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Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Each party must as far as possible 1.Establish a system of protected.

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Presentation on theme: "Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Each party must as far as possible 1.Establish a system of protected."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Each party must as far as possible 1.Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity 2.Develop where necessary guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas

2 Protected areas and reserve design Overview Goals and limitations Gaps in global protected areas Systematic conservation planning Surrogates for overall biodiversity Reserve selection algorithms Case study: The Cape Floristic Region

3 terrestrial protected areas 105,000 protected areas 18.4 million km 2 land

4 Location of protected areas 12.65% of Earth’s land surface

5 marine protected areas Cumulative area protected (ha) but only 1.2% of the whole ocean!!!

6 Types of Protected Areas IUCN Category 1Strict nature reserve or wilderness area 2National Park 3Natural Monument 4Habitat/Species Management Area 5Protected landscape/seascape 6Managed resource protected area

7 Types of Protected Areas BC Examples Strict nature reserve Wilderness area 1a Triangle Island 1b Campbell River Estuary

8 Area (km 2 ) covered by protected areas 1-6 Global Canada 630,000 km 2 6.3% land % % 6+ 18%

9 Types of protected area 6. Managed resource protected area Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

10 Goals of Protected areas Protect particular species Preserve biodiversity: focus on areas of high species richness/endemism Preserve large and functioning ecosystems and their services

11 Do protected areas work? Percent natural vegetation AmazonAtlantic coast forest Congo forestWest African forest Joppa et al PNAS 2008

12 Do marine protected areas work? Mosqueira et al Animal Conservation (236) Target species (110) Non-target species Overall (541) Response ratio More fish in reserve More fish out of reserve Overall effect of 12 reserves around the world

13 Limitations of protected areas Land is often protected if it is “worthless” BC 1992 Stated Goal - have 12% landbase “protected” % landbase is protected BUT Alpine - over-represented Coastal lowland forest - under-represented

14 Limitation of protected areas Protection is revoked if land is valuable” Tasmania protected areas “unprotected” Why? forestry, mining, hydroelectric development Yosemite National Park 1904 Boundaries redrawn Land out - potential mining, logging, grazing Land in - low commercial value

15 What isn’t protected?? Global Gap Analysis Project Data World Database on Protected Areas Distributions of 11,633 spp vertebrates

16 x x x X - least protected biomes

17 What isn’t protected?? Global Gap Analysis Project Number of gap species All speciesAll PAs PA>1000ha+IUCN 1-4 Mammals258 (5.5%)644 (13.5%) Turtles21 (7.7%)48 (17.6%) Amphibians913 (16.7%)1718 (31.5%) Threatened spp Mammals149 (14%)314 (29.6%) Birds232 (19.8%)437 (37.3%) Turtles12 (10.1%)32 (26.9%) Amphibians411 (26.6%)767 (49.7%)

18 Where are the Gap Species? Global Gap Analysis Project

19 % gap species The area protected in a country is a poor predictor of conservation needs Countries with lots of endemics have more gap species

20 What isn’t protected?? Local Gap Analysis - Hawaii - Essay 14.2 text GIS parks + Endangered finch distributions --> Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge

21 What should be protected? How would you prioritize what/where is Protected given constraints on $$/current land-use/other pressures Your criteria

22 Systematic conservation planning COMPREHENSIVENESS Reserve system contains Many species Many habitats Many ecological processes REPRESENTATIVENESS Reserve contains populations/habitats that cover range of variation in that spp/habitat 9 principal factors to consider

23 Systematic conservation planning IRREPLACEABILITY Importance of an area in meeting the objectives of the reserve system hairy-nosed wombat Located in one place Epping Forest National Park if criteria is a system that retains all mammal species the area is irreplaceable

24 Systematic conservation planning ADEQUACY Features within reserve will persist Q. How might this be assessed? SHAPE large with low edge:area ratios Q. why? Better than

25 Systematic conservation planning CONNECTIVITY for animals gene flow, greater area response to climate change for ecosystem processes eg water flow, fire RISK SPREADING connectivity vs vulnerability

26 Systematic conservation planning EFFICIENCY least possible cost (purchase,management, economic loss) FLEXIBILITY options/opportunities

27 Global Gap Analysis Project if conservation goal is species representation we should also consider urgency = threat

28 Global Gap Analysis Project Priority sites for protected areas based on irreplaceability and threat

29 Principal of comprehensiveness requires that reserve systems include and sustain all biodiversity and ecosystem processes of the region But - the knowledge base is limited and DECISIONS ARE NEEDED NOW OPTIONS? DISCUSS


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