescenario’s of the International Energy Agency Bron: Kleine energieatlas, VROM
For the Blue Map scenario we have to build yearly? Bron: IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 35 coal power plants with CO 2 storage (500 MW)17,5 GW 20 gas fired power plants with CO 2 storage (500 MW)10 GW 32 Nuclear power plants (1000 MW)32 GW 1/5 of the Canadian hydro power plants18 GW 100 Biomass plants (50 MW) 5 GW 14000 wind turbines on land (4MW)52 GW 3750 wind turbines at sea (4MW)15 GW 130 geothermal plants (100 MW)13 GW 215 miljon m 2 solar collectors30 GW 80 thermal solar power plants (250 MW)20 GW Total power to be installed yearly:212,5 GW
Can we do without fossil fuels? All energy from sun, earth and moon: Sun: 2.700 Zettajoule per year (10 21 J/year) is absorbed by the earth. Earth: geothermal energy production: 1 ZJ/year Moon: tidal energy: 0,1 ZJ/year Nuclear fission?? Yearly we need: 0,5 ZJ/year, Equal to16 TW (16 10 12 W) Bron: Kleine energieatlas, VROM
Also from the sun: Wind energy 20 ZJ/year Wave energy 0,2 Zj/year biomass 5 ZJ/year Hydro power 0,1 ZJ/year Blue energy 0,05 ZJ/year Bron: Kleine energieatlas, VROM Can we do without fossil fuels?
100% sun in 2050 Area of 1000 X 1000 km. In the Sahara! Can we do without fossil fuels?
Thermal solar plants Planta Solar 10 and 20 solar power towers Total 31 MW 3 more expansive as a coal plant Solar Energy Generating systems in Calafornia 9 plats, total power 350 MW 936.384 mirrors, surface area of 6,5 km 2 Total installed power: 667 MW, being built: 1,7 GW
Thermal solar power plants Desertec 12 companies involved: Munich Re, TREC, Deutsche Bank, Siemens, ABB, E.ON, RWE, Abengoa Solar, Cevital, HSH Nordbank, M & W Zander Holding, MAN Solar Millennium, and Schott Solar.Deutsche Bank SiemensABBE.ONRWEAbengoa SolarCevitalHSH NordbankMAN Solar Millennium Schott Solar 15% of Europes electicity needs
TU Eindhoven officially started in June 2005 with an approved master program. In April 2006 upgraded to a national master program (TUE/TUDelft/UT) Combination between technical (75%) and social sciences (25%), contrary to Utrecht with 25-75% Comparable programs in Oldenburg, Stockholm, Leeds en Reading Master Sustainable Energy Technology
program objectives Domain-specific requirements Broad: Have disciplinary theoretical and technical knowledge (broad) able to evaluate conventional and sustainable energy systems in integrated electrical system context able to evaluate sustainable energy systems in the societal context able to design energy systems able to analyze and understand the socio- technical nature of system innovations Deep: expert in at least one sub-area
Consequences of broadness Large differences in knowledge of the students (BW, CT, EL, TN, AT) Students will find one course too simple, and the next more difficult Teachers have to deal with differences in background Positive is that you learn how to deal with this: find quickly the necessary missing ingredients cooperate with students with other background Broadness is not easy, BUT WE WANT IT.
The curriculum Energy from biomass Solar energy Wind energy Electrical power engineering and system integration Hydrogen technology System innovation and strategic niche management 24 EC
introductory course: Sustainable energy technologies courses to reach adequate basic levels in mathematics, physics, chemistry and design engineering: Transport phenomena, Energy systems, Chemical reactor engineering courses to reach adequate basic levels in social sciences: Energy and economy The curriculum
system integration projects (6+9 EC): ‘System integration projects 1 and 2’ (Can be replaced by an Internship) elective courses in preparation for the graduation project (15 EC): graduation project (45 EC): In one of the following topics: Solar Energy, Wind energy, Biomass, Hydrogen, Intelligent electricity networks and Transition policy. Choice for research group/professor has to be made in the first quarter of the first year.
EindhovenDelftTwente Biomass small scale conversion units large scale power generation thermal and chemical conversion processes for the use of biomass as an energy carrier and chemicals Solar energy production of amorphous silicon and polymer solar cells nano- structured 3D solar cells integration of solar energy into products 3TU master
EindhovenDelftTwente Wind energy fluid structure interaction mainly concentrated in Delft computational fluid dynamics of wind turbines Hydrogen technology small scale production of hydrogen production using sustainable energy and storage of hydrogen large scale production of hydrogen
Research groups on: Thermal conversion of biomass (Brem (ME), Groeneveld (CE), Lefferts (CE)) Bio-refinery (Groeneveld (CE)) Efficient and clean combustion of future fuels (Van der Meer (ME)) Membrane-based energy production (Wessling (CE)) Integrated reactor technology (Kuipers (CE)) Use of sustainable energy in consumer products and in buildings (Brouwers (CEM), Van Houten (ME), Poelman (ID)) Water Power Generation (Hulscher (CEM))
Research groups on: Water footprint of biomass (Hoekstra, CEM) Design and production with light weight and smart materials (Akkerman, ME) Gas technology (Wolters, ME) Engineering fluid dynamics (Hoeijmakers, ME) Short term storage of electrical energy with superconducting materials (Ter Brake, Dhalhe (AP) Production of solar cells with laser techniques (Huis in ‘t Veld, ME)
Program supervision of the M.Sc. program dr. ir. A.M.C. Lemmens (TU/e), prof.dr.ir. Th.H, van der Meer (UT) and prof.dr. Kloosterman (TUDelft). The program director will be dr.ir. A.M.C. Lemmens Program administration: In Twente at CTW
There are three target groups for the program: 1.Bachelor students from technical and related science programs at Dutch universities 2.Bachelor students from polytechnic colleges for higher education (in particular energy technology); 3.Bachelor students from technical and related science programs at foreign universities.
Admission 1.Mechanical Engineering, 2.Applied Physics, 3.Chemical Engineering, 4.Electrical Engineering, 5.Installation Technology and 6.Technology Management of TU/e, TUD and UT, 7.Other technical B.Sc.-programs of Dutch universities: Pre-master 8.B-Sc programs from polytechnic colleges: Pre-master 9.Foreign students: check on level, English (similar to other Masters)
And what when you have finished your study KEMA (3) Dutch Space TUE UT (2) Onderzoeksinst in Australie BAM Saxion Mastervolt (inversters voor zonne-energie)
Does the market need SET-masters? A market inventory says: YES To reach our ambitious goals: YES In the midst of our economic crisis: YES When the crisis is over: YES