Presentation on theme: "Pressure – The calculation of a force applied over a given area"— Presentation transcript:
1Pressure – The calculation of a force applied over a given area SYMBOL: pFORMULA: p = F/AUNITS: Metric – N/m2 or Pascals (Pa)(1 Pa = 1 N/m2)(A Pascal is very light. It’s about equivalent to the pressure of a dollar bill resting on a table.)English – lb/in2 or psi
2Pressure CalculationEXAMPLE: For a certain individual the area of each foot that makes contact with the floor is 135 cm2 (.0135 m2) when this person is standing upright. If this individual’s mass is kg, what is the pressure exerted on the floor by both feet? (Assume both feet have equal contact area.)
3Pressure Calculation F = weight = mag = 60.55 kg*9.81 m/s2 = 594 N A = 2*135 cm2 (Since there are two feet, the contact area is doubled.) = 270 cm2 (or m2)p = F/A = 594 N / 270 cm2 = 2.2 N/cm2(or 594 N/.0270 m2 = Pa or 22 kPa)SEE PRACTICE PROBLEM ON TEXT p 67
4Mechanical Load – Force or weight applied to a structure There are three types of loadCompression – A pressing or squeezing force. Bones and fibrocartilage are designed to resist compression.Tension – A pulling or stretching force. Tendons and ligaments are designed to resist tension.Shear – A cutting force (a force which tends to separate material along parallel planes). Shear loading is normally seen in joints.
5The three types of mechanical loads ShearTensionCompression
6Mechanical Stress The distribution of a load or loads on a structure. Each category of mechanical load produces an associated category of stress.Compressive StressTensile StressShear Stress
7The combined structure of the vertebrae and the intervertebral discs is designed to withstand compressive stress.When a muscle contracts it produces tensile stress in a tendon.Shear stress occurs in joints.
8Note that in the vertebral column the vertebrae and discs become larger as you get closer to the bottom. This is to accommodate the increase in weight that must be carried by the lower vertebrae and discs.Adequate anteroposterior growth of the vertebral bodies is dependent on weight bearing activities (sitting and standing upright), especially in the first two years of life.
9Mechanical StressStress, like pressure, is calculated as a load distributed over an area. The units are the same as the units for pressure.SYMBOL: s (The Greek letter sigma)EXAMPLE: A tendon has cross sectional area of .8 cm2. If the muscle attached to it generates a force of 200 N, calculate the tensile stress in the tendon.s = load/area = 200 N/.8 cm2 = 250 N/cm2SEE PRACTICE PROBLEM TEXT p 73
10Bending StressProduces compressive stress on one side of a structure and tensile stress on the other.
11TorsionStress which occurs when a structure twists around its long axis.This type of stress creates spiral fractures in long bones like the tibia.