5Information LiteracyInformation literacy is the “ability to identify what information is needed, understand how the information is organized, identify the best sources of information for a given need, locate those sources, evaluate the sources critically, and share that information.”(University Of Idaho Information Literacy Portal UI Core Curriculum)
6Association of College and Research Libraries ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Higher EducationInformation literacy is defined by ACRL as the ability to recognize and define an information need and to identify, locate, evaluate and use information effectively. These skills are the foundation of an academic career, as well as the defining characteristics of life-long learners. According to the ACRL Standards the information literate student is able to:Determine the extent of information neededAccess the needed information effectively and efficientlyEvaluate information and its sources criticallyIncorporate selected information into one's knowledge baseUse information effectively to accomplish a specific purposeUnderstand the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally.
7American Association of Law Libraries AALL Law Student Information Literacy (LSIL) Standards (2009)Law Student Research Competenties and Information Literacy Principles (2011)a. Knowing about the need for authentication of sources on the Internetb. Some awareness of the great differences in search engines and the importance of asking the right questioning the right wayc. Understanding what is being search which in law could mean distinguishing between digests, encyclopaedias, cases, opinions
9The IALL International Handbook of Legal Information Management Definitions of Legal Information Literacy are based upon broader definitions of information outlined earlier, adapted to reflect the nature of legal information and research. An early study defines legal information literacy as searching skills, evaluative skills and ICT skills. (Andretta 2001)The following definition goes further, in saying that ‘applied tot law, information literacy means the ability to’Locate legal material (primary and secondary) Impliciet in this is the knowledge of retrieval tools and techniques.Evaluate the relevance, applicability and value of the materials to the task at handManage the information (to sort, categorise, rank the information)Use the information for the task at hand (for example advising on the law or formulating a policy argument (Carroll et al 2001)
10BIALL (British and Irish Association of Law Librarians) Chapter 7 Legal Information Literacy
11BIALL Legal Information Literacy Statement (july 2012) – Ruth Bird (Bodleian Law Library) We settled on the following 5 Research Skills:1 - Demonstrate an understanding of the need for the thorough investigation of all relevant factual and legal issues involved in a research task2 - Demonstrate the ability to undertake systematic and comprehensive legal research3 - Demonstrate the ability to analyse research findings effectively4 - Demonstrate the ability to present the results of research in an appropriate and effective manner5 – Continuing Professional Development – refreshing the legal research skills required of a modern lawyer
12Sconul Seven Pillars Model for Information Literacy SCONUL will continue to campaign for a healthy scholarly communications ecosystem and support the evolution of open scholarship, open access and new models of publishing and information provision. This includes influencing the markets for e-books and journals and e-licensing for traditional and non-traditional users. We will advocate for the library’s role as knowledge manager to the institution, and share best practice in collection development and management. We will members informed of developments in IP and copyright policy, library e-publishing and explore the new opportunities for new models arising as a result of media and technological change.
13The SCONUL7 Pillars of Information Literacy through a Digital Literacy ‘lens’ IdentifyScopePlanGatherEvaluateManagePresentUnderstands:The concept of digital literacy within an educational settingThe Internet is not regulated but content may be structured and regulated in a variety of ways depending on the requirements of the providerTechnology is constantly evolving and the exploration and evaluation of new and emerging information systems is a lifelong processThe lifecycle of digital content, including issues around provenance, sharing and long-term access and preservationThe benefits and limitations of using different forms of digital content, tools and technologies to meet specific needsIssues around copyright, IPR and CC licences in relation to the use and creation of digital materialThe need to address issues of accessibility relating to digital contentThe characteristics of different digital publication formats, the functionality available within software platforms and the benefits and limitations of these in relation to the taskThe impact of online collaboration and networking as a means of developing, exchanging and communicating informationHow to search for digital content using appropriate tools and techniquesThe differences between search tools (operating within and between environments), recognising their benefits and limitationsThe impact of sharing digital contentHow the use of different online communication tools can extend reach and enable teamwork and collaborationWhere to locate and publish digital content for formal publication purposes and for information exchange purposes, appreciating the differences between the twoThe range of different forms of digital publication and media, the different audiences they are designed for and how they are organisedIssues around the popularity of a resource versus its academic qualityHow digital technologies are providing collaborative tools to create and share knowledge and the implications this has on gathering specific information.The risks of operating in a virtual world and how they can be mitigatedThe importance of appraising and evaluating results of online searchesThe need to make choices in the use of different technologies to meet specific needsIssues of quality, accuracy, relevance, credibility, format and accessibility relating to digital informationHow to assess the profile and visibility of digitally published information using analytic functionality and toolsThe need to be a critical user of digital technologiesThe importance of citation of digital resources in learning and research contextsThe need to handle, store and disseminate digital information and data in a responsible and ethical wayIssues of plagiarismThe principles of citing and referencing digital sources and formats to enable verificationThe need to keep systematic records of digital sources using relevant technologyHow technologies can be used to personalise individual and shared digital environmentsHow security profiles can be used to manage levels of interactionThe need to select a communication approach suitable for the audienceIssues around accessibility of digital information, formats and compatibility with accessibility softwareThe importance of online security and privacyHow to communicate appropriately onlineThe need to consider the digital self and ones online presenceThat new technologies allow for information in new ways (blogs, wikis, open access)Is able to:Recognise the importance of skills in locating, creating managing and sharing information through a variety of digital formsIdentify gaps relating to the use, application or development of digital environments and toolsContinuously assess how the use of digital content and tools could enhance academic practiceRecognise where digital solutions can meet a specific information task or needIdentify gaps in knowledge relating to digital tools or contentIdentify search tools for locating quality digital materialAssess different digital formats and select those to meet current needUse new tools and technologies as they become available and evaluate them for suitabilityAssess how online collaboration can enhance academic practiceIdentify appropriate online search techniquesRemotely access external digital sources in order to extend opportunities for discoveryAssess which form(s) of digital media best meets the criteria identifiedUse different online communication approaches to extend reachAssign meta-data tags to content to enable future discoverabilityUse a range of digital retrieval tools and technology effectivelyAccess, read and download digital information and dataEngage in online collaboration and networking to access and share informationAssess the suitability of digital content for the intended audienceAssess the quality, accuracy, relevance, credibility, format and accessibility of digital materialRead online information critically, taking into account access restrictionsMaximise discoverability of own digital material using indexing strategiesUse appropriate tools to organise digital content and data (social bookmarking, bibliographic software)Cite and reference electronic sources appropriatelyManage digital resources effectively taking account of version control, file storage and record keeping issuesPersonalise the digital environment according to needCommunicate effectively in a digital environment, using appropriate tools, to meet audience needs, taking account of accessibility issuesConfidently use the digital media appropriate for presentationDevelop an online personal profile using appropriate networks and technologiesStay safe and, if necessary, private in the digital worldSelect appropriate publication and dissemination outlets to share information
14An Intracurricular (Embedded) Model of Information Literacy Approach at the Academic Level in the Field of Law Dejana Golenko (Croatia)Information literacy program approach:- Generic Extra curricular classes and/or self paced packages- Parallel Extra curricular classes and/or self paced packages thatcomplement the curriculum- Integrated Classes and packages that are part of the curriculum- Embedded Curriculum design where students have ongoing interaction and reflection with information.
15Van Mierlo: Seminar Legal Information Literacy 2013 Het zinvol aanleren van juridische informatievaardigheden kan naar mijn mening pas beginnen als de kennis van de relevante rechtsgebieden op een grondige wijze is aangeleerd. De eerder door mij genoemde centrale rechtsgebieden – het privaatrecht, het strafrecht en het staats- en bestuursrecht zowel in formele als materiële zin – vergen veel onderwijstijd, maar ook bezinkingstijd. Hoe korter de leertijd, hoe oppervlakkiger de kennis. In dat verband durf ik de stelling aan dat - al te veel - blokonderwijs dodelijk is voor daadwerkelijke kennisvergaring.Naast de vakinhoudelijke kennisvaardigheden behoren ook juridische informatievaardigheden en natuurlijk de schriftelijke en mondelinge vaardigheden tot de kenniselementen van de opleiding van de jurist. Zonder dergelijke skills kan een jurist mijns inziens niet optimaal in de beroepspraktijk functioneren.In het curriculum van de juridische opleiding dient dan ook tijd en ruimte te worden gecreëerd om kennis van en kennis over het recht in te passen in een vaardighedentraject. Een dergelijk traject dient in moeilijkheidsgraad gelijk op te gaan met de op hetzelfde moment verworven inhoudelijke kennis van het recht. Het voortschrijdende inzicht van de student en hetgedefinieerde kennisniveau moeten op elkaar aansluiten. Dit brengt mee dat de opleiding telkens moet toetsen of de student het vereiste kennisniveau al heeft bereikt. Wil je dat professioneel doen, dan dient het onderwijsmanagement in overleg met de docenten een methodologisch helder pad te kiezen.
16Law Student Research Competency and Information Literacy Principles Principle I:A succesful researcher should possess fundamental research skillsLaw students should have an understanding of the complexities of the legal systemLaw students should know how to effectively use secondary sourcesLaw students should have an awareness of the cost of researchPrinciple II:A succesful researcher should implement effective, efficient research strategiesLaw students should select appropriate sources for obtaining required informationLaw students should construct and implement efficient, cost-effective search strategiesLaw students should confirm and validate research results, incorporating existing work product and expertiseLaw students should document research strategies
17Principles 2 Principle III: A succesful researcher should critically evaluate legal and non-legal information and information sourcesLaw students should critically evaluate the validity and credibility of information sources.Law students should critically evaluate retrieved information.Law students should synthesize the results of their research to construct new concepts applicable to resolving the problem at hand.Principle IV:A succesful researcher should apply information effectively to resolve a specific issue or needLaw students should understand the context for the legal issue under analysis.Law students should modify the initial research strategy as suggested by preliminary results.Law students should determine when research has provided sufficient background to explain or support a conclusion.Law students should use the results of their research to formulate their legal analysis and to prepare their work product.
18Principles 3 Principle V: A succesful researcher should be able to distinguish between ethical and unethical uses of information and understand the legal issues arising from discovery, use, and application of informationLaw students should have a mastery of information ethics and should be able to articulate the factors that determine whether an information use is ethical.Law students should apply laws, rules, and other legal authority that govern a lawyer’s use of information in the course of practice.
20Brewster KahleHoe digitaler we gaan leven, hoe kwetsbaarder alles wat we vastleggen is. Een kleitablet gaat tienduizenden jaren mee, een boek een paar eeuwen, een videoband enkele decennia. Maar de cd’s waarop we onze muziekcollectie hebben gebrand zijn binnen een paar jaar vergaan. Laat je een harde schijf per ongeluk vallen, dan kan alles wat erop staat weg zijn. Daar komt nog bij dat de computers van nu floppy- of minidisks allang niet meer af kunnen spelen. Ook gangbare software vernieuwt zich razendsnel. Een website van een paar jaar geleden loopt in de huidige browsers meestal krakend vast.Dat maakt de gigantische hoeveelheid foto’s, filmpjes, tekst en programmacodes die we met zijn allen produceren enorm vluchtig en relativeert de stelling ‘het internet onthoudt alles’. Het opslaan van belangrijk cultuurgoed gaat niet vanzelf. En bovendien is het steeds meer in handen van commerciële partijen als Google en Facebook, die ermee kunnen doen wat ze willen.
22VoorzorgenThe library in the high mountains of Andalusia preserves important knowledge for future generations. The philanthropic project seeks to record the essence of human culture in its many forms. It is in no sense a time capsule, but a continuously updated record of life on earth in its broadest spectrum. Today, the project houses thousands of books, blueprints, maps and even a collection of seeds. The library hopes to stand as an inspiring symbol of the human aspirations, promoting art, science and spirituality, emphasizing sustainability as a core theme.
23Aanbeveling AALLThere are millions of webpages with law and law-related information and hundreds of valuable legal research sites. Our goal was to be selective and present here 14 internet sites that provide an excellent starting point for your legal research journey. Most of the websites link you to both primary and secondary sources on a variety of legal subjects. All Law.com:beSpacific.com:Cornell Legal Information Institute:European Library:FDsys (Federal Digital System):Findlaw:Georgetown Law Library:Hieros Gamos:Jurist:Law.com:Lawsource.com:LLRX.com:Thomas:Virtual Chase:
24State of The ArtAustralian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework: principles, standards and practice, Bundy, Alan editor. 2nd ed., Adelaide: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy,Kim-Prieto, Dennis. The Road Not Yet Taken: How Law Student Information Literacy Standards Address Identified Issues in Legal Research Education and Training (May 1, 2011). // Rutgers School of Law- Newark Research Paper No URL: ( )Dejana Golenko, An Intracurricular (Embedded) Model of Information Literacy Approach at the Academic Level in the Field of Law, University of Zadar. Croatia, 2012.Darryl Maher, ‘Use of Wikipedia by Legal Scholars: Implications for Information Literacy’, Submitted to the School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington 2014.Ellie Margolis and Kristen E. Murray, Say Goodbye to the Books: Information Literacy as the New Legal Research Paradigm, This paper can be downloaded without charge from the Social Science Research Network Electronic paper Collection:Ellie Margolis, Professor of Law and Kristen Murray, Associate Professor of Law Temple University, Beasley School of Law, Teaching Research Using an Information Literacy Paradigm, Electronic copy available at:Ruth Bird, Legal Information Literacy, Chapter 7, In: The IALL International Handbook of Legal Information Management, geredigeerd door Richard Allen Danner,Jules Winterton, 2011.