Presentation on theme: "Biomass & Bioenergy Potential and Technology Claus Felby, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen."— Presentation transcript:
Biomass & Bioenergy Potential and Technology Claus Felby, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen
Forestry and agriculture converts solar energy, water and CO 2 to biomass Bioenergy
Energy consumption and reserves 2005 –Gton oil Equivalent Consumpt. per year ReservesYears left Natural gas Oil Coal Σ Fossil Biomass0.9656/year10E9? Terrestial biomass potential
Full speed ahead on bioenergy industry and technology! Biogas has been running for more than 20 years Biodiesel is an established industry 1 st generation bioethanol is an established industry 2 nd generation bioethanol in commercial scale within 5 years New technologies for 3 gen. on the shelf But without biomass no bioenergy!
’Green’ Reaction to biofuels Biofuels 'crime against humanity‘ UN report For environmental groups like Friends of the Earth, it's a ‘no brainer’. BUT, -there are many ways of making biofuels!
The basic limitation is the available land area Humans Energy Livestock Ecosystem Area in Gha
Bioenergy carriers: Solid, liquid and gas Solid fuels for heat & power Liquid fuels for transportation Gaseous fuels for transportation and heat & power
The biosphere is made from sugar Plants store solar energy as sugar 75% of plants are sugar The sugars in plants are mainly found as polymers. To convert sugar we need monomers Two types of sugars: Nutritional sugars –starch and succrose Constructional sugars – cellulose and hemicellulose
The use of bioenergy
1 ton of biomass Solid fuels Overall efficiency 65% Net area use 1 Bioethanol Overall efficiency 60-65% Net area use BTL Overall efficiency 45-65% Net area use 1 Heat & power CO 2 Ethanol Feed Heat & power CO 2 Diesel Heat & power CO 2 Biogas Overall efficiency 50-75% Net area use 1 Methane Heat & power CO 2
What about plant oils for biodiesel? Easy to make (pressing) 100% compatible with existing engines Can be used in existing infrastructures Less harmfull particles compared to fossil diesel But only 900 l/ha and 4 year rotation Poor land use!
Integration of conversion technologies Biogas Converts 40-80% of the biomass Solid biofuel Converts 100% of the biomass Bioethanol Converts 70-80% of the biomass Feed
Bioenergy technology development Land area needed to supply the danish transport sector (figures not corrected for feed production) Danish agricultural area
CO 2 ranking - + No reduction of greenhouse gases Large reduction of greenhouse gases Palmoil biodiesel Rape seed biodiesel Corn bioethanol Wheat bioethanol Straw bioethanol Biomass for heat & power Bioenergy from algea New Energy carriers Animal fat biodiesel 2 G sugarcane bioethanol 1 G Sugarcane bioethanol Biogas
Why biofuels? Is it more efficient to produce heat and power? Difference between technical or economical efficency. Need for a balance between energy and food –we can’t just burn it all 1 billion cars! A 747 on steam and batteries? Alternatives to biomass for heat & power: Wind, waves, nuclear, hydro etc. We need the technology behind liquid fuels The optimal situation is a mix of solid and liquid biofuels
6 to do’s in order to reach the land of milk, honey and bioenergy 1.High yield agricultural systems 2.Efficient conversion technologies 3.Technologies should conserve protein 4.Sustainable production by perennial crops 5.Mantain or increase soil carbon levels 6.Find the balance between humans, energy and livestock
There is no silver bullet technology We need: Wind mills, fuel cells, bio- hydrogen, wave power, liguid biofuels, hydro power, geothermal power, nuclear fussion and fission, solar photovoltaic cells, solar heat collectors, biomass from forests & fields, algae farms etc.....
The food and energy fields of the future: KU´s experimental farm in Tåstrup
In 2050; 50% more people and 100% more cars = ?
Your harvest depends on your seed! Some plants are better solar collectors! C4 C3
The energy field Ethanol, heat, electricity and feed Reduced leaching higher biodiversity! Willow for heat and power on 10% of the area Balanced feed production both energy- and protein feed Perennial grass for silage t ethanol pr. ha To supply the danish transport sector we need 0,9 mill ha
Sugar technology for bioethanol
Two roads to bioethanol: 1 st og 2 nd generation 1 generation : Just kernels and sugar 2 generation: The whole plant 2 gen. 1 gen.
Basic Ethanol Proces Pretreatment (release of sugars) Hydrolysis (breakdown to fermentable sugars) Fermentation Destillation Ethanol CO 2 Feed (Vinasse Distillers grain) Enzymer Feed molasses
– Energy systems integration The IBUS Concept – Energy systems integration High quality solid biofuel Surplus steam Straw Grain Wholecrop Molasse Bagasse Sugar cane Household waste CO 2 reduction in the transport sector 170%
Bioethanol: What do you get from 1 ha? Multiple use 2. Generation 1 ha landbrugsjord med foderhvede kan producere 3500 Feeed units 1,9 tons of ”coal” 3600 kg Ethanol To supply the danish transport sector we need 1,6 mill ha
1. Generation 1 ha landbrugsjord med foderhvede kan producere 7,5 tons of ”coal” Bioethanol: What do you get from 1 ha? Single use
Biodiesel from vegetable oils
Biodiesel: What do you get from 1 ha? Biodiesel 1 ha landbrugsjord med raps kan producere 2800 Feed units 2,4 tons of ”coal” 900 kg Diesel To supply the danish transport sector we need 13 mill ha
How far can agriculture and technology lead us? Year 2032: 40-50% of out transport fuels from biomass Balanced production of food, feed and energy Improved energy efficiency in all sectors
Bioenergy yes or no?
Sustainability: Intensive or extensive agriculture for energy production? Should we reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers? The largest amount of energy is used for conversion, not agriculture The technologies are under contineous development 2 gen. bioethanol output energi, sammen- holdt med energiforbrug til gødning (hvede)
Do we have enough space for bioenergy?
Energy ratios – animals or energy?. 1 gen. ethanol CHP wheat 2 gen. ethanol... 70% of our agriculture is used to feed animals CHP wood Food of the Western world
Conclusions We need biomass for energy, materials and chemicals Delicate balance between humans, animals and energy 20% or more of our energy supply will come from biomass Avoid oil crops for biodiesel Large advantages for environment, climate, biodiversity and economy if we choose the right technology