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Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS Lennox (1990) quotes: ” Prisons.

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Presentation on theme: "Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS Lennox (1990) quotes: ” Prisons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS Lennox (1990) quotes: ” Prisons are constructed in the interests of those who do not use them, thus there is no understanding of what makes them ’ work ’”. Each generation discovers anew the scandals of incarnation, each sets out to correct them, each passes on a legacy of failure – we inherit in essence a two hundred year history of reform without change ” Summary: - The prevalence of ill health is inevitably linked with imprisonement. - The incidence of problems is linked with the type of housing. - Prison crowding is more significant than social crowding. - The variable effects on inmates are related to personal characteristics and backgrounds - The reactions of inmates are related to their personal characteristics.

2 Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) Literature search: - PsycInfo - PsycArticles - Dissertation Abstracts Key words: or institution or detention or correction or confinement or prison or jail or penitentiary or juvenile and environment or design or architectur* or surrounding or physic* (human population) about hits of which about 100 relevant articles of which about 30 about ”crowding”

3 Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) Crowding correlated with - illness - physical symptoms - high blood pressure - negative housing evaluations - high stress - negative effects in juvenile institutions - women more sensitive Other psychological factors - consistency and gentleness in the therapeutic environment - psychosocial aspects in Prison Preference Inventory - poor mental health with little mental stimulation - arguments for more humane prison environments - changes in brain activity and solitary confinement - child development and environmental orientation - relation between arousal, affect and cognition - prisoners attitudes towards their environments’ attractiveness - cognitive impairment in impoverished environments

4 Prison building estate/architecture/characteristics and - crime prevention - historical development and implications - jail design supporting direct supervision is successful - inmate violence - psychological effects - isolation promotion Physical environmental factors and -criminal activity -private and public juvenile correctional facilities -effects on behavior in youth offenders -prison officers’ stress -rehabilitation intervention -description of characteristics -problem generation -needs of juvenile group homes -prison life amelioration Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

5 Correctional/therapeutic/educational/school environments -alternative school settings for safety -appropriate gaming environments in training programs -misfits of therapeutic environments in prisons -demand for trustworthy and warm educational environments Comparisons -open vs. closed units -prison-based and normal wing environments -pre- and post-conversion evaluations -comparing jail types and assessing instruments -New Generation and Traditional Linear jail comparison -relocation and health effects -single rooms and squads and stress levels -privacy and control before and after moving to new facility -comparing circular pavilions with ordinary therapeutic environments -user assessments of two specially designed detention centers Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

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9 Design and features -furniture rearrangement and climate -classroom seating and juvenile delinquency -effects of signs on perceived crowding and behavior -effects of windows on health and wellbeing -effects of illumination levels -the Baker-Miller pink effect -no effects of rainfall, temperature, seasons or moonphase -music exposure and behavior -pets/animals in correctional institutions Work environment/involvement -staff perceptions and evaluations of their work/environment -recipient involvement in environmental change project -prison simulation and interpersonal dynamics Outdoor therapy/bootcamps -bootcamps vs traditional institution environment -benefits of outdoor challenges -psychopedagogical aspects of soccer Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

10 Environmental psychology research: “too little experimentation on institutional design” Why? - Architecture lacks a tradition of research - General overlooking of the role of the physical environment in institutional care - Difficulties for good research because of problems with experimental control - Practitioners have difficulties in understanding and demanding research Correctional institutions: involuntary environments: - Hospitals, health care centers - Schools, educational facilities - Work places Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

11 From: Küller, R. (1991) Environmental assessment from a neuropsychological perspective (In T. Gärling & G.W. Evans (Eds.) Environment, Cognition and Action: An Integrated Approach, pp Oxford University Press, New York)

12 Environmental psychology research on work places (Sundstrom, 1987) Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

13 Work place physical attributes and organization Dimensions of Organizational Structure - Size - Technology - Configuration - Interdependence - Specialization - Centralization - Formalization of roles - Standardization Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) Properties of the Physical Environment - Space - Automation - Delineation and differentiation - Proximity - Differentiation by job or task/Enclosure - Uniformity of work spaces/Visual accessibility - Differentiation by rank - Rigidity of layout

14 Work place physical attributes and interpersonal relationships Symbolic Work Spaces (e.g. expressions of Self-Identity) - Personalization (recognition) - Territoriality (regulate social interaction, trait?) - Participative design - Status Markers (greater floor space, greater physical enclosure) Communication - Physical Accessibility: no conclusive effects of proximity - Ambient Conditions: - Seating Arrangements and Psychological Distance Privacy - Enclosure Small Groups - Development of small, informal groups - Enclosure and cohesion - Patterns of interaction Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

15 Work place physical attributes and the individual - Temperature (dependent on relative humidity, speed of air movement, presence of radiant sources of heat or cold, level of activity, clothing, a.s.o.): Laboratory research with mental, motor, vigilance and dual tasks: - for satisfaction: 22°C (20-24°C), 10% too cold, 10% too warm - for performance: arousal and distraction (at least initially) - Air Quality (dependent on unwanted constituents such as gas, dust, mist, vapor, fiber, smoke, ventilation, a.s.o.) Air pollution and smell: significantly associated with dissatisfaction with the physical environment - main problem: cigarette smoke Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

16 Work place physical attributes and the individual - Lighting (intensity and quality, dependent on glare, uniformity, age) with - daylight (windows more satisfying) and artificial light - for satisfaction: footcandles ( lux) - for performance: dependent on task, glare is distracting and disturbing - Color (hue, blackness, chromaticness, amount, size, diversity) - for satisfaction: blue, red, a.s.o., light, pure, saturated - for performance: warm colors lead to increased arousal - affect perception of room size and object size and weight (stronger colors appear closer and heavier) Den fysiska miljöns betydelse inom tvångsvården: miljöpsykologiska aspekter (051201)

17 Work place physical attributes and the individual - Noise (unwanted sounds, conversations by co-workers and ringing of telephones): predictable or unpredictable - for satisfaction: “quiet”, low “peak level” of sounds audible above background sounds - for performance: dependent on arousal, distraction, overload, meaning, aftereffects, control a.s.o. < 100 dB - Music (dependent on type and level): - for satisfaction: positive as background when workers capacities are not absorbed by their work (probably only routine work) - for performance: enhance vigilance when synchronized with task Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

18 Environmental psychology research on work places (Sundstrom, 1987) Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

19 Evolutionary studies (explorative studies): - Institution design historically, directed by technical, moral, political developments - Concepts: (a) bigness vs. smallness, (b) compactness vs. linearity; (c) low-rise vs. mid- or high-rise; (d) centralized vs. decentralized - Architectural styles: e.g. functional deconstruction (less forbidding) - Trends today: - Values: systems and facilities which most effectively deliver actual and perceived quality care - Facility as tool and healer (psychophysiological effects) - Prospects: ambulatory care facilities, outcustom care facilities Evaluation studies (field studies): - What do customers want (market research) - Comparisons of alternatives - Participatory planning, Post Occupancy Evaluations (POE) - Work environment assessments Experimental studies (laboratory studies): - Mostly on ambient environmental factors Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

20 Environmental Psychology Handbook Index Subjects -Acoustic environment,: noise, music -Aesthetics -Air pollution, quality -Animals -Apartments -Arousal -Building materials: physiological responses, toxic effects -Children and institutional environments, Color -Comfort -Communication -Complexity -Constraints -Control -Coping -Crime -Crowding -Daylight -Defensible space -Density -Dormitories -Environmental design -Environmental stimulation -Environmernt and behavior Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) -Fear -Group spaces -Heat -Helping behavior -Helplessness -High schools -Hospitals, visitors, 941 -Humidity -Infrasound -Intrusion -Isolation -Job performance, satisfaction -Learning environments -Light, lighting -Monotony -Music -Mystery -Natural environment, nature -Noise -Novelty -Odors -Office -Outdoor environments -Overload -Participative design -Personality -Personalization -Personal space -Physical environment -Place -Post Occupancy Evaluations -Preference -Prisons -Privacy -Rooms -Satisfaction -Scale -Schools -Seating -Settings -Space -Spatial behavior -Stress, stressors -Temperature -Territoriality -Therapeutic environments -Thermal comfort -Ventilation -Violence -Vulnerability -Wayfinding -Well-being -Windows -Work environments

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22 Architecture and Stress (Evans, 1998) - Stimulation: intensity, complexity, mystery, novelty - Coherence: legibility, organization, structure, landmark - Affordances (action possibilities): ambiguity, sudden change, conflict, feedback - Control: boundaries, hierarchy, territoriality, symbolism, privacy - Restorative: minimal distraction, stimulus shelter, fascination Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06)

23 Stimulation: intensity, complexity, mystery, novelty Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - vertical fragmentation - staircases - complicated floor plans - no focal points - different shapes and forms - different materials and colors - close interpersonal distances - Optimate with moderate levels of stimulation - Lack of stimulation: boredom, sensory deprivation: bad accomodation to environmental challenges - Too much stimulation: distraction, overload, interferes with demanding cognitive processes

24 Stimulation: intensity, complexity, mystery, novelty Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - partial vistas - spaces not fully comprehensible without exploration - building layouts portending but not restricting happenings - Familiarity and routine will influence reactions to stimulation - Lack of mystery: trivial prediction - Too much mystery: confusion and unanalyzable - Promotes meaningful problem solving

25 Coherence: legibility, organization, structure, landmark Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - clarity of underlying or thematic patterns of stimulation - multiple repetitive features - underlying expression of rules - thematic continuity - unambiguaous information - regular geometric shapes - distinctive interior markings - views of the external environment - Decreases the potential for misbehavior - Facilitates orientation and wayfinding

26 Affordances: ambiguity, sudden change, conflict, feedback Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - good design - clear cues - no competing cues - Decreases frustration and annoyance - Diminishes hostility and helplessness

27 Control: boundaries, hierarchy, territoriality, symbolism, privacy Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - physical constraints - flexibility - openness, moveable partitions - visual or acoustic permeability - responsiveness to feedback - spatial syntax, depth, focal points - defensible space - symbolic elements, power - furniture arrangements - Decreases stress - Hinders learned helplessness - Regulates use and occupancy of space - Promotes effective interaction with physical and social environment - Enhances feelings of empowerment - Promotes feelings of personal or group identity

28 Restorative: minimal distraction, stimulus shelter, fascination Janssens, J. & Laike, T. (2006) Rum för återanpassning. (Statens institutionsstyrelse SiS 2/06) - retreat - exposure to nature - window views - burning fireplaces - animals, aquariums, moving water - Functions therapeutically - Reduces mental fatigue and other stress - Buffers negative effects of residential crowding and noise

29 Where is the visitors ’ entrance? Which elevator push-button goes where? Which corridor is the most narrow?


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